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(Ch. 7) Section I: The Byzantine Empire (Pages 150-156)

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(Ch. 7) Section I: The Byzantine Empire (Pages 150-156) This section is about: How Byzantine was founded and how it grew to greatness under Emperor Justinian. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: (Ch. 7) Section I: The Byzantine Empire (Pages 150-156)


1
(Ch. 7) Section I The Byzantine Empire (Pages
150-156)
  • This section is about
  • How Byzantine was founded and how it grew to
    greatness under Emperor Justinian.
  • The religious and political disagreements that
    led to conflict with the Roman Empire.
  • How the Byzantium empire was ultimately defeated
    by the Ottoman Turks.

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Before we start we cant forget about the Roman
Empire. In 395, as they were beginning to
decline, they were split into 2 parts (east and
west). In 476 the east lost their emperor, but
the west grew richer and more populated. Thats
when this unit starts.
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Constantine wanted a big capital city. He chose
the Greek city of Byzantium.
(Dont forget these people)
  • You know about Byzantium but you know it by
    its other name
  • Constantinople
  • It was a center of trade, industry, and culture
    the culture of the G/R/C (who?)
  • Greeks
  • Romans
  • Christians

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  • So, the eastern Roman Empire became known as the
    Byzantine Empire

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Justinian (527-565 AD)
  • Was determined to restore Rome to its former
    glory.
  • Re-conquered Northern Africa, Southern Spain, and
    Italy which made the Byzantine Empire the
    biggest it would ever be.
  • To fight these wars, he had to spend a lot of
    money (they do even today).
  • Justinian ruled as an autocrat (a single ruler
    with absolute power).
  • He was considered the representative of God on
    Earth so he had complete control over the
    government and the church (except over his wife
    Theodora - who would sometimes challenge him).

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The Contributions of Justinian
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  • He set up a collection of laws called the
    Justinian Code.
  • Others around the world used these laws even
    people who study law today look at them.
  • And

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  • A new silk industry began (different colors of
    cloth designated different ranks of people at
    that time).
  • He began a huge building program (churches, law
    courts, schools, hospitals, aqueducts, and
    fortresses.
  • His most famous Hagia Sophia (means Holy Wisdom
    in Greek) built in Constantinople in 537.
  • More pictures on next slide.

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Justinian died in 565 and the empire was
attacked
  • But Constantinople fought off the Persians and
    Arabs several times.
  • They also had some internal problems with the
    Christian Church.
  • The eastern Christians led by a patriarch and
    was mostly a Greek Church.
  • The western Christians led by the Pope, and is
    referred to as the Roman Catholic Church with
    services in Latin.

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Western Christians
  • Western Christians spoke Latin.
  • The Western Churchs administration was governed
    by a single bishop the bishop of Rome (the
    Pope).
  • St. Peter Pope John III all the way up to Pope
    Benedict and now Pope Francis.

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11
Eastern Christians (Orthodox Christianity,
Eastern Orthodoxy, or the Orthodox Church)
  • The Eastern Christians spoke Greek.
  • The Eastern Church was governed by a group of
    patriarchs/bishops (Constantinople, Alexandria,
    Antioch and Jerusalem).
  • Patriarchs later began to develop within the
    Orthodox Church Russia, Romania, Serbia,
    Bulgaria, and Albanian.
  • The Apostles, Peter, and Paul
  • Constantine. Bartholomew I.

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(His All Holiness, Bartholomew I, Archbishop of
Constantinople, New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch)
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All the Patriarchs of all these churches
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Some problems between the 2 Christian churches
Some of the Icons
  • 700s The Eastern Byzantine Christians prayed
    to icons while others believed that broke one of
    the 10 Commandments.
  • 800s Charlemagne was named emperor (by the
    Pope). He was German and Romans believed only a
    Roman should ever be emperor.
  • 836 Two Byzantine missionaries converted many
    people to their church using their language
    (Cyrillic).
  • 1054 The churches totally split up (even until
    today). In 1054, the Pope and the Patriarch even
    excommunicated each other (kicked them out of
    their church).

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After Constantinople was able to stop the attacks
  • They did pretty well even traded with
    China/Asia.
  • The conquered more land all the way from Syria
    to Italy.
  • But in 1071, The Byzantines lost control of Italy
    (the Gauls) and Asia (the Turks).
  • Their empire was starting to fall apart.

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By 1081, Alexius I and the Pope tried to help
each other out.
  • Byzantines wanted to make trips to Jerusalem - to
    see where Jesus was from (but it was controlled
    by the Turks)
  • The Pope sent knights to fight the Muslims and
    regain the holy city (Jerusalem).

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By 1204, these knights were persuaded to attack
Constantinople
  • They captured the city and sent much of its
    treasures to the west.
  • It was weak for a long time.
  • By 1453, it was back under the control of the
    Turks, who re-named Constantinople Istanbul.
  • They made this their capital city, Hagia Sophia
    became a Muslim church, and the city became the
    center of the Muslim Empire.

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Byzantine influences
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  • Kept alive Greek art, literature, philosophy, and
    science.
  • Kept alive Byzantine art and architecture.
  • Their scholars brought their knowledge and books
    to the universities of the west.
  • Their ideas greatly helped contribute to the
    Renaissance in the 1500s.

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Basilica di San Marco a Venezia
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Make sure page "I" is completed
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