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THE THIRD SECTOR PARTNERS A New Approach to Philanthropy in China

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Title: THE THIRD SECTOR PARTNERS A New Approach to Philanthropy in China


1
Proposal for the NEW CITIZEN SCHOOL Project
The Research Group of the NEW CITIZEN SCHOOLS
Project May, 2007 Beijing
2
Content
  • The macro setting analysis on the education of
    migrant children
  • The strategic position and vision of NCS
  • The management mode and organization framework
    of NCS
  • Suggestions on the construction scheme of NCS
  • The features of NCS

3
Migrant Workers---One of the Main Forces in the
Process of Chinas Urbanization
350 million
  • There is a huge amount of migrant workers with an
    amazing growth rate

It is self-deceiving and irresponsible to simply
regard migrant workers as a FLOATING POPULATION.
A considerable part of them should be regarded as
urban IMMIGRANTS, which is one of the main forces
in the process of Chinas urbanization
100 million
2000
2030
Take Dongguan as an example
8million
  • In some areas
  • (such as some cities in the Pearl River
    Delta), migrant workers have outnumbered native
    citizens

1.6 million
Migrant workers
natives
The increase of floating children in Beijing
  • Under the tendency of FAMILY MIGRATION, the
    population of migrant children in many cities
    have shown a dramatic increase

Source UNDP?CASS, 2006. Observation of
Chinas Urban Development
4
Education of Migrants/ Migrant ChildrenA
Double-Edged Sword
Education is the one of the most efficient tool
to achieve social fairness
The educational inequity might cause serious
social problems
  • Migrant workers might calmly accept the inequity
    for themselves, but its hard for them to accept
    the educational inequity for their children.
  • The educational inequity makes it more difficult
    for floating children to adapt to the society.
    Compared with their parents, floating children
    are inclined to be more radical, which might lead
    to vicious circle and add to their conflicts with
    the mainstream society.
  • The educational inequity blocks the channel for
    the unprivileged to climb up the social ladder,
    and causes more social inequity.
  • Education is A RIGHT TO ENHANCE ONES ABILITY a
    citizen can not enjoy his political, economical,
    social and cultural rights unless he is educated
    in some degree.
  • Education is hope not only is education the most
    important way for migrant children to change
    their lives, its also a fundamental approach to
    narrow the social gap between the rich and the
    poor.
  • Education leads to a brighter future the second
    generation of floating children will eventually
    become new urban citizens, whose education would
    be critical for the urban future.

5
Social ResultsLessons from Aboard
2005,the Chaos in Paris, France
The reason for these events lies in the failure
of the migrant children to melt harmoniously into
the mainstream society
2006,Terrorist Middle School in Berlin, Germany
2007,Gun Massacre at Virginia Tech University,
U.S.
6
Social ResultsLessons from Home
  • Migrant children show a comparatively higher
    crime rate
  • They account for 10 of the minors population
    whereas they committed over 50 of the juvenile
    crimes both in cities and in rural areas

SourceNov.4th,2006. Xinhua Daily Telegraph
7
The Predicament of the Education of Migrant
Children( Floating Children Left-Behind
Children)
The Large Population Size
Serious Problems
The population size of migrant children and its
growth
  • Its difficult for floating children to enter
    school (National Working Committee on Children
    and Women under the State Council,2003)
  • Failing to attend school9.3 of the floating
    children (over 1 million) fail to attend school
  • Dropout the dropout rate of the 8-year-old
    floating children is 0.8, whereas the dropout
    rate of the 14-year-old floating children rises
    to 15.4, which suggests a stop-out tendency
  • Overage19.7 of the 9-year-old floating children
    are still in the first grade.
  • The floating children get an education of
    comparatively low quality, since most of the
    schools of migrant children are profit-oriented
  • The left-behind children lack family education
    and social education, which seriously affect
    these childrens development(Zou Shuxin???
    2006)
  • Psychological health problems depressive?capricio
    us?impetuous?confrontational, etc.
  • Daily ward problems safety
  • Academic record problems bad scores

Floating children children following their
parents in the cities
Left-behind children children left behind at
home by their migrant parents
100 million
?
43 million
23m
?
20m
2030
2006
Source UNICEF, 2005, the State of the
World's Children 2006
8
Extension the education of migrant children has
become AN IMPORTANT SOCIAL PROBLEM IN THE PROCESS
OF CHINAS URBANIZATION(State Council, 2003)
The Essence and Extension of the Problem of the
Education of Migrant Children
Essence the right of education equity is not
protected, and the migrant children are excluded
and neglected
9
Our Focusthe Education of Migrant Children
The scope of our inquiry
  • Realizing of importance and gravity of the
    problem of migrant childrens education, Narada
    Foundation has taken this problem as its main
    concern and launched a NEW CITIZEN PLAN to
    improve their growing environment( weve prepared
    another special report on this issue)
  • To provide financial aid for the projects serving
    migrant children, including moral cultivation,
    psychological health guidance, art training,
    public science education, volunteer teaching,
    etc.
  • NEW CITIZEN SCHOOL Project
  • It directly helps the floating children enter
    school and enjoy a QUALIFIED EDUCATIONAL EQUITY
  • These schools would be important bases for the
    NEW CITIZEN PLAN
  • It created models and mobilizes social resources
    to address the problem of migrant childrens
    education

10
Content
  • The macro setting analysis of on the education
    of migrant children
  • The strategic position and vision of NCS
  • The management mode and organization framework
    of NCS
  • The construction scheme of NCS
  • -- construction mode
  • -- cost estimate
  • -- pilot plan for 2007
  • The features of NCS

11
The strategic position of NEW CITIZEN SCHOOLS
--based on the performance and deficiency of
government and market in this field
  • Government
  • Failure of traditional education system
  • Failure of education policies for migrant
    children
  • Market
  • Market helps alleviate the consequences caused by
    government failure
  • Market failure and the analysis of cause

Position of NEW CITIZEN SCHOOL
12
Policy Increasingly Liberal
Policy Analysis1. Increasingly liberal the
extra-paid fee being abolished migrant children
regulated with no discrimination2. The
government receiving the influx of the children
of migrant workers and the public schools are
required to take the main responsibility for
their compulsory schooling3. Legal guarantee of
the right of educational equity
Jun. 2006. Compulsory Education Law guarantee
migrant childrens equal rights of compulsory
education
13
Although
Education policies are favorable to the
education of floating children at large
Since
These policies lack operability
Therefore
Local governments have shown great differences
in the practical enforcement of these policies
Policy failure results from a series of
fundamental immanent causes
14
Market can help alleviate the consequences caused
by government failure in some degree
BUT
It still cannot meet the education demand of the
children from low income migrant family
AND
  • Migrant workers with low income( under 1400
    Yuan
  • per month ) account for 54 of the total
    population
  • of migrant workers, according to the result
    of a 2006 survey over 29,425 migrant workers by
    National Statistics Bureau.

Source National Statistics Bureau, 2006,
Report on the Life Quality of Urban Migrant
Workers
15
Market Failure A. It can not solve the
problem of migrant family with low income B.
The education for migrant children provided by
the market is of low quality.
The private schools of migrant children appear to
be in a 4-LOW state -- Low capital
investment -- Low tuition
-- Low wages for teachers -- Low
quality
16
NCS Value PositionBased on the Failure of
Government and Market
  • Deadlock of Profit-Making Private Schools

Source Analysis of the Preparatory Group
17
Suggestion on NCS Position
We suggest the strategic position of NCS be
Non-Profit, Fit for Civilian Population(???),and
High Quality. These are three reference points
from where to leverage the support and
participation of governments, enterprises and the
society. By doing this, we are supposed to
explore and expand a new education model which is
RUN BY NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND
SUBSIDIZED BY THE STATE.
????? ?????
18
Position1 NonprofitTo Break Through the 4-Low
Deadlock Hampering Private Education
  • Deadlock Hampering the Development of
    Profit-Making Private Schools

Non-Government Nonprofit School is the Most
Possible Way to Break Through This Deadlock
More Qualified Non-government Schools
Nonprofit
Government Resources
Government Resources
Non-government Schools Up to Standard with Its
Own Features
Social Resources
Social Resources
Social Resources
4-Low State
Under the financial support from Narada, the
nonprofit New Citizen Schools would gain
legitimacy with higher quality standard and
average up the overall quality level of
non-government education
19
Position2 Fit for Civilian PopulationTo Meet
the Demand Unsatisfied by Government and Market
?
?
?
Nonprofit Non-Government Schools
Migrant Families Income
Profit-Making Private Schools
Public Schools
high
middle
low
20
Position3 High QualityThe Way to Realize the
Ideal of NEW CITIZEN EDUCATION
  • 1. Excellent Educational Resources

Narada has a strong ability to mobilize various
social resources which can help leverage
excellent educational resources.
2. Unique Educational Ethos
  • New Citizen Values
  • Life Education

21
General Idea of NEW CITIZEN SCHOOL
A non-government nonprofit education brand
subsidized by the state, serving for migrant
children with high quality.
government
1)To invest 1-2 million to each school 2)To
support NEW CITIZEN SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT CENTER
Narada
1)To grant legal status 2)To provide
construction support policy such as land policy
and special house-renting preferences 3)To
support the running of the schools by various
ways such as per capita subsidies
Run by non-government organizations
Subsidized by the State
1)Overall preparation and coordination of
construction 2) To employ school administrators
3) To dominate school board to appoint and
remove headmasters 4) To take charge of the
training of administrators and teachers 5)In
charge of brand management , publicity and
communication 6)General coordinator among
governments, enterprises and social participators
Center
  • The profit is not to be distributed, the
    property right belongs to the society

Non-Profit
High Quality
  • Excellent teaching resources
  • Excellent teachers

1)The highest decision-making body of the
schools 2) To support and supervise the
management
Fit for the Civilian Population
School Board
1) Low tuition fee 300-400Yuan 2) Hardware of
economical style
1)To act under guidance of the Center 2)daily
administration
Headmasters
  • 1)Dedicated to and specialized in the education
    of migrant children
  • 2)Characteristic education which applies the NEW
    CITIZEN EDUCATION theory and the LIFE EDUCATION
    to practice
  • Open, modeled, replicable

Education Brand
to guide the selection of teaching content and
courses
Experts
1)To donate and provide volunteer service 2)Each
school is education foundation that can raise
funds from the society
Society
22
Development Stages of NCS
Goal to build 100 schools in 10 years
10 years
Primary Junior Vocational School(92)
Primary Junior Middle School
Primary School
Junior Middle School
Vocational Education
Primary Schools First
23
Content
  • The macro setting analysis on the education of
    migrant children
  • The strategic position and vision of NCS
  • The management mode and organization framework
    of NCS
  • -- organization structure
  • -- human resource management
  • -- financial management
  • Suggestions on the construction scheme of NCS
  • The features of NCS

24
Management Mode
Organization Structure
  • Narada FoundationNCS Development
    CenterNCSPartners

Human Resource Management
Development CenterSchool Preparatory
GroupSchool BoardHeadmasterTeacher
Financial Management
CenterSchool
25
Organization Framework
Core Institution
All the possessions of Narada Foundation, the
Center and the New Citizen Schools are socialized
property
Strategic Partner NPP
  • Narada Foundation

Partners
Establishing
Entrusting Supervising
Providing Financial Aid Guiding
NCS Administration Committee
NCS Development Center
Policy-Making Guiding
Majority of Seats Nominating
Establishing
Project Bidding
NCS Expert Committee
Supervising Training Serving
NCS Board
Constructing Authorizing
Reviewing Teaching
Teaching Material
Supervising Policy-Making
NPO Partner as Enforcement Body
Supporting
Government
New Citizen Schools
Supporting, Managing, School-Running, Constructing
Supporting
Coordinating Communicating Contacting
Public Enterprises
26
Organization Structure
Core Institute
  • Financial supporter and owner of the service
    mark.
  • Its authority
  • Brand management Narada has applied for the
    registration of NCS and is waiting for the
    approval
  • Set up and provide financial aid for the
    Development Center of NCS
  • Supervise and assess the management and
    operation of the NCS project
  • Accept social donation and appropriate financial
    aid
  • Narada Foundation
  • Builder and manager. Its function
  • In charge of the preparatory work, establishment,
    management and training of headmasters and
    teachers
  • Establishment pattern set up in a newly
    established NCS, until the time is ripe for it to
    be registered as an independent non-government
    nonprofit corporate

NCS Development Center
  • Local enforcement body selected through project
    bidding
  • Its function
  • In charge of the local construction and
    management of NCS
  • In charge of the contact, coordination and
    communication with local governments.
  • Provide support for the development of NCS

NPO Partners as Enforcement Body
  • Non-profit schools of high quality serving
    children from low income migrant family
  • Located in the living places of migrant workers
    family across the nation

New Citizen Schools
27
Human Resource Management
  • The members of Administration Committee are
    recommended by the
  • Narada Foundation.
  • Director of the Center is appointed by the
    Administration Committee and approved by the
    Narada Foundation.
  • There are mainly two kinds of personnel appointed
    by the Center
  • Administrator to work as group leaders of School
    Preparatory Group.
  • Financial personnel to be sent to the NCS as
    financial executives.
  • Center
  • The Center chooses one local NPO as a partner to
    set up Preparatory Group for NCS
  • The Center pay necessary expenditure for
    Preparatory Group members but does not pay their
    wages.

School Preparatory Group
  • Set up by the Preparatory Group the proportion
    of board members recommended by the Center should
    be no less than 50.
  • There would be 5-11 board members including
    representatives from the Center, donators,
    partners, educational sector and media, etc. with
    strong ability to mobilize social resources
  • Chairman of the board would be elected by the
    board and approved by the Center

School Board
  • School Board openly recruit qualified and
    experienced headmasters who would independently
    take charge of daily teaching and administrative
    affairs as well as the hiring and firing of
    teachers.
  • Headmasters and teachers would be transferred and
    be promoted within the national NCS system

Headmaster and Teacher
28
Financial Management
  • Financial Management of the Center
  • Funds would be appropriated by Narada covering
    basic expense, project expense, and financial
    reward for funds raising
  • Financial statement would be reported to Narada
    monthly
  • Annual audit would be conducted by accounting
    firm employed by Narada
  • Findings of audit would be publicly published
  • Basic Principles
  • Legitimate, Normative, Professional, Transparent
  • To implement the Accounting System for
    Non-government, Nonprofit Organizations
    prescribed by the Ministry of Finance

Financial Management of the Schools
  • Financial executives would be sent and paid by
    the Center
  • One financial executive would take charge of 2-3
    schools
  • Financial executives would work shifts
    non-periodically
  • Annual audit would be conducted by accounting
    firm employed by the Center
  • Findings of audit would be publicly published

29
Content
  • The macro setting analysis on the education of
    migrant children
  • The strategic position and vision of NCS
  • The management mode and organization framework
    of NCS
  • Suggestions on the construction scheme of NCS
  • Prerequisites
  • Principles and Patterns
  • Basic Standards of Establishment
  • Cost Estimate for Construction and Operation
  • Sustainability
  • Pilot Plan for 2007
  • The features of NCS

30
Prerequisites
  • A large supply-demand gap
  • Government support local government be willing
    to grant school license
  • Initial fund provided by Narada would be no more
    than 1.5 million Yuan
  • Essential
  • Prerequisites

Conditions That Can Be Acquired by Striving
  • Lands and schoolhouses policy support from local
    government in the form of price preference or
    allowing to use without compensation
  • Educational appropriations local government
    providing financial aid valued no less than 30
    of local public educational appropriations
    standard
  • Volunteers to choose one or more local NPO as
    strategic partner which would provide
    fund-raising support and voluntary service
    support, etc.
  • Publicity to establish strategic cooperation
    with one or more mainstream media which would
    provide publicity support and fund-raising
    support, etc.

31
Principles and Patterns of Establishment
  • By Stages
  • Narada Foundation provides the school with
    fundamental conditions( mainly schoolhouses
    school desks and school chairs )
  • 2. To improve the hardware and software
    environments gradually with funds raised from
    social sectors
  • Hardware environments libraries, computer
    houses, scientific laboratories, music rooms,
    gymnastic rooms, etc.
  • Software environments fellowships,
    scholarships and teacher training funds, etc.
  • Principles
  1. Building New Schools

Patterns
2. Reforming Existing Private Schools
3. Taking Over Public Schools
32
Basic Standards of Establishment
On the principle of SAFE, HEALTHY AND
PRACTICAL. To appropriately lower some hardware
standards referring to The Construction Standard
of Rural Regular Elementary
and Secondary Schools( Trial) as a reference.
No less than 500,000 Yuan
Registered Capital
  • The schoolhouses have to acquire a certificate of
    title or the document of approval from related
    government departments of planning They have to
    show survey report on house safety and go through
    legal record formalities of house renting.
  • The dining rooms must meet the requirements of
    Provisions on Hygiene of School Dining Room and
    Food, and gain dining room hygiene license.
  • Firefighting system has to acceptance checks by
    related government departments there must be
    fire pre-warning plan and emergency evacuation
    plan the quality and quantity of firefighting
    installations have to meet the requirements of
    relevant provisions
  • Security

Qualification of Headmasters and Teachers
  • The headmaster should have Teachers
    Qualification Certificate, at least 5 years
    teaching experience, plus a school administration
    experience.
  • Teachers and administrators should have relevant
    qualifications prescribed by the state

Floor Area and Schoolhouses
Able to meet basic requirements for education
and teaching activities
33
Basic School Conditions
1. Elementary Department Form 1-6 2. Students
500 students with no more than 45 per class
12 classes 3. Faculty Members1.8 teachers
per class 22 teachers plus 4 staff
members26 members. Teachers Wage 1600
Yuan per Month
  • Size

Buildings
Classrooms 12 Offices
3 Meeting Room 1 Computer House1 Library
1 Music Room 1 Laboratory
1 Dormitory 2 Kitchen
2 Lavatory 2
Total Building Area 26 rooms60m2 /room1560m2
Total Floor Area 10 acres Colored Steel
House 350 Yuan/m2 Brick House 500 Yuan/m2
Infrastructure 100 Yuan/m2
Basic Educational equipments valued 320,000 Yuan
Equipments
34
Cost Estimate Table for School Construction and
Operation
Option1 Renting Houses
Option2 Renting Lands and Construct Houses on
Them
1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year There-after 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year There-after
Tuitions 200 500 500 500 500 Tuitions 200 500 500 500 500
Narada 900 200 100 50 0 Narada 1,300 150 100 50 0
Government 100 100 100 100 100 Government 300 100 100 100 100
Total Revenue 1,200 800 700 650 600 Total Revenue 1,800 750 700 650 600
Rent 250 250 250 250 250 Rent 150 150 150 150 150
Repair 90 House Building 940 /700
Equipments 320 Equipments 320
Wages 250 460 460 460 460 Wages 250 460 460 460 460
Office Expenditure 120 120 120 120 120 Office Expenditure 120 120 120 120 120
Total Expenditure 1,030 830 830 830 830 Total Expenditure 1,540 /1,780 730 730 730 730
Balance 170 -30 -130 -180 -230 Balance 260/20 20 -30 -80 -130

Unit Thousand
35
Sustainability
  • The construction and operation of NCS mainly
    depend on the financial support of Narada
    Foundation in the first years.
  • From the 5th year on there would be a financial
    gap of 130,000 -230,000 Yuan each year.
  • If the schools can keep its nonprofit philosophy,
    normative management, finance transparency and
    features, and keep averaging up their teaching
    level, then social resources would keep flowing
    in constantly.

36
Short-Term, Medium-Term and Long-Term Targets
Amount
Scope
Time
To build 1 new school, and reform 1-2 schools
  • 2007

Beijing
Central Cities
Above 10
2-3 years
Across the Nation
5-10 years
100 schools
T
Two Possible Plans for 2007
Plan 1
Plan 2
  • To start with reforming the council and
    management system of Xingzhi School in Daxing
    district and declare it as the first NCS on Sep.
    1.
  • To start with preparing to establish at least one
    new school and reforming the council and
    management system of 1-2 existing private schools
    in Beijing(such as Xingzhi School in Daxing
    district)

37
What to Do In the Following Months?
JUNE Prepare for the establishment of the
Development Center (Person in charge Liu
Wenhua) Choose partner (Organization in
charge Narada Foundation Development Center )
Appoint members of management committee of the
Development Center ( Narada Foundation
Development Center ) Choose location of the
first schools to be established in 2007(Huang He,
Liu Wenhua)
JUNE TO AUGUST Establish the first New Citizen
School. ( Organization in charge Development
Center)
38
Content
  • The macro setting analysis on the education of
    migrant children
  • The strategic position and vision of NCS
  • The management mode and organization framework
    of NCS
  • Suggestions on the construction scheme of NCS
  • The features of NCS

39
Features of New Citizen Education
Theory and Approaches
  • NCS targets at realizing QUALIFIED EDUCATIONAL
    EQUITY. Its first feature is the ethos of NEW
    CITIZEN itself. Its a made-to-measure solution
    for the education of migrant children helping
    them adapt to modern urban life.
  • New Citizen Ethos
  • Demand-oriented life education instead of
    formalist teaching.

Life Education
40
Feature 1 EthosNew Citizen Values
  • New Citizen Values

Individual with individual/ collective/ society/
human kind/ nature
Sense of Responsibility
?? ??
Individual with individual/ collective/ society
Openness, Sense of Democracy
Individual with individual/ collective
Charity, Sense of Cooperation
individual
Self-Esteem, Independency
41
Feature 2 ApproachLife Education
42
The Unique Innovation Mechanism of NCS
Demand-Oriented
For example, considering the fact that most
migrant children dont have good study
environment at home, and many of their parents
are not capable of providing guidance for their
study, we suppose to extend the school day, so
that they could finish their homework under
guidance of school teachers.
Providing Innovation Platform
  • NCS provides an open practical platform for
    various of excellent and creative education
    theories and methods

Take Happiness Index as a Yardstick
  • NCS takes students sense of happiness as the
    main yardstick to measure the school-running and
    teaching activities, and NCS believes the best
    way for these children to achieve such a sense of
    happiness is to create a free and happy
    development environment for them.

43
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