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Renewable Hydrogen from Etahnol by Autothermal Refoming

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Renewable Hydrogen and Olefins by Autothermal Reforming Lanny Schmidt Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science University of Minnesota – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Renewable Hydrogen from Etahnol by Autothermal Refoming


1
Renewable Hydrogen and Olefins by Autothermal
Reforming
Lanny Schmidt Department of Chemical Engineering
and Materials Science University of Minnesota
2
(No Transcript)
3
(No Transcript)
4
Hydrogen and Chemicals in Millisecond Reactors
  • Hydrogen Economy
  • Distributed power
  • Fuel cells
  • Pollution abatement
  • Renewable energy
  • Renewable chemicals

5
Reactions
  • CH4 H2 CO synfuels
  • methanol
  • H2 hydrogen economy
  • gasoline H2 portable power
  • diesel H2
  • ethanol H2 renewable energy
  • biodiesel olefins renewable chemicals

6
Energy is the most Important Technology Issue of
the 21st Century
The biological revolution cannot happen without
energy to drive it Extremely complex Will
require radical solutions Will require
replacement of fossil fuels by renewable
sources The Midwest must be the source of
renewables Minnesota spends over 10 billion to
import energy
7
Our Ancestors Used Renewables
Wood heat Beeswax and tallow light Wool,
cotton, and leather clothing Horses
transportation (eats oats, fertilizes the
soil, and produces colts) These are completely
renewable as long as they are sustainable All
agricultural based products
8
The Industrial Revolution demanded a
transportable liquid fuel
Whale oil was the 19th Century solution whales
not renewable fast enough Petroleum became the
replacement gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel 10
converted into petrochemicals The energy engine
of the world economy most located in bad
places Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Russia
9
Sometime We Will Switch Back to Renewables
Sustainable not imported distributed no
CO2 less pollution 5 years or 50 years? What
technologies? How much fossil energy? petroleum
10 to 50 years natural gas 20 to 100
years coal 200 years The Stone Age did not end
because we ran out of stones
10
Renewable Sources
Wind now competitive intermittent Geothermal
and hydroelectric localized Solar expensive Bi
omass available reliable competitive We need
transportable liquid fuels ethanol biodiesel
11
Renewable Energy and Chemicals
Current drivers towards Renewable
Energy National Security Global Warming Rural
Economic Development Renewables must compete
head-to-head with fossil fuels total
supply infrastructure price Subsidies critical
issue not simple energy is always heavily
subsidized Energy may the the most important
problem in the 21st Century requires radical
thinking
12
The Hydrogen Economy
Code words for fuel cells 60 versus Carnot
efficiency of thermal engines PEM fuel cells
require hydrogen Need hydrogen wind power with
electrolysis for hydrogen storage fossil fuel
reforming is next generation use hydrogen for
storage and transportation of energy hydrogen
fueling station Distributed energy no
megaplants and power lines better esthetics and
safety rural areas and third world will adopt
first
13
The Hydrogen Economy
Nothing gained if fossil fuels are source of
hydrogen reduced efficiency in reforming CO2
global warming not helped Need renewable
fuels solves all problems helps economic
development use for chemicals
14
Hydrogen from Ethanol
Lanny Schmidt Regents Professor Department of
chemical engineering and Materials
Science University of Minnesota
15
All H2 now comes from steam reforming
  • tube furnace
  • Ni catalyst
  • flames make pollutants
  • does not scale down

All olefins now come from steam cracking
  • tube furnace
  • homogeneous pyrolysis
  • 1/3 of all pollution from chemical plants
  • does not scale down

Need distributed source of liquid fuels for
on-board reforming
16
Steam Reformer for Hydrogen Generation
Replace by system smaller than truck Enough
hydrogen for house in size of coffee cup
17
Electricity from Ethanol
We now have an infrastructure for ethanol corn
starch ? sugar ? ethanol Now supplies 10 of
Minnesotas gasoline needs Burning ethanol is
inefficient use of valuable chemical
Why not use it for fuel cell? 90 of energy in
sugar is stored in ethanol Water in ethanol is
useful to produce extra H2
18
Renewable Hydrogen from Ethanol
Produce hydrogen from a renewable fuel at short
contact times for use in a fuel cell
C2H5OH ? 3H2 C2H5OH 3 H2O ?2CO2 6H2 C2H5OH
1/2O2 ?2CO 3H2 C2H5OH 2 H2O 1/2O2?2CO2
5H2
19
Why cant it be done?
Need small size for distributed power steam
reforming does not scale down Ethanol very
flammable Cherries Jubilee Catalytic partial
oxidation endothermic no heat for autothermal
reactor No one had previously reported partial
oxidation
20
Ethanol to Hydrogen
1200
100
1000
80
800
60
Conversion X ()
Temperature oC
100
25
600
40
400
20
Ethanol
LFL
Combustion
Syngas
UFL
200
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
(C/O)
21
Major Products
Hydrogen
120
H2
100
25
80
100
60
SH ()
SC ()
40
100
20
25
H2O
0
-20
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
(C/O)
22
Stratified Catalyst
Automotive Fuel Injector
Air
25 oC
Heating Tape
First Catalyst C2H5OH 2 H2O 1/2O2? 2CO2
5H2
Mixer
140 oC
Heat Shields
CPOX
700 oC
Second Catalyst CO H2O ? CO2 H2

Insulation
WGS
400 oC
Back-face Thermocouple
23
Products
24
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25
photosynthesis h?
26
2 CO2 2 C2H5OH 4 H2O
?Ho -140
?Go -330
6 CO2 10 H2
photosynthesis h?
27
photosynthesis h?
28
What have we done?
Ethanol may be a suitable renewable energy source
for electricity Captures 90 of energy in
carbohydrates (photosynthesis) Captures 50 of
energy as electricity Very simple, small, and
inexpensive reactor 5 of catalyst for 1 kW of
hydrogen Work to be done improve
efficiency integrate energy management and water
gas shift
29
Path Forward
Process commercializable use natural gas and LPG
technologies Needs cheap and reliable fuel
cells Hydrogen supply and demand must
coincide Need to explore other renewables
30
Renewable Chemicals
From Biodiesel Soy oil CH3OH ? biodiesel
glycerol isomers with 1, 2, and 3 double
bonds 2 in Minnesota diesel pool in 2005
C-O-CH3 O
methyl linoleate 52
31
Olefins and Olefinic Esters
C-O-CH3 O
.
.

C-O-CH3 O
C-O-CH3 O
C11
N10
32
Renewable Chemicals
biodiesel ? H2 80 ? olefins 90
? ethylene, propylene 50
33
Economics
Ethanol available at 1.50/gallon electricity at
.06/kWh enough to supply all Minnesota
electricity Biodiesel available at 2.00
gallon (.25/lb) olefins sell for .30/lb
34
Renewable Energy and Chemicals
CO2H2O ? biomass ? carbohydrates ? starch
? sugar? ethanol ? electricity
CO2H2O ? biomass ? biodiesel ?H2
?ethylene ? a-olefins ?
?
35
We Must Develop Renewable Fuels
No choice Transportation fuels must be liquid
chemicals Biomass must be source Make high
value added products Major challenge of 21st
Century
36
Requires Partnerships
research universities government nonprofit
organizations farm organizations industries entrep
reneurs
37
A 20 million initiative over 5 years for
research at the University Legislative mandate
funded by Xcel from CIP and RDF funds
Interdisciplinary Agriculture Biology Technology P
olicy
Clusters Hydrogen Efficiency Bioproducts and
bioenergy Policy and the environment
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