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SR6e Chapter 1

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Title: SR6e Chapter 1


1
CHAPTER 1 UNDERSTANDING LIFE-SPAN HUMAN
DEVELOPMENT
2
Learning Objectives
  • How do developmental scientists define
    development?
  • What does the typical path of development look
    like across the life span?

3
What is Development?
  • Systematic changes and continuities
  • In the individual
  • Between conception and death
  • Womb to Tomb
  • Three broad domains
  • Physical, Cognitive, Psychosocial

4
Other Developmental Definitions
  • Growth Physical changes that occur from birth to
    maturity
  • Aging Positive and negative changes in the
    mature organism
  • Maturation The biological unfolding of the
    individual genetic plan
  • Learning Relatively permanent changes due to
    environmental experiences

5
Age Grades, Age Norms, and the Social Clock
  • Age Grade Socially defined age groups
  • Statuses, roles, privileges, responsibilities
  • Adults can vote, children cant
  • Age Norms Behavioral expectations by age
  • Children attend school
  • Social Clock When things should be done
  • Early adulthood time for 1st marriages
  • Off time experiences are more difficult

6
Insert Table SR6e.tab.1.1.jpgInsert Caption
7
Learning Objective
  • How has our understanding of different periods of
    the life span changed historically?

8
Phases of the Life Span
  • Before 1600 Children viewed as miniature adults
  • Modern View Children innocent, need protection
  • Average life expectancy in 1900 was 47 year
  • In 2000 it was 77.5 years
  • Females White80, Black76
  • Males White75, Black69
  • Increasing population - age 65 and older

9
Learning Objective
  • What are the main components of the
    nature-nurture issue?

10
Framing the Nature/Nurture Issue
  • Nature heredity
  • Maturational processes guided by genes
  • Biologically based predispositions
  • Biological unfolding of genes
  • Nurture environment
  • Learning experiences cause changes is thoughts,
    feelings, and behaviors
  • Interactionist view nature nurture interact

11
Learning Objectives
  • What are the features of the bioecological model?
  • Why is this perspective important to our
    understanding of development?

12
The Bioecological Model
  • Microsystem Immediate environment
  • Mesosystem Relationships
  • Exosystem Social Systems
  • Macrosystem Culture
  • Chronosystem Changes occur in a time frame
  • This is an interactionist model

13
  • Urie Bronfenbrenners bioecological model of
    development pictures environment as a series of
    nested structures. The microsystem refers to
    relations between the developing person and her
    immediate environment, the mesosystem to
    connections among microsystems, the exosystem to
    settings that affect but do not contain the
    individual, the macrosystem to the broader
    cultural context of development, and the
    chronosystem to the patterning over time of
    historical and life events. Researchers face
    many challenges in studying the developing person
    in context.

14
Learning Objectives
  • What is the science of life-span development?
  • What are the three goals of developmental
    psychology?
  • What are the seven assumptions of the modern
    life-span perspective on human development?

15
Goals of Studying Life-Span Development
  • Description
  • Normal development, individual differences
  • Explanation
  • Typical and individually different development
  • Optimization
  • Positive development, enhancing human capacities
  • Prevention and overcoming difficulties

16
Methods of Studying Life-Span Development
  • Historical
  • Baby Biographies Charles Darwin
  • Questionnaires G. Stanley Hall
  • Key Assumptions of Modern Life-Span Perspectives
  • Lifelong, multidirectional process
  • Gain and loss and lifelong plasticity
  • Historical/cultural contexts, multiple influences
  • Multi-disciplinary studies

17
Learning Objectives
  • What is the scientific mindset?
  • How is the scientific method used to study
    development?

18
Unique Challenges in Developmental Research
  • Infants and young children
  • Attention, instruction, answering questions may
    be difficult
  • Elderly Adults
  • Possible sensory impairments
  • Discomfort being studied, tested

19
Conducting Developmental Research
  • Self-reports interview, questionnaires, tests
  • Behavioral Observations (Experiments)
  • Naturalistic
  • Advantage natural setting
  • Disadvantage conditions not controlled
  • Structured (Lab)
  • Disadvantage cannot generalize to natural
    settings
  • Advantage conditions controlled

20
Learning Objective
  • What are the essential features of the
    experimental method?
  • What sorts of information can be gathered from
    this type of study?
  • What are its strengths and weaknesses?

21
The Scientific (Experimental) Method
  • Three Critical Features
  • 1. Manipulation of independent variable
  • 2. Random assignment of individuals to
    treatment conditions
  • 3. Experimental control
  • Quasi-Experiment No random assignment

22
  • The scientific method in action

23
Learning Objective
  • What are the important features of the
    correlational method?
  • What sorts of information can be gathered from
    this type of study?
  • What are its strengths and weaknesses?

24
The Correlational Method
  • Determine if 2 or more variables are related
  • Correlation A measure of the relationship
  • Can range from 1.0 to 1.0
  • Positive variables move in same direction
  • Negative variables move in opposite dir.
  • No relationship if correlation is 0
  • Cannot establish a causal relationship

25
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26
Learning Objective
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of the
    cross-sectional and longitudinal designs?
  • How does the sequential design resolve the
    weaknesses of these designs?

27
Developmental Research Designs
  • Cross-Sectional Designs
  • gt1 cohorts or age-groups studied
  • 1 time of testing
  • Studying age differences at any one time
  • Longitudinal Designs
  • lt1 cohort
  • 1 time of testing
  • Study changes across time in one cohort

28
  • Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of
    development from age 30 to age 70.

29
Age, Cohort, and Time of Measurement Effects
  • Age effects Changes which occur due to age
  • Cohort Effects Born in one historical context
  • Changes due to differences in society
  • Disadvantage of cross-sectional design
  • Time of measurement effects Historical
  • Take place at time of data collection
  • Disadvantage of longitudinal design

30
  • Conflicting findings of hypothetical
    cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of
    gender-role attitudes. How could the two studies
    produce different age trends?

31
Sequential Designs
  • A combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal
    designs
  • Advantages of both designs
  • Gives information about
  • Which age-related trends are age effects
  • Which age-related trends are truly cohort effects
  • Which age-related trends are a result of
    historical events

32
  • A sequential study. This study begins in 1970
    with a group of 30-year-olds studied
    longitudinally every 10 years thereafter. In
    1980, a second longitudinal study is launched, in
    1990 a third, and so on. Notice that at a point
    in time such as 2000 (blue shading) age groups
    can be compared in a cross sectional study.
    Notice too that 30-year-olds from different
    cohorts can be compared (orange shading).

33
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34
Learning Objective
  • What special challenges do developmental
    scientists face?
  • What challenges arise in studying development and
    how can scientists address these issues?

35
Issues in Developmental Studies
  • Random sampling
  • Increases likelihood that sample is
    representative of population
  • Protecting rights of research participants
  • Must assess the benefit to risk balance
  • Researcher responsibilities
  • Informed consent, debriefing, protection from
    harm, confidentiality

36
Cultural and Subcultural Sensitivity in Research
  • Variety of contexts considered
  • Culturally sensitive methods measurements
  • SES particularly important
  • Ethnocentrism

37
Historical Changes in Periods of Lifespan
  • Childhood
  • Pressure to grow up
  • Early exposure to adult issues
  • Adolescence A transition delayed adulthood
  • Emerging Adulthood
  • Identity exploration in preparation for adulthood
  • Adulthood
  • By 2030, gt20 will be over age 65
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