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Chapter 1: Matter and Change

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Title: Chapter 1: Matter and Change


1
Chapter 1 Matter and Change
2
1.1 Chemistry
  • Chemistry is the study of the composition of
    substances and the changes they undergo.
  • Can be as simple as the science behind ice
    melting, to as complicated as impulses carried by
    your nerve cells.
  • The Central Science
  • Contributes to biology, geology and physics.

Chinese/Japanese character for chemistry
literally means change study
3
1.2 The Scientific Method
  • Youve covered this before in other classes.
  • Pg. 4-5 of text.
  • Theory A well-tested explanation for a natural
    event.
  • Law A summary of observations about natural
    events.

4
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5
1.3 Properties of Matter
  • What is matter?
  • Matter is anything that takes up space (has
    volume) and has mass.
  • Mass The amount of matter than an object
    contains.
  • Substances
  • Table sugar is 100 sugar (table sugar is
    sucrose).
  • Table sugar is a substance
  • A substance is a kind of matter that has a
    uniform and definite composition.
  • Is lemonade a substance? Air? Water?

6
Physical Properties
  • All samples of a substance have identical
    physical properties.
  • A physical property is a quality or condition of
    a substance that can be observed or measured
    without changing the substances composition.
  • This is really wordy. Give me examples.
  • Color, mass, odor, hardness, density, melting
    point, and boiling point are all examples.
  • We use physical properties to help identify
    substances.

7
  • Example
  • Pg. 8 of textbook, table 1.2
  • If I give you a white solid that melts at 800C,
    what substance would it probably be?
  • How about a colorless liquid that couldnt be
    frozen in your homes freezer?
  • Hint Melting point and freezing point are the
    same thing.

8
Homework
  • Read pg. 3-8
  • Do
  • Pg. 6, 4
  • Pg. 7, 5
  • Pg. 8 6
  • Pg. 22-25, 29, 30, 54, 59a, 62, 65

9
1.4 The States of Matter
  • The same substance, like water, can exist in
    multiple forms.
  • Ice, water, steam
  • Still all water, just different forms of it.
  • These forms are called physical states.
  • Physical states are a physical property of the
    matter

10
Solids
  • Three main states of matter
  • Solids
  • Shape does not depend upon the shape of the
    container
  • Solids are matter that has a definite shape and
    volume.
  • Particles packed together tightly. Most are
    incompressible, and expand only slightly when
    heated.

11
Liquids
  • Liquids
  • Particles in a liquid are in contact with each
    other, but packed less tightly than in a solid.
  • Almost incompressible, but expand when heated.
  • Liquid flows
  • Takes the shape of the container in which it is
    placed
  • However, volume remains the same for a given
    sample, regardless of the container.

12
Gases
  • Gasses
  • Flow to take the shape of the container that
    holds them
  • Particles spaced far apart
  • Expand without limit to fill any space
  • Easily compressible
  • Takes both shape and volume of container

13
  • Gas ? Vapor
  • Term gas is reserved for a substance that exists
    in the gaseous state at room temperature
  • The word vapor describes a substance, although in
    the gaseous state, is generally a solid or liquid
    at room temperature.
  • Water is a liquid, though it can be a vapor when
    heated

14
1.5 Physical Changes
  • Matter can be changed in many ways without
    altering its composition.
  • Cutting, grinding, bending, melting, freezing,
    boiling
  • These transformations that do not alter a
    substances composition are called physical
    changes.

15
Homework
  • Read
  • Pg. 9 11 (up until mixtures)
  • Do
  • Pg. 10, 7 and 8
  • Pg. 11, 9 and 10
  • Pg. 22-25, 31, 32, 33, 61, 63

16
1.6 Mixtures
  • What is it to create a mixture?
  • A salad is a mixture.
  • Soil is a mixture.
  • Lemonade is a mixture.
  • Air is a mixture.
  • A mixture consists of a physical blend of two or
    more substances.
  • NOT substances.

17
  • Granite, salad, air, kool-aid are all mixtures.
  • Is there a difference in how they look though?
    In general?
  • There are different types of mixtures.
  • Heterogeneous Mixtures
  • Not uniform in composition.
  • If you sample one portion of the mixture, will be
    different from any other portion.
  • Which of the above would be a heterogeneous
    mixture?

18
  • Homogeneous Mixture
  • Completely uniform composition
  • Any given sample should be the same
  • Composition can still vary

19
  • Phase
  • Any part of a system with uniform composition and
    properties
  • Homogeneous mixtures have one phase
  • Heterogeneous mixtures have two or more phases
  • Vinegar and oil dressing has 2 phases, an oil
    phase and a water phase

20
1.7 Elements and Compounds
  • By physically separating mixtures, you can obtain
    pure substances
  • Remember, substances have uniform and definite
    compositions
  • Two groups of pure substances
  • Elements
  • Compounds

21
Elements
  • Simplest form of matter that can exist under
    normal laboratory conditions
  • Cannot be separated into simpler forms by
    chemical reactions
  • Examples
  • Iron, sulfur, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
  • Fe, S, C, H2

22
Compounds
  • Substances that can be separated into simpler
    substances only by chemical reactions
  • Made when two or more elements combine chemically
  • Examples
  • Water (H2O), octane (C8H18)
  • Page 15 summarizes with flow-chart

23
Homework
  • 12-14, 36, 38, 40, 56

24
1.8 Chemical Symbols
  • All matter in the universe is made of elements.
  • Each element is represented by a chemical symbol.
  • Generally, chemical symbol consists of the first
    one or two letters of the name of the element.
  • Carbon ? C
  • Lithium ? Li
  • Neon ? Ne

25
  • Not always the case though. Some elements are
    derived from older Latin names. (pg. 17)
  • Sodium ? Na (Natrium)
  • Copper ? Cu (Cuprum)
  • Gold ? Au (Aurum)
  • Lead ? Pb (Plumbum)
  • First letter of symbol ALWAYS capitalized.
  • Second letter (if applicable) always lowercase.

26
1.9 Chemical Reactions
  • In a chemical reaction, one or more of the
    substances change into a new substance.
  • The substance(s) you start with, called the
    reactant(s).
  • The substance(s) you end with, called the
    product(s)
  • ? represents are changed into
  • Example, iron and sulfur chemical react to form
    iron sulfide.

27
  • Can be viewed as
  • Iron Sulfur ? Iron sulfide
  • reactants
    product
  • Indications of a chemical reaction
  • Energy given off or taken in (becomes warmer or
    colder)
  • Color change
  • Production of a gas or solid
  • Note Some of these can occur during a physical
    change as well.

28
Chemical Properties
  • Just like every substance has physical
    properties, all have chemical properties.
  • The ability to undergo chemical reactions and to
    form new substances.
  • Only observed when a substance undergoes a change
    in composition (and therefore a chemical change)
  • Words like rot, rust, decompose, ferment,
    corrode, grow, decay, sprout, react usually
    signify a chemical change.

29
1.10 Conservation of Mass
  • Law of Conservation of Mass
  • In any physical or chemical reaction, mass is
    neither created nor destroyed it is conserved
  • In other words, the mass of the products equals
    the mass of the reactants

30
Questions
  • Classify the following changes as physical or
    chemical
  • Bread is baked
  • Salt dissolved in water
  • Milk spoils
  • A snowflake melts
  • Why is the conservation of mass a law and not a
    theory?
  • When powered iron is left exposed to the air it
    rusts. Explain why the rust weighs more than the
    original powered iron.
  • Hydrogen and oxygen react chemically to form
    water. How much water would be formed if 4.8
    grams of hydrogen reacted with 38.4 grams of
    oxygen?
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