SPED 200 Inclusionary Education of Exceptional Students - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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SPED 200 Inclusionary Education of Exceptional Students


SPED 200 Inclusionary Education of Exceptional Students Learner Characteristics – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SPED 200 Inclusionary Education of Exceptional Students

SPED 200 Inclusionary Education of Exceptional
  • Learner Characteristics

  • Definitions and Prevalence Rates

At Risk Students
  • Teachers Need to Be Prepared
    to Work with all
    Types of Diverse Learners

Defining Learner Characteristics
  • All people are unique and
    certain abilities or disabilities
    are attributes
  • But do not define who
    individuals are

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
  • Children between 3 and 9 may be identified as
    developmentally delayed in one or more of the
    following areas
  • Physical
  • Cognitive
  • Communication
  • Social/Emotional
  • Adaptive Development

After Age 9 - Students Qualify for Special
  • If diagnosed with one or more of the following
  • Specific learning disability
  • Speech or language impairments
  • Mental Retardation (Intellectual Disability)
  • Emotional Disturbance
  • Multiple Disabilities

Additional Categories
  • Hearing impairments
  • Orthopedic impairments
  • Other health impairments
  • Visual Impairment
  • Autism
  • Deaf - Blindness
  • Traumatic brain injury

Cross-Categorical Approach
  • Mild
  • Moderate
  • Severe

High-Incidence Disabilities
  • High Incidence Disabilities are those that occur
    in more than 100,000 people in USA
  • Speech or Language Impairment
  • Learning Disabilities
  • Emotional Disturbances
  • Mental Retardation (Intellectual Disability)

Low-Incidence Disability
  • Mild and Moderate Disabilities
  • Learning Disabilities (LD)
  • Behavioral/emotional disorders (E/BD)
  • Mental Retardation (MR)
  • Intellectual Disability (ID)
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Categorical vs. Cross CategoricalClassification
of Disabilities

Level of Severity Learning Disability (LD) Mental Retardation Emotional/Behavioral Disorders (EBD)
Mild Mild LD Mild MR Mild EBD
Moderate Moderate LD Moderate MR Moderate EBD
Severe Severe LD Severe MR Severe EBD
Number of Students Ages 6-21 Served under IDEA
Disability 1991-1992 2000-2001 Percentage Change
Learning Disability 2,247,004 2,887,217 28.0
Mental Retardation 553,262 612,978 10.8
Emotional/Behavioral Disorder 400,211 473,663 18.4
  • Learning Disabilities (LD) are the most prevalent
  • Represent over one-half of students
  • Defining and Identifying LD is difficult

LD - Discrepancy Marker
  • Students are expected to achieve better
    academically than they do
  • Expected Achievement is based on IQ Score
  • Students scoring below expectations that cant be
    explained by socioeconomic factors, cultural
    differences, inadequate instruction, and
    disabling condition
  • They are assumed to have a Learning Disability

LD Identification is Problematic
  • Many are Advocating if a Student Responds to
    Scientific Research-Based Intervention
  • Response To Intervention (RTI) is defined as a
    change in behavior or performance attributable to
    appropriate instruction
  • A student would be identified as having a
    Learning Difficulty only if they do not improve
    satisfactorily after receiving intensive
  • Critics say RTI doesnt distinguish between low
    achievement and a Cognitive Processing Disorder

Specific Learning Disability
  • The term means a disorder in one or more of the
    basic psychological processes involved in
    understanding or in using language, spoken or
    written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect
    ability to listen, think, speak, read, write,
    spell, or to do mathematical calculations,
  • Including conditions such as perceptual
    disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain
    disfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia

Specific Learning Disability
  • Disorders not included
  • The term does not include learning problems that
    are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or
    motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of
    emotional disturbance or of environmental,
    cultural, or economic disadvantage.

Emotional/Behavioral Disabilities (EBD)
  • Represent about 8 percent of Students with
  • Represents 0.9 percent of Total school population
  • But prevalence rates are estimated to be 2 to 3
    time higher

Emotional Disturbances (EBD) Defined
  • The term means a condition exhibiting one or more
    of the following characteristics over a longer
    period of time and a marked degree that adversely
    affects a childs educational performance
  • A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained
    by intellectual, sensory, or health factors
  • B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory
    interpersonal relationship with peers and

(EBD) continued
  • C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings
    under normal conditions
  • D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or
  • E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or
    fears associated with personal or school problem
  • ii) The term includes schizophrenia. The term
    does not apply to children who are socially
    maladjusted, unless it is determined that they
    have an emotional disturbance

Mental Retardation (MR)
  • Mental Retardation means significantly subaverage
    general intellectual functioning, existing
    concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior
    and manifested during the developmental period,
    that adversely affects a childs educational
  • Movement to replace the term Mental Retardation
    with terms such as Intellectual Disability or
    Developmental Disability
  • New research on genes and brain imagining may
    soon replace the IQ test for identifying Mental

ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • ADHD is a persistent pattern of inattention
    and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more
    frequently displayed and more severe than is
  • Must be clear evidence of interference w/
    developmentally social, academic, or occupational
  • Occurs in 3-5 percent of children (3 times more
    likely in boys)

ADHD Characteristics
  • On others being inattentive to work or play
  • Inattention to detail or careless mistakes
  • Not completing assigned tasks
  • Not listening to others when spoken to
  • Not following directions at home or school
  • Losing or misplacing materials
  • Being disorganized
  • Blurting out answers
  • Difficulty awaiting turn or failing to take turns
  • Interrupting or intruding

  • Motivation affects the learning process without
    motivation students are unlikely to learn
  • Even motivated students may find it very
    difficult to learn if they dont have the
    prerequisite skills
  • Motivation only encourages students to persist in
    doing something they are capable of doing
  • Students with mild and moderate disabilities may
    be prone to discouragement (given their record of
    poor academic performance)

  • Students who attribute their success to internal
    factors such as effort and ability demonstrate a
    positive attribution style
  • Students who attribute success to external causes
    (luck or the teacher likes me) demonstrate a
    negative attribution style
  • Teachers need to help students connect knowledge,
    effort and achievement by linking success or
    failure to effort and application of skills and

How Teachers can Help
  • Design classrooms to be positive supportive
  • Teach at the students appropriate level of
  • Engage students in their own learning
  • Make school fun and interesting
  • Design for errorless learning
  • Use natural consequences that lead to failure as
    a teaching opportunity
  • Teach self-management and self-determination
    skills so students become responsible for their
    own learning and behavior
  • Connect effort and knowledge or skills to outcomes

Summary Statements
  • Understanding disability characteristics and
    definitions help teachers better understand the
    students they are teaching
  • Focus on the individual not the disability - A
    disability does not define a person

Summary Statements
  • The categorical approach refers to identifying
    and serving students based on their ability
    category (e.g., LD, EBD, MR).
  • The cross categorical approach refers to the
    severity of the disability (e.g.,
    mild-to-moderate disabilities)
  • approach refers to the severity of the
    disability (e.g., mid-to Moderate.

Summary Statements
  • Most service delivery and teacher liscensing
    programs follow the cross-categorical approach
  • Whereas, identification for students under IDEA
    still remains categorical

Summary Statements
  • The four major disabling conditions under mild
    and moderate include LD, EBD, MR, AND ADHD,
    although ADHD is not a disability category under
  • All four categories of disability have been and
    continue to be difficult to define

Summary Statements
  • Most students with mild/moderate disabilities
    have common learning characteristics including
    poor attention, memory, concept formation,
    academic skills and social competence
  • They may have low motivation for learning
  • LD students may attribute school failures to
    themselves but successes to factors outside

A Smile from Heaven for Students w/ Disabilities
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