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The Thirteen Colonies

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Title: The Thirteen Colonies


1
The Thirteen Colonies
  • Liberty School- American History 11th
  • Ms. Stephanie Custodio

2
  • The 13 colonies are divided into
  • The New England Colonies
  • The Middle Colonies
  • The Southern Colonies

3
The New England Colonies
  • New England is a region in the northeastern
    corner of the U.S.A., consisting of
  • 1.- New Hampshire
  • 2.- Massachusetts
  • 3.- Rhode Island
  • 4.- Connecticut

4
The New England Colonies Introduction
  • Pilgrims form England settled in New England in
    1620, to form Plymouth Colony.
  • Ten years later, the Puritans settled north of
    Plymouth in Boston, forming Massachusetts Bay
    Colony.
  • Over the next 130 years,
  • New England fought in
  • four French and Indian
  • Wars, until the British
  • defeated the French
  • and their native allies.

5
The New England Colonies Massachusetts
  • Puritans A religious group that wanted to reform
    the Church of England, different from the
    Pilgrims, who wanted to separate entirely from
    the Church.
  • They were a powerful group in England they were
    well-educated, merchants, landowners.

6
The New England Colonies Massachusetts
  • Reasons for leaving England
  • King Charles I disliked their religious ideas he
    took away many Puritan businesses, expelled
    Puritans from universities, a few were even
    jailed.
  • Some Puritan leaders decided that England had
    fallen into evil and declining times.
  • Economic reasons looking for land and new
    businesses.
  • In 1629, they convinced royal officials to grant
    the a charter to form the Massachusetts Bay
    Company, with the plan to build a new society in
    New England, based on the laws of God as they
    appeared in the Bible.

7
The New England Colonies Massachusetts
  • John Winthrop and other colonists arrived in
    1627. He was chosen as the first governor of the
    Massachusetts Bay Colony.
  • He set an example he worked as hard as anyone to
    build a home, clear land, and plant crops.
  • He tried to govern according to its charter only
    stockholders who had invested money had the right
    to vote. The rest resented taxes and laws passed
    by the government in which they had no say.

8
The New England Colonies Massachusetts
  • Puritans were determined to keep non-Puritans out
    of government, so they granted the right to vote
    for governor to all men who were Church members.
  • Later, Church members elected representatives to
    an assembly called the General Court.
  • The Great Migration Between 1629 and 1640, more
    than 20,000 men, women, and children journeyed
    from England to Massachusetts.
  • Boston became the colonys largest town.

9
The New England Colonies Connecticut
  • In May 1636, Thomas Hooker and a group of
    settlers left Massachusetts Bay, settled a long
    the Connecticut River, and built a town called
    Hartford.
  • He left Massachusetts Bay because he believed the
    governor and other officials had too much power.
    He wanted to set up a colony with laws that set
    strict limits to government.
  • The settlers wrote the
  • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
  • It gave the vote to all men who
  • were property owners, including the ones
  • that were not members of the Church.
  • It limited the governors power.
  • Connecticut became a separate colony in 1662,
    with a new charter granted by the king of England.

10
The New England Colonies Rhode Island
  • Roger Williams believed strongly that the Puritan
    Church had too much power in Massachusetts.
  • He believed that the business of the church and
    state should be completely separate.
  • Concern with political affairs would corrupt the
    church.
  • The role of the state was to maintain order and
    peace and should not support a particular church.
  • The Puritan leaders didnt have the right to
    force people to attend religious services.
  • He believed in religious toleration.

11
The New England Colonies Rhode Island
  • The Massachusetts General Court ordered Williams
    to leave the colony in 1635.
  • He escaped to Narragansett Bay, spending the
    winter with Indians, fearing he would be sent
    back to England.
  • In the spring, the Indians sold him land,
    becoming the colony of Rhode Island.
  • He allowed complete freedom of religion to Jews,
    Protestants, and Catholics.
  • He didnt set up a state church, or require
    settlers to attend church services.
  • He gave all white men the right to vote.

12
The New England Colonies Anne Hutchinson
  • Anne Hutchinson was a devout Puritan
  • who attended church services regularly in
  • Boston.
  • After church, she and her friends
  • gathered at her home to discuss the
  • ministers sermon, and often she
  • questioned some of the ministers
  • teachings. She was very persuasive,
  • neighbors flocked to her hear.
  • Puritan leaders grew angry, they believed her
    opinions were full of religious errors and that a
    woman didnt have the right to explain Gods law.
    She was ordered to appear before the
    Massachusetts General Court in November 1637.

13
The New England Colonies Anne Hutchinson
  • At her trial, Hurchinson answered the questions
    from Winthrop and other court members, and her
    answers revealed weaknesses in their arguments
    they couldnt prove she had broken Puritan laws
    or disobeyed religious teachings.
  • Hutchinson made a serious mistake she told the
    court that God had spoken directly to her by the
    voice of His own spirit to my soul. Puritans
    believed that God spoke only through the
    Bible, not directly to individuals.
  • -The Court ordered her out of the colony.
  • -Hutchinson, her family, and some friends
    went to Rhode Island.
  • -She became an important symnbol for
    religious freedom.

14
The New England Colonies Relations with Native
Americans
  • Some settlers built trading and fishing villages
    along the coast north of Boston, establishing the
    colony of New Hampshire.
  • Settlers toke over lands used by Native
    Americans. Fighting often broke our between
    settlers and Indians.
  • Largest conflict came in 1675 when the Wampanoag
    Indians and other Indian groups that allied to
    them, attacked colonial villages throughout New
    England.
  • Fighting lasted 15 months. At the end, Metacom,
    the Wampanoags chief, was captured and killed.
  • The English sold his family and other Indians
    into slavery in the West Indies.

15
The New England Colonies Lifestyle
  • New Englands Rocky soil was poor for farming.
  • They learned to grow Native American crops corn,
    bean, squash, pumpkins.
  • They hunted wild turkey, deer, hogs.
  • They collected the sweet sap from the maple
    trees.
  • They built ships from cut down
  • trees.
  • They fished for cod, halibut,
  • shellfish, oysters, lobsters,
  • whales (for oil and ivory)

16
The New England Colonies Lifestyle
  • Villages
  • At the center was the common an open field where
    cattle grazed.
  • The meeting house where Puritans worshipped and
    held town meetings.
  • Houses made of wood, steep roofs.
  • Customs
  • Sabbath- holy day of rest.
  • Sundays no one was allowed to play games, visit
    taverns to joke, talk, and drink. Law required
    all citizens to attend church services.
  • In town meetings they discussed what roads should
    be built, fences to repair, schoolmasters pay,
    etc.
  • Witchcraft was punished by death.
  • Average family had 7 or 8 children.

17
The Middle Colonies
  • The middle colonies comprised the middle region
    of the Thirteen Colonies of the British Empire in
    North America.
  • 1.-New York
  • 2.-Pennsylvania
  • 3.-New Jersey
  • 4.-Delaware

18
The Middle Colonies
  • Much of the area was part of the NEW NETHERLAND
    until the British exerted control over the
    region.
  • The British captured much of the area in its war
    with the Dutch around 1664, and the majority of
    the conquered land became the Province of New
    York.
  • The Middle Colonies had rich soil, allowing the
    area to become a major exporter of wheat and
    other grains.

19
The Middle Colonies New York
  • Patroons owners of large parcels of lands, or
    manors.
  • Dutch officials granted the land to patroons. In
    return, they promised to settle at least 50
    European farm families on the land.
  • Patroons had great power, they charged whatever
    rents they pleased, few farmers wanted to work
    with them.

20
The Middle Colonies New York
  • Many people came to the colony attracted by
    religious tolerance, although most were
    Protestants, who belonged to the Dutch Reformed
    Church.
  • They allowed people from other religions
    (Catholics, French Protestants, and Jews) to buy
    land.
  • The rivalry between England and the Netherlands
    for trade and colonies led to war in Europe in
    1664.
  • King Charles II of England entered New
    Amsterdams harbor, took over the city, and gave
    it to his brother, the Duke of York.
  • The king renamed the colony New York.

21
The Middle Colonies New Jersey
  • The Duke of York realized New York was too big to
    govern. He gave some of the land to his friends
    Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, and set up
    a proprietary colony New Jersey.
  • Proprietary colony the king gave land to one or
    more people, called proprietors, which were free
    to divide the land and rent it to others.
  • They made laws for the colony but had to respect
    the rights of colonists under English law.

22
The Middle Colonies New Jersey
  • New Jersey attracted people from many lands
    English Puritans, French Protestants, Scots,
    Irish, Swedes, Dutch, and Finns.
  • In 1702, it became a royal colony under the
    control of the English crown.
  • The colonys charter protected religious freedom
    and the rights of an assembly that voted on local
    matters.

23
The Middle Colonies Pennsylvania
  • William Penn founded the colony of Pennsylvania.
  • He came from a wealthy family, he was a personal
  • friend of King Charles II.
  • At age 22 he shocked his family and friends by
    joining the Quakers.
  • Quaker beliefs
  • Were Protestant reformers.
  • They believed that all people (men, women,
    nobles, and commoners) were equal in Gods sight.
  • They refused to bow or remove their hats in the
    presence of lords and ladies.
  • They spoke out against war and refused to serve
    in the army.
  • In England, Quakers were arrested, fined, and
    even hanged for their beliefs.

24
The Middle Colonies Pennsylvania
  • Penn became convinced that Quakers should leave
    England, and turned for help to King Charles.
  • The king made Penn the proprietor of a large
    tract of land in North America, and named the new
    colony Pennsylvania (Penns woodlands).
  • Penn thought of his colony as a holy
    experiment
  • He wanted it to be a model of religious freedom,
    peace, and Christian living.
  • Protestants, Catholics, and Jews went to
    Pennsylvania to escape persecution, but later,
    English officials forced Penn to turn them away.

25
The Middle Colonies Pennsylvania
  • Penn spoke out for fair treatment of Native
    Americans.
  • He believed that the land belonged to the Indians
    and that settlers should pay for the land.
  • Native Americans respected Penns policy.
  • As a result, Pennsylvania enjoyed many years of
    peace with their Indian neighbors.
  • Penn sent pamphlet to Europe, describing his
    colony.
  • New settlers from England, Scotland, Wales,
    Netherlands, France, Germany. German-speaking
    Protestants were later known as Pennsylvania
    Dutch.
  • Philadelphia was the colonys capital, along the
    Delaware River.

26
The Middle Colonies Delaware
  • Pennsylvania included some lands along the lower
    Delaware River, known as Pennsylvanias Lower
    Counties.
  • Settlers in the Lower Counties didnt want to
    send its delegates to a far-away assembly in
    Philadelphia.
  • In 1701, Penn allowed them to elect their own
    assembly.
  • Later, the Lower Counties broke away to form the
    colony of Delaware.

27
The Middle Colonies Lifestyle
  • The Hudson and Delaware River Valleys were rich
    and fertile.
  • Winters were milder than in New England, the
    growing season lasted longer.
  • Cash crops crops sold for money on the world
    market- wheat, barley, and rye.
  • The Middle Colonies became known as the
    Breadbasket colonies for exporting so much grain.
  • Farmers also raised herds of cattle and pigs.
  • They sent tons of beef, pork, and
  • butter to New England, South or West
  • Indies, England, and other parts
  • of Europe.
  • The colony became a center of
  • manufacturing and crafts hardware,
  • clocks, watches, locks, guns, flints,
  • glass, stoneware, nails, paper, etc.

28
The Middle Colonies Lifestyle
  • Home improvements
  • Swedish introduced long cabins to America.
  • The Dutch used red bricks to build narrow,
    high-walled houses.
  • Germans developed a wood-burning stove that
    heated a home better than a fireplace.
  • Backcountry area of land along the eastern
    slopes of the Appalachian Mountains.
  • German and Sctoch-Irish settlers arrived and
    settled in these area, following an old Iroquois
    trail known as the Great Wagon Road.
  • They had to clear thick forests to farm the
    backcountry.
  • Settlers learned from the Indians
  • How to use knots from pine trees as
  • candles to light their homes.
  • Wooden dishes from logs.
  • Gathered honey from hollows in trees.
  • Hunted wild animals for food.

29
The Southern Colonies
  • The Southern Colonies were established during the
    16th and 17th centuries and consisted of
  • 1.-South Carolina
  • 2.-North Carolina
  • 3.-Maryland
  • 4.-Virginia
  • 5.-Georgia

30
The Southern Colonies
  • Over time, the region quickly became well known
    for its high slave population and highly
    stratified class distribution.
  • The Mason-Dixon Line was the boundary between
    Pennsylvania and Maryland, and between the Middle
    and Southern colonies.

31
The Southern ColoniesMaryland
  • In 1632, Sir George Calvert convinced King
    Charles I to grant him land for a colony in the
    Americas.
  • He planned to build a colony, Maryland, where
    Catholics could practice their religion freely.
  • When he died, his son Cecil, Lord Baltimore,
    pushed on with the project, becoming the
    proprietor of the colony.

32
The Southern ColoniesMaryland
  • In the spring of 1664, 200 colonists landed along
    the upper Chesapeake Bay, across from the
    southern colony of Virginia.
  • Chesapeake Bay was full of fish, oysters, and
    crabs.
  • Virginians were already growing tobacco for
    profit, Maryland settlers hoped to do the same.
  • First town built St. Marys
  • He appointed a governor
  • and a council of advisors.
  • He created an elected
  • assembly, giving colonists a
  • role in the government.

33
The Southern ColoniesMaryland
  • Lord Baltimore made generous land grants to
    anyone who brought over servants, women, and
    children.
  • A few women took advantage of this offer two
    sisters, Margaret and Mary Brent, arrived in 1638
    with nine male servants.
  • They set up two plantations, 1,000 acres each.
  • Margaret Brent prevented a rebellion among the
    governors soldiers.
  • The colonys assembly praised her efforts the
    colonys safety at any time was better in her
    hands than in any mans.
  • Act of Toleration act that provided religious
    freedom for all Christians.
  • It ensured Marylands continued growth.

34
The Southern ColoniesVirginia
  • Many settlers had gone to Virginia lured by the
    promise of profits from tobacco.
  • Wealthy planters tool the best lands near the
    coast newcomers had to push inland, onto Indian
    lands.
  • Conflict over land led to fighting between
    settlers and Indians
  • Indians and white leaders often met to restore
    peace.
  • New settlers continued to press inland, Indians
    continued to attack the frontier plantations.
  • After several bloody clashes, settlers called on
    the governor to take actions against Native
    Americans.
  • The governor refused, he profited from his own
    fur trade with Indians.
  • Frontier settlers were furious.

35
The Southern ColoniesVirginia
  • Bacons Rebellion
  • Nathaniel Bacon was a young, ambitious planter.
  • He organized angry men and women on the frontier,
    and raided Native American villages.
  • Then he led his followers to Jamestown and burned
    the capital.
  • Bacon died suddenly, the revolt fell apart.
  • The governor hanged 23 of Bacons followers, but
    still couldnt stop English settlers from moving
    onto Indian lands along the frontier.

36
The Southern ColoniesThe Carolinas
  • To the north, settlers were mostly poor tobacco
    farmers, with small farms, who had drifted from
    Virginia.
  • To the south, 8 English nobles
  • set up a larger colony.
  • They received a land grant as
  • proprietors, from King Charles II.
  • Charles Town was the largest
  • settlement, later shortened to Charleston.
  • Most settlers in Charleston came from Barbados,
    the English colony in the Caribbean.
  • Other immigrants arrived later Germans, Swiss,
    French Protestants, Spanish Jews.

37
The Southern ColoniesThe Carolinas
  • Rice grew well in the swampy lowlands along the
    coast.
  • Rice was a valuable crop traded around the world.
  • Carolina needed a large number of workers to grow
    rice.
  • They tried to enslave local Indians, but many
    died of disease or mistreatment and others
    escaped into the forests.
  • Planters turned to slaves from Africa, who were
    brought against their will.
  • North Carolina had fewer slaves. Differences
    between
  • the two areas led to the
  • division of the colony into
  • North Carolina and South
  • Carolina in 1712.

38
The Southern ColoniesGeorgia
  • James Oglethorpe- respected soldier and energetic
    reformer- founded Georgia in 1732
  • He wanted the colony to be a place where people
    jailed for debt in England could make a new
    start.
  • English government could imprison debtors until
    they paid what they owned.
  • When they got out of jail they often had no money
    and no place to live.
  • Oglethorpe and 120 colonists built the colonys
    first settlement Savannah.
  • Colonys rules
  • Farms could be no bigger than 50 acres
  • Slavery was forbidden
  • Later, Oglethorpe changed the rules to allow
    larger plantations and slavery, making the colony
    grow quickly.

39
The Southern ColoniesPlantation Life
  • The Southern Colonies enjoyed warmer weather and
    a longer growing season than the colonies to the
    north.
  • Virginia, Maryland, parts of North Carolina
    tobacco-growing areas.
  • South Carolina and Georgia raised rice and
    indigo (blue dye).
  • Colonists found that it was most profitable to
    raise crops in large plantations with slaves.
  • Most slaves worked in the fields.
  • Some were skilled workers carpenters,
    barrelmakers, blacksmiths.
  • Some worked as cooks, servants, housekeepers.

40
The Southern ColoniesPlantation Life
  • Location
  • Tide-Water region along the coastal plain with
    an area of low land that stretched like fingers
    among broad rivers and creeks.
  • It offered rich farmland for plantations.
  • They could have their own docks, and merchant
    ships picked crops and delivered goods directly
    to them.
  • Inland, planters settled along rivers.
  • They provided an easy way to move goods to
    market.
  • Planters loaded their crops on ships bound to the
    West Indies and Europe.
  • On the return trip, ships carried English goods
    and luxuries for planters and their families.

41
The Southern ColoniesPlantation Life
  • Only a small percentage of white southerners
    owned large plantations, yet they set the style
    of life in the South.
  • Life centered around the Great House, where the
    planter and his family lived the grandest of
    these houses had
  • Elegant quarters for the family
  • A parlor for visitors
  • Dining room
  • Guest bedrooms
  • In the growing season, planters
  • decided what crops to grow, when
  • to harvest, and when to take them
  • to market.
  • Planters wives ran the household, directed house
    slaves, and made sure daily tasks were done.

42
The Southern ColoniesThe Backcountry
  • West of the Tidewater was an area of hills and
    thick forests at the base of the Appalachians,
    called the backcountry, just as in the Middle
    Colonies.
  • It was more democratic than the Tidewater
  • Settlers treated one another as equals.
  • Men worked in their tobacco or corn fields, or
    hunted game.
  • Women cooked meals and fashioned clothing out of
    wool and deerskin.
  • Hardships brought families together
  • Families gathered to husk corn or help
  • one another raise barns.
  • Families felled trees, grew crops,
  • changed the face of the land.

43
The Southern ColoniesGrowth of Slavery
  • First Africans in the colonies
  • included free people, servants,
  • and slaves even the enslaved
  • enjoyed some freedom.
  • Slaves on plantations
  • Used farming skills they had brought from West
    Africa.
  • They showed English settlers to grow rice.
  • They knew how to use wild plants unfamiliar to
    the English
  • Made water buckets out of gourds.
  • Used palmetto leaves to make fans, brooms,
    baskets.
  • They cleared the land
  • Worked on crops
  • Tended livestock.

44
The Southern ColoniesGrowth of Slavery
  • To control the large number of slaves, colonists
    passed slave codes.
  • They set out rules for slaves behavior and
    denied slaves their basic rights.
  • Slaves were not seen as humans, but as property.
  • Most English colonists believed that black
    Africans were inferior to White Europeans.
    (racism)
  • Some colonists believed they helped slaves by
    introducing them to Christianity.
  • Quakers in Germantown, Pennsylvania became the
    first group of colonists to call for an end to
    slavery in 1688.

45
The Southern ColoniesThe Slave Trade
  • European slave traders set up posts along the
    African coasts.
  • They offered guns and other goods to African
    rulers who brought them slaves.
  • Most slave ships went to Brazil and the
    Caribbean.
  • The trip from Africa to the Americas was called
    the Middle Passage
  • Slaves were crammed into small spaces below deck.
  • Once or twice a day, the crew allowed the
    captives up on deck to eat and exercise.
  • Some Africans fought for their freedom during the
    trip, others refused to eat.
  • Records of slave voyages show that about 10 of
    all Africans shipped didnt survive the Middle
    Passage.

46
Roots of Self-Government
  • Mercantilism theory that a nation became strong
    by keeping strict control over its trade.
  • Mercantilists thought that a country should
    export more than it imported.
  • Exports good sent to markets outside a country.
  • Imports goods brought into a country.
  • If England sold more goods abroad, gold would
    flow into the home country as payment for those
    exports.

47
Roots of Self-Government
  • Navigation Acts
  • Acts passed by the English Parliament in the
    1650s that regulated trade between England and
    its colonies.
  • Purpose ensure that only England benefited from
    colonial trade.
  • Under these laws
  • Only colonial or English ships could carry goods
    to and from the colonies.
  • They listed certain products that colonial
    merchants could ship only to England (tobacco and
    cotton)
  • Benefits
  • Law encouraged colonists to build their own
    ships.
  • New England became a prosperous shipbuilding
    center.
  • Colonial merchants did not have to compete with
    foreign merchants because they were sure of
    having a market for their goods in England.

48
Roots of Self-GovernmentTrade in Rum and Slaves
  • Yankees merchants from New England
  • They dominated colonial trade.
  • Were clever and hardworking, earned a reputation
    for profiting from any deal.
  • Triangular Trade a route developed by colonial
    merchants with its three legs forming a triangle.
  • First leg ships from New England carried fish,
    lumber, and other goods to the West Indies.
    Yankees bought sugar and molasses (syrup from
    sugar cane), and made rum back in New England.
  • Second leg ships carried rum, guns, gunpowder,
    cloth, and tools from New England to West Africa.
    In Africa these goods were traded for slaves.
  • Third leg ships carried enslaved Africans to the
    West Indies. With the profits from selling them,
    traders bought more molasses.

49
Roots of Self-GovernmentTrade in Rum and Slaves
  • Many New England merchants grew wealthy from the
    triangular trade, often disobeying the Navigation
    Acts.
  • Traders were supposed to buy sugar and molasses
    only from English colonies in the West Indies.
  • The demand for molasses was so high that New
    Englanders smuggled in cargoes from the Dutch,
    French, and Spanish West Indies.
  • Bribes made customs officials look other way.

50
Roots of Self-GovernmentColonial Government
  • A governor directed the colonys affairs and
    enforced the laws.
  • They were appointed by the king or by the
    colonys proprietor.
  • In Connecticut and Rhode Island the colonists
    elected their own governors.
  • Each colony had a legislature- a group of people
    who have the power to make laws.
  • It had an upper house (made of advisers appointed
    by the governor) and a lower house (an elected
    assembly).
  • It approved laws and protected the rights of
  • citizens.
  • It had the right to approve any taxes the
  • governor asked for. (power of the purse-
  • governors right to raise or spend money)
  • Any governor who ignored the assembly
  • risked losing his salary.

51
Roots of Self-GovernmentColonial Government
  • Each colony had its own rules about who could
    vote.
  • By the 1720s all the colonies had laws that
    restricted the right to vote to white Christian
    men over the age of 21.
  • In some colonies, only Protestants or members of
    a particular Church could vote.
  • All voters had to own property- they believed
    they knew what was best for a colony.

52
Roots of Self-GovernmentColonial Government
  • Colonists valued their elected assembly and the
    rights the Magna Carta gave them as English
    subjects.
  • Colonists won more rights as a result of the
    Glorious Revolution of 1688.
  • Parliament removed King James II from the throne
    and asked William and Mary of Netherlands to
    rule.
  • William and Mary signed the Bill of Rights in
    1689 in return for Parliaments support- a
    written list of freedoms the government promises
    to protect.
  • The English Bill of Rights
  • Protected the rights of individuals.
  • Gave anyone accused of a crime the
  • right to trial by jury.
  • Said that a ruler could not raise taxes or an
    army without the approval of the Parliament.

53
Roots of Self-GovernmentLimits on Liberties
  • English colonists enjoyed more freedoms than the
    English themselves, but the English citizens
    rights didnt extend to all colonists.
  • Rights of women
  • Women had more rights in the colonies.
  • A womans father or husband was supposed
  • to protect her.
  • A married woman could not start her own
  • business or sign a contract unless her husband
    approved it.
  • Unmarried women and widows had more rights than
    married women
  • They could make contracts and sue in court.
  • In Maryland and the Carolinas, women settlers who
    headed families could buy land on the same terms
    as men.
  • Africans and Native Americans had almost no
    rights
  • Most Africans were bound in slavery
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