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Title: Atoms and Elements: Are they Related?


1
Atoms and Elements Are they Related?
  • Fall 2011

2
ATOMS
  • ALL MATTER IS MADE OF ATOMS
  • Definition ATOMS ARE THE SMALLEST PIECE OF
    MATTER and CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN INTO A SIMPLER
    SUBSTANCE.

3
  • ATOMS HAVE 3 BASIC PARTS
  • (Subatomic Particles)
  • PROTONS
  • NEUTRONS
  • ELECTRONS

4
  • PROTONS (POSITIVE CHARGE)
  • ARE FOUND IN THE NUCLEUS AND MAKE UP MOST OF THE
    MASS OF THE ATOM.
  • VERY IMPORTANT!!! The number of protons an atom
    has tells you what kind of atom it is!!!!

5
The Atomic Number is the number of Protons Pg.
158
6
  • NEUTRONS (NO CHARGE)
  • ARE FOUND IN THE NUCLEUS
  • MAKE UP PART OF THE MASS OF THE ATOM

7
Finding the Number of Neutrons for an Atom
  • The protons and neutrons make up the mass of an
    atom.
  • If you know the protons (atomic number) then you
    can find the number of neutrons by subtracting
    the atomic mass from the of protons (atomic
    number).
  • atomic mass - of protons of neutrons

8
Isotopes
  • Atoms of the same element that have a different
    number of neutrons.
  • EX Carbon

Carbon-12 Carbon-13 Carbon-14
9
Isotopes Radioactive Decay
  • Atoms are most stable when they have the same
    number of Pro/Neu in the nucleus
  • So, having more neutrons causes atom to be
    unstable repulsion builds up.
  • Nucleus becomes more stable when the extra
    particles are released energy is given off.
  • RD is the release of extra nuclear particles
    energy.

10
  • ELECTRONS (NEGATIVE CHARGE - )
  • FOUND IN THE ELECTRON SHELL (cloud) ORBITING THE
    NUCLEUS.
  • TAKES UP MOST OF THE SPACE IN AN ATOM.
  • The of electrons the of protons

11
Valence Electrons
  • Outermost electron(s) in the cloud/shell
  • 8 is the magic number!!!!!! (octet rule)

12
Ions
  • Atom where the total number of electrons does not
    equal the total number of protons (atom will have
    a pos or neg charge)
  • Cation pos (loss of e-)
  • Anionneg (gain of e-)
  • EX Fe2, Al3, O2-

13
Label the atom below on your packet!
What type of atom is this? How do you know?
14
Lets Break for Questions???
  • How many protons should Hydrogen have?
  • How about Oxygen?
  • Which particles are located in the nucleus of an
    atom?
  • Where are the electrons located?

15
Atomic Size
-A typical atom is about one ten-billionth of a
meter in diameter. (THATS REALLY, REALLY SMALL
AND WHY WE CANT SEE THEM WITH A REGULAR
MICROSCOPE) -ATOMIC MASS Protons
Neutrons. -Most of the atomic mass comes from the
nucleus. -Electrons weigh very little. That is
why they do not add to the mass of the atom.
-They DO contribute to the SIZE.
16
Isotopes Mass Number
  • So if protons and neutrons contribute to mass, if
    we have a different number of neutrons, will the
    mass be affected?
  • EX since C-14 has 8 neutrons, the mass number is
    14amu instead of 12amu (C-12).

17
Discovery of the Atom (pg. 80)
By the early 1800s, John Dalton proposed that
all substances are made up of atoms.
In 1898, J.J. Thomson, proposed that atoms are
made up of smaller parts.
In 1911, Ernest Rutherford, proposed that atoms
have electrons and a positively charged nucleus.
18
Daltons Atomic Theory
  • All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are
    indivisible and indestructible.
  • 2) All atoms of a given element are identical in
    mass and properties
  • 3) Compounds are formed by a combination of two
    or more different kinds of atoms.
  • 4) A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of
    atoms.

19
  • Niels Bohrs model of the atom
  • Electrons revolved around the nucleus in circular
    paths called orbits.

20
Current Atomic Theory Electron Cloud Model
Electrons travel in regions of various
thicknesses called clouds.
21
  • ELEMENTS
  • DEFINITION PURE SUBSTANCES MADE OF ONLY 1 KIND
    OF ATOM.
  • ARE THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER.
  • CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN INTO A SIMPLER SUBSTANCE.
  • HAVE THEIR OWN UNIQUE SET OF PROPERTIES THAT NO
    OTHER ELEMENT HAS.

22
ELEMENTS
  • There are 92 naturally occurring elements on the
    periodic table. This means they are in nature
    and not made in a laboratory by scientists.
  • As of this year (2011) there are 118 confirmed
    elements. There are 4 more under investigation
    and scientific testing.

23
Lets Stop for Questions!
  • What type of atoms make up the element Lithium?
    Carbon? Sodium?

24
  • ELEMENTS ARE MADE OF ONLY 1 KIND OF ATOM.
  • SOME COMMON ELEMENTS
  • HYDROGEN (H), HELIUM (He), OXYGEN (0),
  • Notice that the first letter is capital and the
    next letter is lower case.

25
Atoms and Elements Activity
  • As a group, look at the food labels on the items
    at your table. Make a list of the items in the
    left hand side column and in the right hand side
    column make a list of any elements found in that
    substance.
  • You may use your periodic table to help you
    identify the elements.

26
The food item would be Cooked Ham
What are the elements that are found on this food
label?
27
QUESTIONS????
  • What are the most commonly occurring elements in
    the food labels?
  • What items seemed to have the most amount of
    elements in them?
  • Can you predict what that means about the food
    item?
  • Why do you think the baby formula has such a
    variety of elements?
  • Can you predict what the other items on the food
    label are if they are not elements?

28
Wrap UpUse your dry erase boards to write
answers and hold them high!!!
  • Protons have what charge?
  • Electrons have what charge?
  • Which parts of an atom make up the mass of the
    atom?
  • Elements are made up of?
  • The element lead is made up of what kind of atoms?

29
Periodic Table
  • The periodic table is an organized table of each
    element.
  • Each box gives information about each type of
    element found on Earth.

30
Dmitri Mendeleev (1869)
In 1869 Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer (Germany)
published nearly identical classification
schemes for elements known to date. The periodic
table is base on the similarity of properties and
reactivities exhibited by certain elements.
Later, Henri Moseley ( England,1887-1915)
established that each elements has a unique
atomic number, which is how the current periodic
table is organized.
http//www.chem.msu.su/eng/misc/mendeleev/welcome.
html
31
  • ELEMENTS ARE ORGANIZED IN THE PERIODIC TABLE
    ACCORDING TO ATOMIC NUMBER.

32
  • ELEMENTS ARE ORGANIZED IN THE PERIODIC TABLE OF
    ELEMENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR SIMILAR
    CHARACTERISTICS
  • 3 major groups metals, nonmetals and metalloids
  • See pg. 57 in book

33
Element Info in Each Box
Atomic weight Atomic Number Symbol Name
34

Information from the periodic table
Atomic Number- Number of Protons in an
atom Silver 47 protons
35
Iron- Fe (Ferrum)
Lead- Pb (Plumbum)
Elements their symbols SOME COMMON ELEMENTS
HYDROGEN (H), HELIUM (He), OXYGEN (0), Notice
that the first letter is capital and the next
letter is lower case.
Gold- Au (Aurum)
36
Arrangement of the Periodic table
Periods Rows are called periods. The elements
in these rows change conductivity and number of
electrons as you move across the table. Groups
Columns are called groups or families. These
elements have the same properties because of the
number of electrons.
37
How is the Periodic Table Organized?
Periods
Even though they skip some squares in between,
all of the rows go left to right. When you look
at a periodic table, each of the rows is
considered to be a different period
38
Across the Periodic Table
  • Periods Are arranged horizontally across the
    periodic table (rows 1-7)
  • These elements have the same number of valence
    shells.

2nd Period
6th Period
39
When a column goes from top to bottom, it's
called a group or family.
Groups
Groups are often called families because these
elements seem to be related.
Elements in the same group show similarities in
their chemical and physical properties.
40
Down the Periodic Table
  • Family Are arranged vertically down the periodic
    table (columns or group, 1- 18 or 1-8 A,B)
  • These elements have the same number electrons in
    the outer most shells, the valence shell.

41
Reading the Periodic Table Classification
  • Nonmetals, Metals, Metalloids, Noble gases

42
Infamous Families of the Periodic Table
  • Notable families of the Periodic Table and some
    important members

43
Alkali Group
  • -Group 1
  • -1 valence electron in outer shell
  • -very reactive with water other elements
  • -low densities melting points

44
Alkaline Earth Group
  • -Group 2
  • -2 valence electrons in outer shell
  • -very reactive but not as much as alkali
  • -denser, harder higher melting points

45
Transition Metals
  • -Groups 3-12
  • -Valence electrons vary
  • -Usually found combined with other elements
  • -higher melting points, good conductors

46
Halogen Group
  • -Group 17
  • -7 valence electrons in outer shell
  • -most combined to make salts (salt formers)
  • -most are non-metals

47
Noble Gas Group
  • -Group 18
  • -8 valence electrons in outer shell (the happy
    gases! ?)
  • -NOT REACTIVE

48
Periodic Table Metallic arrangement
  • Layout of the Periodic Table Metals vs.
    nonmetals

Nonmetals
Metals
49
Summary
  • Periodic Table Map of the Building block of
    matter
  • Type Metal, metalloid and Nonmetal
  • Groupings Representative or main, transition
    and Lanthanide/Actanides
  • Family Elements in the same column have similar
    chemical property because of similar valence
    electrons
  • Alkali, Alkaline, halogens, noble gases
  • Period Elements in the same row have valence
    electrons in the same shell.

50
The Periodic Table Of Elements
Elements are classified Metals Nonmetals Metal
loids
Xenon
Scandium
51
Properties of a metal
Good conductors conducts heat or
electricity Malleable - flattened Ductile can
be made into wires Shiny- you can see you
reflection
Gold
Iron
Magnesium
52
Properties of a Nonmetal
Not malleable cannot be flattened Not
shiny Poor conductors
Chlorine
Helium
Bromine
53
Properties of Metalloids
  • Semiconductors Average conductors
  • Shiny but brittle

Silicon
Arsenic
Boron
54
Sulfur
GOLD (AU)
Silver
55
ELEMENTS IN OUR BODIES
IODINE
56
  • 1.Oxygen (65)
  • 2.Carbon (18)
  • 3.Hydrogen (10)
  • 4.Nitrogen (3)
  • 5.Calcium (1.5)
  • 6.Phosphorus (1.0)
  • 7.Potassium (0.35)
  • 8.Sulfur (0.25)
  • 9.Sodium (0.15)
  • 10.Magnesium (0.05)
  • 11.Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Molybdenum, Fluorine,
    Chlorine, Iodine, Manganese, Cobalt, Iron (0.70)
  • 12.Lithium, Strontium, Aluminum, Silicon, Lead,
    Vanadium, Arsenic, Bromine (trace amounts)

99 of the mass of the human body is made up of
only six elements oxygen, carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus. Every organic
molecule contains carbon. Since 65-90 of each
body cell consists of water (by weight), it isn't
surprising that oxygen and hydrogen are major
components of the body
57
Elements in the body
Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen
Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium
Chlorine Magnesium Sulfur
58
GASES
FLUORINE
KRYPTON
NITROGEN
NEON
59
Atoms to Elements to ???
60
  • ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS ARE THE BASIC BUILDING
    BLOCKS OF MATTER
  • EACH ELEMENT COMPOUND HAS SPECIFIC PROPERTIES

61
COMPOUNDS ARE MADE OF 2 OR MORE DIFFERENT KINDS
OF ATOMS/Elements BONDED TOGETHER
62
COMPOUNDS ARE MADE OF 2 OR MORE DIFFERENT KINDS
OF ATOMS BONDED TOGETHER
63
Compounds
http//web.neo.edu/rjones/Pages/1014new/Lecture/ch
emistry/chapter_9/pages/chemical_bonds.html
64
  • COMPOUNDS ARE MADE OF 2 OR MORE DIFFERENT KINDS
    OF ATOMS BONDED TOGETHER
  • FOR A COMPOUND TO FORM, A CHEMICAL CHANGE MUST
    TAKE PLACE (A REACTION)
  • THE ELEMENTS THAT COMBINE MAKE A NEW SUBSTANCE
    WITH NEW PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
  • COMPOUNDS CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN PHYSICALLY.
    REQUIRES A CHEMICAL CHANGE
  • MORE COMMON THAN ELEMENTS

NaCl
TABLE SALT


65
  • COMPOUNDS ARE IDENTIFIED BY A CHEMICAL FORMULA
  • THE ELEMENTS THAT COMBINE TO MAKE THE COMPOUND
    CHANGE PROPERTIES

NaCl
TABLE SALT


66
Atomic Structure Chemical Bonds
  • Octet rule when atoms of elements react, they
    ten to lose, gain or share electrons to achieve
    the same electron arrangement as the noble gases.

67
3 Ways Elements Bond
  • Ionic loss or gain of electron (metal
    non-metal)
  • Metallic metal atoms share pooled electrons
  • (poolingelectrons gathered together)
  • Covalentsharing of electrons (non-metal elements)

68
Ionic
69
Covalent
  • Carbon forms lots of covalent bonds

70
Metallic
71
  • A way of writing how many atoms are in a compound.

72
Chemical Formulas
Written as C4H10 Butane
Written as CH4 Methane
73
how many total molecules
Subscripts how many atoms
74
  • FeO2
  • H2O
  • C6H12O6
  • 2Li 2O2

75
Chemical Changes Through Chemical Reactions
A chemical reaction Process in which the
physical and chemical properties of the original
substance(s) CHANGE as new substances with
different properties are formed.

76
A burning match is a good example of a chemical
reaction.
Application of a spark to the chemicals on the
match head start the chemical reaction.
Signs of a chemical change heat given off,
light given off, new substance formed black
material on the match head when the fire is
extinguished.
77
Parts of a Chemical Reaction
Reactants Substances that begins the chemical
reaction (chemicals on match head) Products
Substances produced in the reaction (black
material on match)
In other words REACTANTS CHANGE INTO PRODUCTS
78
(No Transcript)
79
CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
  • Chemical equations are symbols used to describe
    the details of a chemical reaction.
  • Shows how the reactants changed into the product.
  • This involves indicating all the atoms involved
    in the reaction.

Fe O2 FeO2
Arrow Means yields takes the place of an sign
Reactants Iron and oxygen
Product Ferrous oxide (rust)
Plus Sign Shows substances combine
80
Law of Conservation of Matter
Matter cannot be created or destroyed, it just
changes forms. The total mass of the reactants
must equal the total mass of the product.
81
Law of Conservation of Mass
Alka-Seltzer and Water
http//www.sky-web.net/science/balancing_chemical_
equations_examples.htm
82
Balancing Equations
  • The number of atoms of the reactants must equal
    the number of atoms in the product. (Law of
    Conservation of Matter)
  • Ex 2Na Cl2 -gt 2NaCl
  • 4P 5O2 -gt P4O10

83
Balancing Equations
  • Rules
  • Make sure that all atoms are equal on both sides.
  • You can only add coefficients.
  • Changing the subscripts will change the identity
    of the compound.
  • H2O H2O2
  • EX 2Na Cl2 -gt 2NaCl
  • H2 O2 -gt 2H2O
  • (Not balanced So)
  • 2H2 O2 -gt 2H2O

84
Balancing Chemical Equations
Hg O2 HgO H2 Cl
HCl Mg O2 MgO O2
H2 H2O CH4 O2
CO2 H2O Fe Cl2 FeCl3
85
Hg O2 HgO
86
H2 Cl HCl
87
Mg O2 MgO
88
O2 H2 H2O
89
Fe Cl2 FeCl3
90
CH4 O2 CO2 H2O
91
  • CAN YOU TELL WHICH IS A MOLECULE OF AN ELEMENT OR
    A COMPOUND? WHICH SHOWS AN ATOM?

92
  • MOLECULES ARE 2 OR MORE ATOMS ATTACHED TOGETHER
  • THEY CAN BE THE SAME KIND (ELEMENTS)
  • THEY CAN BE DIFFERENT KINDS (COMPOUNDS)

Examples H2O, NaCl.
93
Periodic Table electron behavior
  • The periodic table can be classified by the
    behavior of their electrons
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