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What Teachers Need To Know About Autism

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What Teachers Need To Know About Autism Ilene Schwartz, Ph.D Ivy Chung, M.Ed Ilene_at_uw.edu ivychung_at_me.com University of Washington, Seattle – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What Teachers Need To Know About Autism


1
What Teachers Need To Know About Autism
  • Ilene Schwartz, Ph.D
  • Ivy Chung, M.Ed
  • Ilene_at_uw.edu
  • ivychung_at_me.com
  • University of Washington, Seattle

2
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
  • Also known as Pervasive Developmental Disorders
    (PDD)
  • Neurological and developmental disorder
  • Include
  • Autism
  • Aspergers Syndrome
  • Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise
    Specified (PDD-NOS)
  • Retts Syndrome
  • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

3
What is Autism
  • Qualitative impairment in social interaction,
    communication, and restricted/repetitive/stereotyp
    ed patterns of behaviors, interests, and
    activities
  • Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of
    the following areas with an onset prior to age 3
    years
  • Social interaction
  • Social communication
  • Symbolic or imaginative play

4
Social Interaction Deficits
  • Lack of use of nonverbal behaviors
  • Limited interest in social games
  • Limited or lack of interest in engaging in
    interaction with others
  • Lack of joint attention
  • Difficulty developing peer relationships
    appropriate to developmental level

5
Communication Deficits
  • Delay in, or total lack of language development
  • Lack of initiating, and difficulties sustaining
    conversation with others
  • Idiosyncratic language
  • Echolalia
  • Inappropriate display and lack of understanding
    of body language
  • Lack of imaginative play

6
Repetitive Behaviors
  • Intense preoccupation with parts of objects or
    certain activities
  • Inflexibility to changes in routines
  • Narrowed, restricted interests in certain
    topics/activities
  • Repetitive motor mannerisms

7
Other Related Symptoms
  • Over-reactivity or Under-reactivity to sensory
    inputs
  • Difficulties in emotion regulation
  • Hyperactivity
  • Short attention span
  • Motor problems

8
Autism
  • Prevalence 1 in 110 (Centers for Disease Control
    and Prevention, 2009)
  • 4x more likely in boys than in girls
  • Genetic link
  • Most children with ASD also has Intellectual
    Disability

9
What is Aspergers Syndrome?
  • No delay in cognitive development
  • No significant delay in language development
  • Qualitative impairment in social interactions
  • Restricted/repetitive/stereotyped patterns of
    behavior, interests and activities

10
Some Learning Characteristics
11
Cognition
  • Over-selectivity
  • Visual learner
  • Focused attention
  • Rote memory
  • Concrete processing

12
Language Communication
  • Long processing time
  • Perseverative interactions
  • Difficulty with social communication
  • Limited modes of communication
  • Inappropriate language pragmatic skill and
    grammar

13
Social Interactions
  • Some functional play
  • Lack of imaginary or symbolic play
  • Difficulty recognizing emotional states of self
    and others
  • Lack of spontaneity in social interactions
  • Passive

14
Autism is a collection of overlapping groups of
symptoms that vary from child to child Siegel,
1996, p.301
15
Young children with autism
  • Are children first
  • Have diverse strengths and needs
  • Most often need explicit instruction across
    curricular domains
  • May be gifted academically or have mental
    retardation
  • Will need specialized instruction in social
    skills and communication

16
Components of an Effective Program (Dawson
Osterling, 1997)
  • Appropriate curriculum including attending,
    imitation, communication, play, and social
    interaction.
  • Highly supportive teaching environment and
    generalization strategies.
  • Predictability and routine.
  • Functional approach to challenging behavior.
  • Transition support
  • Family involvement

17
Educating Children with Autism
  • National Research Council, 2001
  • Report was developed at OSEPs request

18
Characteristics of Effective Programs
  • Entry into program as soon as ASD is seriously
    considered
  • Active programming 25 hours a week, year round
  • Small group and 11 programming
  • Family component
  • Low student/teacher ratios (no more than 2
    children with ASD per adult in classroom
  • Program evaluation and assessment

19
Content of Programs should include
  • Social skills
  • Expressive, receptive, and non verbal
    communication skills
  • Functional communication system
  • Engagement and flexibility in developmentally
    appropriate activities
  • Fine and gross motor skills

20
Content (continued)
  • Cognitive skills, including play
  • Replacement of problem behaviors with socially
    acceptable alternatives
  • Independent organizational skills and other
    behaviors that support participation in general
    education settings

21
Structural Base to Effective Programs
  • Appropriate curriculum and learning environments
  • Frequent reinforcement and effective motivational
    systems
  • Functional communication systems
  • Prevention-focused behavior intervention system

22
Need to consider
  • What the activity is
  • What your objective is -- that is what are you
    trying to teach
  • What you are teaching the child with
    disabilities, may be different than what you are
    expecting the rest of the class to learn

23
Appropriate Curriculum Content
  • Age appropriate and developmentally appropriate
  • Important to family
  • Addresses strengths and weaknesses
  • Considers general education curriculum
  • Scope and sequence across domains

24
Supportive teaching environments
  • Uses evidence-based instructional practices
  • Uses data-based decision making
  • Staff have appropriate training
  • Staff had adequate support and consultation
  • Instruction is explicit
  • Generalization is planned for facilitated

25
Predictability and Routine
  • Uses schedules to help students be more
    independent
  • Teach students how to deal with changes to
    schedules and routine
  • Be careful not to make students more rigid
  • Use visual supports to teach and facilitate
    independence
  • Use technology as appropriate

26
Functional Approach to Behavior Problems
  • PBS
  • FBA
  • Teach alternatives
  • Prevention is the best solution
  • Need to understand what is motivating and
    maintaining the inappropriate behavior
  • Remember to consider context

27
Transition Support
  • Sending programs
  • Receiving programs
  • Family
  • Student

28
Family Involvement
  • Information
  • Communication
  • Support
  • Share the data

29
What common elements exist?
  • Individualization
  • Sufficient intensity to result in meaningful
    outcomes toward important outcomes.
  • Data-based decision making
  • Emphasis on functional skills (including social
    skills, leisure, independence, and academics).
  • Family involvement.

30
Use an Activity Matrix to
  • Plan for specialized instruction
  • Assess individual needs in classroom setting
  • Plan when data collection will occur
  • Plan activities and materials necessary for
    incidental teaching or embedded instruction

31
Bettys Activity Matrix
Social Comm. Cognitive
Class Meeting Follow the action Comment
Journal Recall past events Write sentences
Reading Comprehension ?
Math Take turns Ask for help Addition
Recess Join peer group
32
How do we know if programs work?
  • Are the objectives clearly defined and important?
  • Are the procedures acceptable and well defined?
  • What data exist? What data are being collected?
    Are they convincing?
  • How does the intervention affect child, family,
    classroom?

33
Celebrate Accomplishments
  • Celebrate the accomplishments of the team, the
    student, yourself
  • Remember to let the family know the good bits
  • When in doubt, teach. When the student is
    successful, that is your cue to allow them to be
    more independent
  • Peers are often the best teachers and learn
    important lessons
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