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Section 1 What Is Matter?

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... physical property ... Physical and Chemical Changes Section 2 Physical Properties Physical Changes Physical Changes in Nature Movement of soil and rock or ponds ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Section 1 What Is Matter?


1
Section 1 What Is Matter?
Objectives
  • Describe the two properties of all matter.
  • Define and describe examples of physical
    properties.
  • Explain what happens during a physical change.
  • Define and describe examples of chemical
    properties.
  • Explain what happens during a chemical change.
  • Distinguish between physical and chemical changes.

2
Section 1 What Is Matter?
Matter
  • What Is Matter? Matter is anything that has mass
    and takes up space.
  • Matter in the Universe Everything in the universe
    that you can see is made up of some type of
    matter.
  • Atoms Building Blocks of Matter All types of
    matter are built up from particles called atoms.
    An atom is the smallest unit of matter that has
    unique properties.

3
Section 1 What Is Matter?
Matter
Click below to watch the Visual Concept.
Visual Concept
4
Section 2 Physical Properties
Objectives
  • Identify six examples of physical properties of
    matter.
  • Describe how density is used to identify
    substances.
  • List six examples of physical changes.
  • Explain what happens to matter during a physical
    change.

5
Section 2 Physical Properties
Physical Properties
  • What Are Physical Properties? A physical property
    of matter can be observed or measured without
    changing the matters identity.
  • Identifying Matter You use physical properties to
    identify matter.

6
Section 2 Physical Properties
7
Section 2 Physical Properties
Physical Properties
  • Mass The physical property that measures the
    amount of matter in an object is called mass.
  • Mass is constant at any place in the universe,
    because the amount of matter does not change.
  • The only way to change the mass of an object is
    to change the amount of matter that makes up the
    object.

8
Section 2 Physical Properties
Physical Properties
  • Weight The property that measures the force of
    gravity on an object is called weight.
  • The more mass an object has, the greater the
    gravitational force on the object and the greater
    the objects weight.
  • Weight is sometimes confused with mass, but they
    are different. Unlike mass, which is constant,
    weight varies depending on where you are in the
    universe.

9
Section 1 What Is Matter?
Physical Properties
  • The Difference Between Mass and Weight Weight is
    the measure of the gravitational force exerted on
    an object. The more mass an object has, the
    greater the gravitational force on the object and
    the greater the objects weight.
  • Measuring Mass and Weight The SI unit of mass is
    the kilogram (kg). Weight is a measure of
    gravitational force and is expressed in the SI
    unit of force, the newton (N).

10
Section 2 Physical Properties
Physical Properties, continued
  • Density Density is the amount of matter in a
    given space, or volume. The two balls below have
    different densities.

11
Section 2 Physical Properties
Physical Properties, continued
  • Liquid Layers The graduated cylinder below
    contains six liquids. Each liquid is a different
    density so the liquids form layers.
  • Density of Solids Knowing thedensity of a
    substance can alsotell you what kind
    ofsubstance it is.

12
Section 2 Physical Properties
Physical Properties, continued
  • Solving for Density To find an objects density
    (D), first measure its mass (m) and volume (V).
    Then use the following equation
  • D m/V

13
Section 2 Physical Properties
Physical Properties, continued
  • Using Density to Identify Substances Look at the
    table below to compare densities of several
    common substances.

14
Section 2 Physical Properties
15
Section 2 Physical Properties
Physical Properties, continued
  • Other Important Physical Properties Many other
    physical properties can help identify and
    classify matter.
  • Malleable substances are soft, such as aluminum.
    Scientists also measure how well a substance
    conducts electricity. An important property of a
    liquid is the boiling point.

16
Section 2 Physical Properties
Physical Changes
  • A physical change is any change in which the
    properties of a substance, but not the identity
    of the substance, change.

17
Section 2 Physical Properties
Physical Changes Do Not Form New Substances
  • Examples of Physical Changes Some examples of
    physical changes are shown below.

18
Section 2 Physical and Chemical Changes
19
Section 2 Physical Properties
Physical Changes
  • Physical Changes in Nature Movement of soil and
    rock or ponds freezing are physical changes that
    occur in nature.
  • Physical Changes in Industry Making sugar or
    building furniture are physical changes that
    occur in industry.

20
Section 3 Chemical Properties
Chemical Properties
  • Chemical Properties describe matter based on its
    ability to participate in chemical reactions and
    form new substances.
  • Flammability is the ability of a substance to
    burn. Things that cannot burn or inflammable.
  • Reactivity is the ability of substances to
    combine and form one or more new substances.

21
Section 3 Chemical Properties
22
Section 3 Chemical Properties
Chemical Properties
  • Comparing Physical and Chemical Properties You
    can observe physical properties without changing
    the identity of the substance. Chemicals
    properties are more difficult to observe.
  • Characteristic Properties The properties that are
    most useful in identifying a substance are
    characteristic properties.

23
Section 3 Chemical Properties
Comparing Physical and Chemical Properties
Click below to watch the Visual Concept.
Visual Concept
24
Section 3 Chemical Properties
Chemical Changes and New Substances
  • What Happens During a Chemical Change? During a
    chemical change substances are formed that do not
    have the identity or physical properties of the
    original matter.
  • These changes are also called chemical reactions.
  • Signs of Chemical Changes Some common signs of
    chemical changes includes a change in color,
    odor, production of heat, fizzing, and so on.

25
Section 3 Chemical Properties
26
Section 3 Chemical Properties
Physical Versus Chemical Changes
  • Most physical changes are reversible because they
    do not alter the identity of the matter being
    changed. Physical changes only affect the
    matters form.
  • Most chemical changes are not reversible. The
    products from most chemical changes cannot be
    recombined to form the original substance.

27
Section 3 Chemical Properties
Comparing Physical and Chemical Changes
Click below to watch the Visual Concept.
Visual Concept
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