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The Roman Republic and Empire


The Roman Republic and Empire Chapter 1 Section 2 Focus Questions 1. How did the government of Rome develop into an empire? 2. What modern democratic principles ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Roman Republic and Empire

The Roman Republic and Empire
  • Chapter 1
  • Section 2

Focus Questions
  • 1. How did the government of Rome develop into
    an empire?
  • 2. What modern democratic principles originate
    from ancient Rome?

  • Romans established a government called a republic
    (a government in which supreme power belongs to
    the citizens through their right to vote)
  • Romans thought a republic (indirect democracy)
    would keep any individual from gaining too much
  • The 300 members of the republics senate were all
    patriciansthe landholding upper class (nobles)
  • Senators, who served for life, made the Roman laws

Roman Warrior
Roman Government Structure
  • Each year, the senators elected two consuls from
    among the patricians
  • The consuls supervised the business of government
    and commanded Romes armies
  • In the event of war, the senate might choose a
    dictator to temporarily take complete control
    over the government
  • The law granted each Roman the power to rule for
    six months
  • A dictator is a person who rules with total
    authority and often in a cruel and brutal manner

Roman Senate
Roman Armies
Roman Consul
Roman Government Structure
  • The common people, or plebians, influenced
    government to have the laws written down in the
    Twelve Tables
  • They also gained the right to elect their own
    officials, called tribunes
  • The tribunes could veto (preventing a bill passed
    by a legislature from becoming a law) laws passed
    by the senate that were harmful to the plebians

The Twelve Tables
Roman Government
Expansion of Roman Political System
  • As Romes political system evolved, its armies
    expanded Roman power into the eastern
    Mediterranean region
  • On the north coast of Africa, the Romans also
    destroyed the city-state of Carthage and
    established themselves as masters of the Western
  • Expansion, however, created problems
  • At issue was who should hold powerthe senate or
    popular political leaders looking to enact
  • Soon Rome was plunged into a civil war over this
    power struggle

Map of Roman Empire
Julius Caesar
  • Military commander who emerged from the civil
    chaos and seized control
  • Although Caesar kept the senate and other
    features of the republic, he forced the senate to
    make him dictator
  • Jealous and fearful of his power, Caesars
    enemies stabbed him to death
  • Caesars opponents believed he wanted to make
    himself king
  • Caesars grand-nephew Octavian became the new
  • The senate gave Octavian the title Augustus
    Caesar, and he became the first emperor

Death of Julius Caesar
Pax Romana
  • During the time known as the Pax Romana (Roman
    Peace), the Roman empire brought peace, order,
    unity, and prosperity to the lands it ruled
  • Trade flowed freely to and from distant lands in
    Africa and Asia
  • Merchants carried ivory, gold, spices, silk, and
    other commodities
  • People spread/shared ideas as they traveled
  • Ideas about democracy spread to places the Romans

Legal Principles From Roman Times
  • Accused presumed innocent until proven guilty
  • Accused had right to face the accuser
  • Accused could offer a defense to the charges
  • Guilt had to be established clearer than
    daylight through evidence
  • Judges interpreted the laws and were expected to
    make fair decisions

Legacy of Rome
  • Greatest legacy of Rome was the establishment of
    justice through the law
  • (A legacy is something that is left behind to
    future generations)
  • In the 400s, the emperor Justinian, in what was
    now the eastern Byzantine empire, reformed the
    Roman law code
  • The Roman Law Code became known as Justinians
  • Later, this code influenced the Christian church
    and medieval monarchs
  • The Christian church preserved much of the Roman
    culture in its teachings

Powerpoint Questions (17 points)
  • 1. Define republic
  • 2. Who were the patricians?
  • 3. What were the responsibilities of the two
    consuls elected by the senate?
  • 4. Why would the senate elect a dictator?
  • 5. Common people were known as ___.

Powerpoint Questions (17 points)
  • 6. Laws were written on tablets called the
  • 7. Define veto.
  • 8. What city-state did the Romans destroy that
    established Rome as the master of the Western
  • 9. Identify the military commander who emerged
    and seized power amidst the chaos and civil wars
  • 10. Who became the first emperor of the Roman

Powerpoint Questions (17 points)
  • 11. What does Pax Romana mean?
  • 12. What happened during the Pax Romana?
  • 13. What modern legal principles originate from
    Roman times? (four points)
  • 14. What did the Roman emperor Justinian
    accomplish during his reign?