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Title: HUMAN ANATOMY Lecture 2 Anatomical Directions and Gross Anatomical Structures


1
HUMAN ANATOMYLecture 2Anatomical Directions and
Gross Anatomical Structures
  • Southern Boone County Schools
  • Bill Palmer

2
Human Anatomy
  • There are several basic terms you need to know to
    get started in anatomy. These terms are used to
    describe how anatomical structures are positioned
    in relationship to each other.
  • Hint They generally occur in pairs and if you
    learn one then it is easier to learn the other.

3
Human Anatomy-Position
  • Standard Anatomical Position
  • Stand erect
  • Feet slightly apart
  • Head and toes pointed forward
  • Arms at sides
  • Palms facing forward
  • Q Is this comfortable?

4
Human Anatomy-Position
5
Human Anatomy-Directions
  • Right/Left-The subjects Right and left
  • Anterior/Posterior-Front/Back
  • Medial/Lateral-Toward the middle/away from the
    middle
  • Cephalad (cranial)/Caudal-Toward the head/toward
    the butt
  • Dorsal/Ventral-Toward the back/toward the belly
  • Superior/Inferior-Above/below

6
Human Anatomy-Directions
  • Deep-moving toward the middle of the specimen
  • Superficial-moving away from the middle of the
    specimen
  • Radial-Toward the thumbs
  • Ulnar-Toward the little finger
  • Palmar-toward the palm side

7
Human Anatomy-Body Planes
  • A Plane is how a specimen is sliced. 3 main types
  • Transverse Plane-a plane dividing a standing
    person into an upper and lower parts (belt)
  • Frontal Plane (coronal)-a plane that divides a
    standing person into dorsal and ventral parts
  • Sagittal Plane-a plane that divides a standing
    person into right and left parts
  • Midsaggital Plane-a plane that divides a standing
    person into EQUAL right and left parts

8
Human Anatomy-Body Planes
9
Human Anatomy-Landmarks
  • Antebrachial-Forearm
  • Antecubital-Anterior of elbow
  • Axillary-Armpit
  • Brachial-Arm
  • Buccal-Mouth
  • Carpal-Wrist
  • Cervical-neck
  • Coxal-Hip
  • Crural-Leg
  • Digital-Fingers, Toes
  • Femoral-Thigh
  • Frontal-Forehead
  • Hallux-Great (Big) Toe
  • Inguinal-Groin

10
Human Anatomy-Landmarks
  • Mammary-Breast
  • Mental-Chin
  • Nasal-Nose
  • Oral-Mouth
  • Orbital-Eye Socket
  • Palmar-Palm of hand
  • Patellar-Anterior knee
  • Pedal-foot
  • Pelvic-Pelvis
  • Fibular-Side of leg
  • Pollex-Thumb
  • Pubic-Genital Region
  • Sternal-Breastbone
  • Tarsal-Ankle
  • Thoracic-Chest
  • Umbillical-Navel

11
Human Anatomy-Landmarks
  • Acrominial-Point of Shoulder
  • Brachial-Arm
  • Calcaneal-Heel of foot
  • Cephalic-Head
  • Dorsum-Back
  • Femoral-Thigh
  • Gluteal-Buttocks
  • Lumbar-Small of back
  • Manus-Hand
  • Occipital-posterior of skull
  • Olecranal-posterior of elbow
  • Otic-Ear
  • Perineal-area between anus and genitals

12
Human Anatomy-Landmarks
  • Plantar-Sole of foot
  • Popliteal-Back of knee
  • Sacral-Between the hips
  • Scapular-shoulder blade
  • Sural-posterior of calf of leg
  • Vertebral-near the spinal column

13
Human AnatomyAbdominopelvic Regions
  • Umbilical Region-Centermost
  • Epigastric Region-Above center
  • Hypogastric Region-Below Center
  • Iliac Region-Lower Right and Left
  • Lumbar Region-Center Right and Left
  • Hypochondriac Region-Upper Right and Left

14
Human AnatomyAbdominopelvic Regions
15
Human AnatomyBody Cavities
  • Dorsal Body Cavity-Brain and Spine
  • Cranial Cavity-Brain
  • Spinal Cavity-Spine
  • Ventral Body Cavity-Chest and Abdomen
  • Thoracic Cavity-Chest
  • Abdominopelvic Cavity-Gut
  • Abdominal Cavity-Stomach Intestines
  • Pelvic Cavity-Reproductive organs, Bladder, rectum

16
Human AnatomyBody Cavities
  • Oral Cavity-Mouth
  • Nasal Cavity-Nose
  • Orbital Cavity-Eye
  • Middle Ear Cavity-Internal Ear
  • Synovial Cavity-Joints

17
Human AnatomyBody Cavities
18
Human AnatomyWrap Ups
  1. The wrist is _____ to the hand.
  2. The brain is _____ to the spinal cord.
  3. The thumb is ______ to the ring finger.
  4. The skin is _____ to the skeleton.
  5. Name two organs found in the left hypochondriac
    region.

19
Human AnatomyWrap Ups
  1. A patient presents with severe pain in the right
    iliac region. What might it be?
  2. What organ of the pelvic cavity is sectioned
    equally by the midsagittal section?
  3. What cavity contains the brain?
  4. The knee joint is what type of body cavity?
  5. What is the most uncomfortable part of the
    standard anatomical position?
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