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History 247-20th Century Africa

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History 247-20th Century Africa Where settlers were many the road to independence was soaked in blood. [B Davidson, Modern Africa, p. 148] – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History 247-20th Century Africa


1
History 247-20th Century Africa
  • Where settlers were many the road to
    independence was soaked in blood.
  • B Davidson, Modern Africa,
  • p. 148
  • there is something else you should bear in mind
    and that is You cannot serve two masters.
  • from letter from Mau Mau fighters to teacher
    Karai Njama, cited B Freund, Contemporary Africa,
    p. 167

2
Nationalism settler societies
  • Four Case Studies
  • Kenya
  • Rhodesia
  • Congo
  • South Africa
  • Post World War II Environment impact no less
    than in West Africa but settler factor
    significant in shaping that impact

3
Settler Societies Whose Africa?
  • Shared characteristics (to varying degrees)
  • - significant number of European settlers
  • - some degree of self-government in hands of
    settlers
  • - continuing tension between settler and
    colonial governments

4
Settler Societies Whose Africa?
  • - tension within colonial government as to
    priorities settler or African interests?
  • - local racism, segregation discrimination in
    law and in custom
  • - local tension both between Africans and
    Settlers, and between different groups of
    Africans (ethinic or tribal
    conflicts/competition)

5
Settler Societies East, Central, South
  • All were regions of potential mineral and
    agricultural wealth with attractive climates.
  • - since late 19th century, attracting large
    numbers of European settlers.
  • Post WWII - new population influxes into most
    of these regions. - seeking opportunity outside
    of warn- torn, impoverished Europe - clashed
    with expectations/demands Africans

6
Settler Societies East Central
  • Colonies made attempts 1930s to unify in order to
    consolidate white power
  • - East (Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda) failed
  • - Central (Northern and Southern Rhodesia,
    Nyasaland) failed
  • - second attempt 1953 successful (Central
    African Federation endured until 1963)

7
Settler Societies
  • Histories interconnected, especially in post-war
    era. - each characterized by
  • - strong resistance by settler community
  • - African political action evolving from
    non-violence into violence
  • - protracted (civil) war
  • - legacies of war (both military and civil)
    affecting nature of post- independence society

8
Settler Societies Whose Nation?
  • Conceptualizing the nation- for Europeans
    in settler colonies, nation implied freedom
    from Europe, but continued domination over
    Africans Belgians an exception in that they did
    not seek autonomy at all

9
Settler Societies Whose Nation?
  • Conceptualizing the nation- For Africans
    in settler colonies, options very different
    from their colleagues in West Africa - no
    political voice, little opportunity for
    negotiating with Europe
  • - no option to conceptualize let alone create
    a nation.

10
Settler Societies Whose Nation?
  • Case Study 1KenyaVideo ExcerptBasil Davidson
  • The Rise of Nationalism

11
Kenya
  • As in West Africa, post-WWII era saw liberalizing
    of restrictions on African political and union
    activities both flourished in Kenya
  • -union activities saw large strikes 1947-50
  • Kenya African Union (KAU) formed in 1946
    (initially led by Harry Thuku of former Young
    Kikuyu Association)

12
Kenya
  • needed more modern, less ethnically based
    leadership
  • Jomo Kenyatta returned from 17 years in England
  • among same group that produced West Africas
    politically active educated elite (Nkrumah,
    Azikiwe etc)- participated (with Nkrumah and
    others) in Pan-Africanist Congress UK, 1945

13
Jomo Kenyatta
14
Kenya
  • Kenyatta as leader of KAU toured country,
    attempting to
  • - politicize and attract members - overcome
    ethnic divisions
  • - gain support of disadvantaged groups
  • - create political base
  • Ultimate Goal to negotiate with settlers

15
Kenya
  • Settlers refused to negotiate (1950), resulting
    in - sporadic clashes, increasing violence -
    KAU leaders arrested (including
    Kenyatta) -1000s fleeing to hills and forests
    - creating Land and Freedom Army (Mau Mau
    as known to the British)
  • 1952 State of Emergency Declared

16
Settler Societies whose nation?
  • Case Study 2Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)Video
    ExcerptBasil DavidsonThe Rise of Nationalism

17
Rhodesia
  • Southern Rhodesia in 1923 virtually
    self-governed
  • -best land reserved for Europeans
  • -Africans taxed off the land to work for
    settlers and in mines Africans had no political
    rights
  • - Africans educated to be Africans, i.e., to
    serve Europeans

18
Rhodesia
Land Apportionment, 1970(below)
Land Apportionment, 1930(above)
Land Reserve System
19
Rhodesia
EducationAfricans given clear sense of where
they belonged
20
Rhodesia
  • Post WWII- emerged strong economically (import
    substitution industry cash-crops)
  • - dominated Central African Federation from 1953
    (milked Northern Rhodesia through taxes)

21
Rhodesia
  • Post WWII- links with South Africa strong
  • legacy Rhodes Pioneer Column, mining interests
  • cultural similarities

22
Rhodesia
  • Political movements continued to build throughout
    Federation era (1953-63) - political
    activities in North, Nyasaland supported by
    Britain - independence 1963-64 ( Zambia,
    Malawi) - Southern Rhodesia left to negotiate
    with Colonial government -Britain refused to
    grant independence until Black majority rule
    agreed to

23
Rhodesia
  • 1961 compromise constitution - awarded
    Africans small role in government - pleased
    neither Africans nor Settlers - emergence
    strong, right wing group led by Ian Smith
    (supported and encouraged by South Africa) -
    continued to demand full independence Britain
    continued to refuse -1965 Smith announced
    Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI)

24
Rhodesia
  • UDI couched in terms of freedom
  • In the course of human affairs, history has
    shown that it may become necessary for a people
    to resolve the political affiliations which have
    connected them with another people, and to assume
    amongst other nations a separate and equal status
    to which they are entitled Ian Smith, 11 Nov.
    1965
  • listen audio Ian Smith South Africa- clinging
    on http//www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/specials/162
    4_story_of_africa/page30.shtml
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