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Projects, Process, and Performance Measurement

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Projects, Process, and Performance Measurement Chapter 2 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Projects, Process, and Performance Measurement


1
Projects, Process, and Performance Measurement
  • Chapter 2

2
Chapter 2 Goal
  • Understand and use the principles of project
    management, process mapping, and performance
    measures in creating an enterprise architecture.

3
Networks and Network Security
4
Network Basic Concepts
  • Computer networks allow computers to share
  • Information
  • Resources
  • Printers
  • Disk arrays
  • Backup tape systems
  • Access to other networks and Internet
  • Reference NLECTC, A Guide to Applying
    Technology for Law Enforcement

5
Local Area Network (LAN)
  • Three Functional Segments
  • The Servers
  • Workstations (users or client computers)
  • LAN infrastructure or transmission medium
  • Ethernet is dominant networking technology
  • Protocol (transmission language), TCP/IP typical
  • Cabling
  • Hubs/switches/routers for traffic control and
    coordination

6
Network Infrastructure
Small Ethernet Network
NLECTC, A Guide to Applying Technology for Law
Enforcement p. 28
7
Network Security
  • A Wide Area Network (WAN) interconnects Local
    Area Networks. The WAN can be located entirely in
    a local geographic region or may be
    interconnected around the world.

8
Network Infrastructure Wide Area Network (WAN)
Large Ethernet Network
NLECTC, A Guide to Applying Technology for Law
Enforcement p. 29
9
Security Requirements Basic Model
  • User authentication
  • Confidentiality
  • Data origin authentication
  • Data integrity
  • Non-repudiation (proof of senders ID and
    delivery)
  • Availability - security that does not hinder
    authorized use
  • Reference USGAO Executive Guide to Information
    Security Management

10
Security Components (Technology vs. Policy)
  • Firewalls to protect information systems and
    assets
  • Disable writing to/booting from disk
  • Access control mechanisms (biometrics/smart card)
  • Virus protection software
  • Encryption software/hardware
  • Public Key Infrastructure for authentication

11
Costs and Architecture Issues
  • Servers must be adequate in speed and capacity to
    support the mission plan for growth.
  • Mobile access will increase requirements for
    network computing capacity.
  • Routers/hubs/switches will be critical in
    maintaining network viability.
  • Enterprise architecture will determine
    hardware/software requirements.
  • Wireless issues (including security)

12
Project Management
13
Typical Scenario
  • Step 1 Identifying a problem
  • Step 2 What quick fix can we purchase to
    solve the problem
  • Step 3 Make a purchase and HOPE it solves the
    problem

14
There Is a Difference Between Automation and
Reengineering
15
Project Manager
  • Develops a sequence of steps for project planning
  • Creates the budget
  • Develops implementation plan
  • Keeps all stakeholders on task
  • Develops training timelines including the costs
    of training

16
Project Management
  • Having a well-written and comprehensive strategic
    plan and a history of good project management is
    your strongest selling point in acquiring the
    necessary funding for IT projects.

17
10 Things You Need to Know About Project
Management
  • 1. Planning, planning, planning.
  • 2. Did I mention to create a sound plan?
  • 3. What are other jurisdictions doing well? How
    did they do it?
  • 4. Do not completely rely on subordinates to make
    all of your IT decisions.
  • 5. Factor internal and external political
    considerations and priorities of current
    administration.

18
10 Things You Need to Know About Project
Management
  • 6. Find experts you can trust.
  • 7. Have a contingency plan available in case
    unanticipated obstacles surface.
  • 8. Dont be a guinea pig. Do not buy into any
    Bleeding Edge technology.
  • 9. Check out the vendors.
  • 10. Know the questions to ask in advance and know
    the answers as they apply to your organization.

19
Process and Process Mapping
20
Design Process
  • What can we do better? (antiquated process,
    redundant workflow, inadequate controls)
  • How can we do it better? (dont get caught up in
    analysis to paralysis)

21
Mapping Flowchart Analysis
  • Time per event (How long do we spend performing a
    task?)
  • Identify duplication of efforts (Eliminate
    redundant work)
  • Identify unnecessary tasks
  • Identify areas where process can be streamlined

22
Process Mapping
  • 1. Determine As Is status of process
  • 2. Determine Should Be map of streamlined
    process

23
Managing Criminal Justice Technology
  • Last and Best Day 1

24
Performance Measurement Tools for Justice
Information Technology Projects
  • Center for Society Law Justice
  • Faculty

25
Performance Measurement Tools for Justice IT
Projects
A CSLJ ongoing project Funded by the Bureau of
Justice Assistance
Grant 2002LD-BX K002
26
Project Background and Purpose
  • This project is designed to identify and validate
    an inventory of performance measures appropriate
    for justice information technology projects and
    develop field-friendly performance measurement
    tools.

27
Performance Measurement Tools for Justice IT
Projects
  • Fact There is an increasing focus on measuring
    performance in both government and industry.

28
Performance Measurement Tools for Justice IT
Projects
  • Fact The demand for performance measures in
    law enforcement and criminal justice settings is
    high.

29
Performance Measurement Tools for Justice IT
Projects
  • Question Why do you think there is currently a
    high demand for performance measurement in law
    enforcement and criminal justice settings?

30
Some Reasons Why There is a High Demand for
Performance Measures
  • Performance measurement is increasingly being
    mandated
  • Tight budgets
  • There is a need to justify expenditures

31
Performance Measurement Tools for Justice IT
Projects
  • Problem Even though the demand for performance
    measures in law enforcement and criminal justice
    settings is high, technology integration projects
    are not in advanced stages of performance
    measurement.

32
Performance Measurement Tools for Justice IT
Projects
  • Question What are some of the unique challenges
    or road blocks to performance measurement?

33
Some Unique Challenges or Road Blocks to
Performance Measurement
  • Many people are unfamiliar with performance
    measurement or reluctant to use it.
  • Measurements are imposed from the outside.
  • Most measures are not outcome oriented.
  • Existing measures are not sufficient.

34
A Definition of Performance Measures
  • Performance Measures a particular value or
    characteristic used to objectively measure
    results. This means using valid and reliable
    indicators.
  • Valid Do they truly measure what they are
    intended to measure?
  • Reliable Do they consistently do so ?
  • (Time A, Time B, Time C, etc.)

35
A Useful Acronym
  • Valid performance measures are SMART
  • S pecific
  • M easurable
  • A ccountable
  • R esults-Oriented
  • T imebound

36
The Two Os of Performance Measurement
  • Performance measurement can be defined as the
    process of routinely measuring the outputs and
    outcomes produced by a project, thereby allowing
    one to assess the effectiveness of project
    investments and activities.

37
Outputs and Outcomes The Logic Model Approach
to Performance Measurement
  • A program logic model provides a roadmap of
    your program, highlighting how it is expected to
    work, what activities need to come before others,
    and how desired outcomes are achieved.
  • Source WK Kellogg Foundation Evaluation
    Handbook (1998)

38
The Logic Model Approach
  • INPUTS are your resources
  • OUTPUTS are the product of an activity
  • OUTCOMES are the consequences of the
    program/initiative effortschanges in conditions,
    attitudes or behavior of individuals or outcomes
    for agencies and communities, not what the
    program or initiative itself does.

39
The Logic Model Approach
  • INPUTS are your resources
  • OUTPUTS are the product of an activity
  • OUTCOMES are the consequences of the
    program/initiative effortschanges in conditions,
    attitudes or behavior of individuals or outcomes
    for agencies and communities, not what the
    program or initiative itself does.

40
The Logic Model Approach
ACTIVITIES
INPUTS
OUTPUTS
  • When creating performance measures, you can use
    the Strategic Plan and the Theory of Change to
    link together the
  • Inputs
  • Outputs
  • Outcomes

41
The Logic Model Approach Helps You to Define Your
Theory of Change
  • A theory of change is a statement of how your
    program intends to proceed from initial outputs
    to produce long-term outcomes.
  • Once you articulate and reach consensus on your
    theory of change, you can then move on to
    identify those vital, few performance measures
    that are aligned with your organizations
    mission, goals and objectives.

42
Thinking Through a Logic Model and Articulating a
Theory of Change
Goals In order to solve these
Problems
Activities We will do the following activities
and Events
Targets For these people and for this amount
of time
Initial/ Short Intermediate Term Outcomes We
will know these changes have occurred if _______
____
Theory of Change This activity will lead to
changes in these factors __________, which in
turn will lead to solving these problems
Long Term Outcomes We will know we are
reaching our goals if ___________
43
A Logic Model and Theory of Change Example
Goals In order to solve these
Problems
Activities We will do the following activities
and Events
Targets For these people and for this amount
of time
Initial/ Short Intermediate Term Outcomes We
will know these changes have occurred if _______
____
Theory of Change This activity will lead to
changes in these factors __________, which in
turn will lead to solving these problems
Long Term Outcomes We will know we are
reaching our goals if ___________
44
Developing a Theory of Change
  • Recommended Process for Surfacing and
    Articulating a Theory of Change
  • Use a Focus Group Format
  • Start with Long-term Outcomes
  • Work Backwards Toward Initial Activities
  • Map Required Existing Resources
  • Reconcile Multiple Theories of Change
  • Adapted from J.P. Connell et al., 1995, New
    Approaches to Evaluating Community Initiatives.
    Aspen Institute.

45
The Logic Model/Theory of Change Method for
Developing Performance Measures
Program Logic Model and Chain of Events Program Logic Model and Chain of Events Program Logic Model and Chain of Events Program Logic Model and Chain of Events Program Logic Model and Chain of Events Program Logic Model and Chain of Events
Category Program Feature and Activity Initial Outcomes Intermediate Outcomes Intermediate Outcomes II Final Outcomes/Goals Accomplished

Measures 1._______ 2._______ 3._______ 4._______ 1._______ 2._______ 3._______ 4._______ 1._______ 2._______ 3._______ 4._______ 1._______ 2._______ 3._______ 4._______ 1._______ 2._______ 3._______ 4._______
46
Summary Why Measure Performance?
  • To monitor project implementation
  • Because IT projects are high-risk
  • To demonstrate improvements
  • To correct problems and make adjustments
  • To ensure accountability
  • To illustrate progress and justify additional
    funding for your integration effort

47
Some Suggested Steps
  1. Invest in Performance Measurement
  2. Carefully select and form a team
  3. Identify the Business Process to be mapped
  4. Specify the logic model using the Theory of
    Change method
  5. Decide the Audience/Level of the Measures
  6. Keep in mind that the Model should be Plausible,
    Doable and Testable
  7. Reconcile conflicting assumptions among
    stakeholders
  8. Revise and Refine model and corresponding
    measures as needed

48
IT Integration
  • Challenges and Issues

49
CAD
CARS
admin
patrol
DIST ATTY
COURTS
admin
criminal
case files
field int
incident
Local PD
intl affairs
detectives
intl affairs
intelligence
OTHER LAW EN
PROSE- CUTOR
property
personnel
traffic
homicide
narcotics
COM STAT
JAIL
50
Integration
  • Sharing data electronically
  • At key decision points throughout the justice
    enterprise
  • Across disparate systems and applications, and
    agencies and branches
  • Using new or existing systems/applications
  • Share within agency or consortium, or between
    parties in other Federal/state/local
    jurisdictions
  • Civil info and non-justice agencies
  • Public
  • Reference SEARCH Group Reports www.search.org
  • Integration in Context of Justice Information
    Systems March, 2000.(BJA Monograph)
  • Justice Information Exchange Model, Final
    Project Report, May 2002

51
Functional Components of Integration
  • Automatically Query all levels of databases to
    assess status of subject
  • Automatically Push information to another agency
    based on action at originating agency
  • Automatically Pull information from other systems
  • Publish regarding people, cases, events and
    agency actions
  • Subscribe to a notification service
  • Reference SEARCH Group Reports

52
Founding Principles of Integration
  • Data capture at originating point
  • Data captured once, used many times
  • Integrated system should be driven by operational
    systems of participating agencies (not separate
    from)
  • Capabilities for functional components should be
    constructed as general capabilities of system
  • Reference SEARCH Group Reports

53
Integration Management Issues
  • Scope Of Project- Inter, Intra,
  • Organizing For Change - Goals
  • Big Decisions
  • Justice eXchange Data Definition (JXDD) Model
    provides standard, structured, flexible
    methodology to define exchange points and
    standards
  • Leadership responsibilities identified

54
Integration Management Issues (cont.)
  • Development Challenges
  • Organizational Pre-planning
  • Develop a Tech Foundation and Plan
  • Funding Issues (value of partners/consortiums)
  • Field Implementation
  • Long term Oversight
  • Models and Standards Global JXDD national
    programs and models
  • Reference BJA Monograph

55
Integration Models and Standards
  • Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework
    http//cio.gov (Federal process and principles)
  • U.S. DOJ Integration Projects www.it.ojp.gov
  • Global Justice Information Network www.it.ojp.gov
  • Integrated Justice information Systems (IJIS)
    www.SEARCH.org
  • XML (Extensible Markup Language is the developing
    set of standards for integration)
  • NASCIO Project - Statewide Architecture and
    identified models for statewide - www.nascio.org
  • National Association of State CIOs
  • Industry Working Group - www.ijisinstitute.org

56
Integration Techno-theology Issues
  • Hardware /Software
  • Interfaces
  • Web-based Technology XML Standards, Web
    services and messaging
  • Gateways (HW/SW Combo)
  • Security Between Systems
  • Legacy Systems - Value
  • Not-Invented-Here Rejections
  • Custom vs COTS/GOTS

57
Integration Leadership Principles
  • Standards are critical see U.S. DOJ projects
    and programs
  • XML and messaging, with web services the
    direction
  • Justice XML Data Dictionary Model (JXDD)
  • JTF on Rap Sheet Standardization
  • Regional Information Sharing Systems - RISS
    (Intelligence)
  • Legal XML
  • American Association of Motor Vehicle
    Administrators (AAMVA)
  • Drivers license and vehicle registration info.
  • Refer
  • www.it.ojp.gov/global
  • www.it.ojp.gov/jsr (Justice Standards Registry)
  • www.iacptechnology.org/LEITSC (Law Enf. Info.
    Standards Council)

58
eXtensible Markup Language (XML)
59
eXtensible Markup Language (XML)
  • A structured language for describing an
    electronic document sent by one agency to another
    (e.g. Arrest/Incident Report)
  • Sets a standard for exchanging information
    electronically
  • Establishes an organizing template for the
    electronic document
  • Facilitates standards-based data exchange
  • Reference www.it.ojp.gov/global

60
eXtensible Markup Language (XML)
  • XML specifications do not dictate how the data is
    stored in sending or receiving systems
  • Specifications are broad enough to accommodate
    jurisdictional differences
  • Specifications are shared among states and
    federal justice agencies
  • Reference www.it.ojp.gov/global

61
Sample Objects and Relationships
Relationships
Core Objects
Relationships
Person ? Person Works_for Affiliated_with Super
vised_by leader_of customer_of Arrested_by Con
victed_by incarcerated_by booked_by family
(father_of) work (works_for) seen_with victim_o
f business_partner_of committed_crime_with
Person Organization Agency Location (address,
lat/long, ) Contact Info (tel, fax, email,
) Property Weapon Vehicle Other Incident Accident
Case Event Conviction
Person ? Organization Works_for Affiliated_with
Supervised_by member_of leader_of customer_of
Owns Arrested_by Convicted_by incarcerated_by
booked_by
Reference www.it.ojp.gov/global
62
Typical Activity Objects
Doc.xsd
Reference www.it.ojp.gov/global
63
eXtensible Markup Language (XML)
  • Reference www.it.ojp.gov/global

64
What Standards Are Being Applied?
XML.gov Draft Federal XML Schema Developers
Guide (04/02) ISO / IEC 11179 Specification
Standardization of Data Elements UN / CEFACT
ebXML Core Components Technical Spec 1.85
(09/02) FBI Electronic Fingerprint Transmission
Spec v7 (01/99) ANSI / NIST Data Format for
Interchange of Fingerprint, Facial,
SMT OASIS XML Common Biometrics Format Committee
(09/02) Dept of Navy Draft XML Registry
Requirements (09/02) DoD DoD 5015.2-STD Design
Criteria Std for E-RMS Apps (06/02) W3C XML
Schema Specification (05/01) W3C RDF and RDF
Schema Specification (02/99)
Reference www.it.ojp.gov/global
65
What Requirement Sources Are Used?
SPONSOR SOURCE DOCUMENTS / SPECIFICATIONS Global
ISWG Reconciliation Data Dictionary (RDD)
v1.0.0 JTF for ICHTS Rap Sheet v2.2
schema RISS RISSIntel v2.0 schema LegalXML CourtFi
ling v1.1 DTD AAMVA Driver History v1.02
schema NIJ InfoTech v2.0 Data Dictionary and
schema LA County CA Incident Report schema SEARCH
Justice Info Exchange Model (JIEM) data
sets LegalXML Arrest Warrant schema LegalXML Charg
ing Document schema LegalXML Sentencing Order
schema Minnesota CriMNet v1.0 Data Dictionary and
schema NCSC Data element spreadsheets (civil,
criminal, juvenile) Maricopa Co AZ ICJIS Data
Dictionary v1.3 CISA Southwest Border States DD
(TX, AZ, NM) FBI NCIC 2000 Data Dictionary and
Code Tables NIBRS Incident Report schema
Reference www.it.ojp.gov/global
66
Traditional Data Exchanges
Your Systems
Their Systems
V E N D O R S
Custom Import
Custom Export
SQL DB
Oracle DB
Access DB
Paradox DB
Legacy Systems
One-to One
One-to-One
DB2 DB
67
XML Data Exchanges
Data They Want
Your Data Elements
Their Systems
XML V A L I D A T I O N JXDD MODEL
Your Systems
Name Gang Info Date of Arrest DOB Photo SSN
Crime Location Tattoos
Not Applicable Oracle Access Paradox DB2 SQL Lega
cy
Name DOB Address Crime Location Gang Info Alias
Name Scars Marks Tattoos Photo SSN Date of
Arrest
Not Applicable Oracle Access Paradox DB2 SQL Lega
cy
68
CAD
CARS
admin
patrol
DIST ATTY
COURTS
admin
criminal
case files
field int
incident
Local PD
intl affairs
detectives
intl affairs
intelligence
OTHER LAW EN
PROSE- CUTOR
property
personnel
traffic
homicide
narcotics
COM STAT
JAIL
69
XML JXDD Vision
Other Agencies
Data They Want
Police Data Elements
Law Enforcement
XML V A L I D A T I O N JXDD MODEL
Not Applicable Probation Courts Parole State Feds
Jail County Public Defender District
Attorney Sheriff Other Police Victim Crime Brd.
Not Applicable Oracle Access Paradox DB2 SQL Lega
cy CAD RMS JMS
Name Gang Info Date of Arrest DOB Photo SSN
Crime Location Tattoos
Name DOB Address Crime Location Gang Info Alias
Name Scars Marks Tattoos Photo SSN Date of
Arrest
70
Managing Criminal Justice Technology
  • Break

71
Privacy and Ethical Concerns
  • Privacy and information systems as a national
    concern
  • Issues What types of information may be
    reasonably maintained within criminal justice
    information systems?
  • Who should have access to this information?
  • Emerging legal standards
  • Technology based solutions privacy filters

72
Managing Criminal Justice Technology
  • Lunch
  • Next Topic Solution Design Project Management
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