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NATIONAL SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM

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Title: NATIONAL SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM


1
DEVELOPMENT, IMPLEMENTATION AND FUTURE OF THE
NATIONAL SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM HOUSTON DECEMBE
R 13, 2003 David Doyle Chief Geodetic
Surveyor National Geodetic Survey Dave.Doyle_at_noaa.
gov, (301) 713-3178

2
ACRONYMS US
R
NAD 27
ITRF 00
GRS 80
WGS 84
NSRS
CORS
EGM 96
NAVD 88
HPGN
NGVD 29
NAD 83
HARN
3
NATIONAL GEODETIC SURVEY
  • INFORMATION CENTER
  • (301) 713-3242
  • info_center_at_ngs.noaa.gov

WEB SITE http//www.ngs.noaa.gov
4
(No Transcript)
5
GEODETIC CONTROL
  • NETWORK OF MONUMENTED POINTS
  • PRECISELY MEASURED IN ACCORDANCE
  • WITH STANDARD PROCEDURES
  • MEET ACCURACY SPECIFICATIONS
  • ADJUSTED TO TIE TOGETHER
  • DOCUMENTED FOR MULTIPLE USE

6
Stainless steel rod driven to refusal
Poured in place concrete post
7
CORS SITES
8
NATIONAL SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM (http//www.ngs.
noaa.gov)
  • The National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) is
    that component of the National Spatial Data
    Infrastructure (NSDI) - http//www.fgdc.gov/nsdi/
    nsdi.html which contains all geodetic control
    contained in the National Geodetic Survey (NGS)
    Data Base. This includes A, B, First, Second
    and Third-Order horizontal and vertical control,
    Geoid models such as GEOID 99, precise GPS orbits
    and Continuously Operating Reference Stations
    (CORS), and the National Shoreline as observed
    by NGS as well as data submitted by other
    Federal, State, and local agencies, Academic
    Institutions and the private sector

9
NATIONAL SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM
  • ACCURATE -- cm accuracy on a global scale
  • MULTIPURPOSE -- Supports Geodesy, Geophysics,
    Land Surveying, Navigation, Mapping, Charting and
    GIS activities
  • ACTIVE -- Accessible through Continuously
    Operating Reference Stations (CORS) and derived
    products
  • INTEGRATED -- Related to International services
    and standards (e.g. International Earth Rotation
    and Reference Systems Service, International GPS
    Service etc.)

10
METADATA
  • METADATA IS DATA ABOUT DATA
  • DATUMS
  • NAD 27, NAD 83(1986), NAD83 (199X),
  • NGVD29, NAVD88
  • UNITS
  • Meters, U.S. Survey Feet, International Feet,
    Vara, Toise, Chains, Rods, Poles, Links, Perchs,
    Smoots
  • ACCURACY
  • A, B, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 3cm, Scaled

11
METADATA??
Horizontal Datum??
Plane Coordinate Zone ??
Units of Measure ??
How Accurate ??
12
METADATA??
13
THE ELLIPSOID MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE EARTH
N
b
a
S
a Semi major axis b Semi minor axis f
a-b Flattening a
14
ELLIPSOID - GEOID RELATIONSHIP
H Orthometric Height (NAVD 88)
H h - N
h Ellipsoidal Height (NAD 83)
N Geoid Height (GEOID 99)

TOPOGRAPHIC SURFACE
h
H
N
GEOID99
Geoid
Ellipsoid GRS80
15
UNITED STATES ELLIPSOID DEFINITIONS
BESSEL 1841 a 6,377,397.155 m 1/f
299.1528128
CLARKE 1866 a 6,378,206.4 m 1/f
294.97869821
GEODETIC REFERENCE SYSTEM 1980 - (GRS 80) a
6,378,137 m 1/f 298.257222101
WORLD GEODETIC SYSTEM 1984 - (WGS 84) a
6,378,137 m 1/f 298.257223563
16
HORIZONTAL DATUMS
  • BESSEL 1841 -------------- LOCAL ASTRO DATUMS
    (1816-1879)

  • NEW ENGLAND DATUM (1879-1901)

  • U.S. STANDARD DATUM (1901-1913)

  • NORTH AMERICAN DATUM (1913-1927)

  • NORTH AMERICAN DATUM OF 1927
  • OLD
    HAWAIIAN DATUM
  • CLARKE 1866 PUERTO RICO DATUM

  • ST. GEORGE ISLAND - ALASKA

  • ST. LAWRENCE ISLAND - ALASKA

  • ST. PAUL ISLAND - ALASKA

  • AMERICAN SAMOA 1962

  • GUAM 1963
  • GRS80 ----------- NORTH AMERICAN DATUM OF 1983

  • (As of June 14, 1989)

17
COMPARISON OF DATUM ELEMENTS

  • NAD 27 NAD 83
  • ELLIPSOID CLARKE 1866 GRS80
  • a 6,378,206.4 m
    a 6,378,137. M
  • 1/f 294.9786982
    1/f 298.257222101
  • DATUM POINT Triangulation
    Station
    NONE
  • MEADES RANCH, KANSAS EARTH MASS
    CENTER
  • ADJUSTMENT 25k STATIONS
    250k STATIONS
  • Several Hundred Base Lines
    Appox. 30k EDMI Base Lines
  • Several Hundred Astro Azimuths
    5k Astro Azimuths

  • Doppler Point Positions

  • VLBI Vectors
  • BEST FITTING North
    America
    World-Wide

18
NAD 27 and NAD 83
19
NAD 83 NETWORK PROBLEMS
  • NOT GPSABLE

POOR STATION ACCESSIBILITY
IRREGULARLY SPACED
POSITIONAL ACCURACY
20
HIGH ACCURACY REFERENCE NETWORKS
  • GPSABLE
  • Clear Horizons for Satellite Signal Acquisition
  • EASY ACCESSIBILITY
  • Few Special Vehicle or Property Entrance
    Requirements
  • REGULARLY SPACED
  • Always within 20-100 Km
  • HIGH HORIZONTAL ACCURACY
  • A-Order (5 mm 110,000,000)
  • B-Order (8mm 11,000,000)

21
IMPROVING POSITIONAL ACCURACY
  • TIME NETWORK
    LOCAL
  • NETWORK SPAN ACCURACY ACCURACY
  • NAD 27 1927-1986
    10 Meters First-Order (1 part in
    0.1 million)

  • NAD 83 1986-1990
    1 Meter First-Order(1 part
    in 0.1 million)
  • HPGN/HARN 1987-1997 0.1
    Meter B-Order(1 part in 1
    million)


  • A-Order (1 part in 10 million)
  • CORS 1994 -
    0.02 Meter - Horizontal

  • 0.04 Meter
    - Ellipsoid Height


22
HIGH ACCURACY REFERENCE NETWORK
23
HIGH ACCURACY REFERENCE NETWORKS
24
TEXAS HARN
25
INTERNATIONAL TERRESTRIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM
DEVELOPED AND MAINTAINED BY THE INTERNATIONAL
EARTH ROTATION AND REFERENCE SYSTEM
SERVICE PARIS, FRANCE (http//http//www.iers.org/
) VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY -
(VLBI) SATELLITE LASER RANGING - (SLR) GLOBAL
POSITIONING SYSTEM - (GPS) DOPPLER ORBITOGRAPHY
AND RADIO POSITIONING INTEGRATED BY SATELLITE -
(DORIS)
26
INTERNATIONAL TERRESTRIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM
  • GEOCENTRIC /- 3 to 4 CM
  • MODELS FOR PLATE TECTONICS
  • STATION VELOCITIES
  • POSITIONAL STANDARD ERRORS
  • REALIZED AS THE INTERNATIONAL TERRESTERIAL
    REFERENCE FRAME (ITRF)

27
WORLD GEODETIC SYSTEM 1984 TR8350.2 World
Geodetic System 1984 - Its Definition
and Relationships with Local Geodetic
Systems (http//www.nima.mil/GandG/pubs.html)
DATUM WGS 84(G730) 5 USAF GPS Tracking
Stations 5 DMA Evaluation Stations Datum
redefined with respect to the International
Terrestrial Reference Frame of 1992 (ITRF92) /-
20 cm in each component (Proceedings of the ION
GPS-94 pgs 285-292)
DATUM WGS 84(G873) 5 USAF GPS Tracking
Stations 7 NIMA Evaluation Stations Datum
redefined with respect to the International
Terrestrial Reference Frame of 1994 (ITRF94) /-
10 cm in each component (Proceedings of the ION
GPS-97 pgs 841-850)
HOW MANY WGS 84s HAVE THERE BEEN????
DATUM WGS 84 RELEASED - SEPTEMBER 1987 BASED ON
OBSERVATIONS AT MORE THAN 1900 DOPPLER STATIONS
DATUM WGS 84(G1150) Datum redefined with
respect to the International Terrestrial
Reference Frame of 2000 (ITRF00) /- 2 cm in
each component (Proceedings of the ION GPS-02)
http//164.214.2.59/GandG/sathtml/IONReport8-20-0
2.pdf
28
MY SOFTWARE SAYS IM WORKING IN WGS-84
Unless you doing autonomous positioning (point
positioning /- 6-10 meters) youre probably NOT
in WGS-84
Project tied to WGS-84 control point obtained
from the Defense Department -- Good Luck! --
Youre really working in the same reference frame
as your control points -- NAD 83?
29
TRANSFORM BETWEEN WGS 84 NAD 83
dX 0.9956 m dY -1.9013 m dZ -0.5215 m
30
THE GEOID AND TWO ELLIPSOIDS

CLARKE 1866
GRS80-WGS84
Earth Mass Center
Approximately 236 meters
GEOID
31
TECTONIC MOTIONS
32
HORIZONTAL TECTONIC MOTIONS
33
VERTICAL TECTONIC MOTIONS
34
NAD 83 and ITRF / WGS 84

NAD 83
ITRF / WGS 84
Earth Mass Center
2.2 m (3-D) dX,dY,dZ
GEOID
35
VERTICAL DATUMS
  • MEAN SEA LEVEL DATUM OF 1929
  • NATIONAL GEODETIC VERTICAL DATUM OF 1929
  • (As of July 2, 1973)
  • NORTH AMERICAN VERTICAL DATUM OF 1988
  • (As of June 24, 1993)

36
COMPARISON OF VERTICAL DATUM ELEMENTS
  • NGVD 29 NAVD 88
  • DATUM DEFINITION 26 TIDE GAUGES
    FATHERS POINT/RIMOUSKI

  • IN THE U.S. CANADA
    QUEBEC, CANADA
  • BENCH MARKS 100,000
    450,000
  • LEVELING (Km)
    102,724
    1,001,500
  • GEOID FITTING Distorted to Fit
    MSL Gauges Best Continental
    Model

37
NGVD 29 and NAVD 88
38
MHHW
39
Datums Boundary Applications
40
NOS BENCHMARK LEVELING
Distances vary but usually several hundred meters.
41
GEOID MODELS
  • U.S. NATIONAL MODEL -- GEOID99 (http//www.ngs.noa
    a.gov/cgi-bin/GEOID_STUFF/geoid99_prompt1.prl)
  • CANADIAN NATIONAL MODEL -- GSD95
  • http//www.geod.nrcan.gc.ca/products/html-public/G
    SDinfo/English/factsheets/gpsht_fact.html
  • GLOBAL MODEL -- EGM 96
  • (http//www.nima.mil/GandG/wgs-84/egm96.html)

42
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43
NEW U.S. GEOID MODEL Release by January 2004
  • USGG2003 and GEOID03
  • USGG U.S. Gravimetric Geoid
  • GEOID03 U.S. Hybrid Geoid
  • In excess of 11,000 GPS on BMs
  • (A, B, and 1st- Order GPS on 1st, 2nd and 3rd
    Order NAVD 88 BMs)
  • Possibly overall misfit will be about 2.9 cm.

44
Standalone Positioning Since May 1, 2000
6-11 m
  • C/A Code on L1
  • No Selective Availability

45
Standalone Positioning By 2011
Better resistance to interference
1-3 m
  • C/A Code on L1
  • C/A Code on L2
  • New Code on L5

46
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
  • GPS BLOCK III
  • Potential Future Developments
  • 30 - 32 satellites
  • Second and Third Civil Frequency
  • (1227.60 MHZ 1176.45 MHZ)
  • More Robust Signal Transmissions
  • Real-Time Unaugmented 1 Meter Accuracy
  • Initial Launches 2005
  • Complete Replacements 2015??

47
GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS (GNSS)
  • POTENTIAL FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
  • (2005 2015??)
  • GPS MODERNIZATION - BLOCK III
  • GLONASS ENHANCEMENTS
  • EUROPEAN UNION - GALILEO
  • 70- 90 Satellites
  • Second and Third Civil Frequency - GPS
  • No Signal Encryption - GLONASS GALILEO
  • More Robust Signal Transmissions
  • Real-Time Unaugmented 1 Meter (or better!)
    Accuracy

48
GEODETIC DATA SHEET
Geodetic Data Sheets


49
GEODETIC DATA SHEET


50
GEODETIC DATA SHEET
National Geodetic Survey, Retrieval Date
NOVEMBER 15, 2003 BN0540

BN0540 FBN - This is a Federal Base
Network Control Station. BN0540 DESIGNATION -
CHERRY BN0540 PID - BN0540 BN0540
STATE/COUNTY- TX/GILLESPIE BN0540 USGS QUAD
- CHERRY SPRING (1967) BN0540 BN0540
CURRENT SURVEY CONTROL BN0540
__________________________________________________
_________________ BN0540 NAD 83(1993)- 30 29
48.47740(N) 099 00 39.29203(W) ADJUSTED
BN0540 NAVD 88 - 542.733 (meters)
1780.62 (feet) ADJUSTED BN0540
__________________________________________________
_________________ BN0540 X -
-861,575.021 (meters) COMP
BN0540 Y - -5,433,071.971 (meters)
COMP BN0540 Z -
3,218,212.963 (meters) COMP
BN0540 LAPLACE CORR- -2.38 (seconds)
DEFLEC99 BN0540 ELLIP HEIGHT-
520.52 (meters) (05/01/00) GPS
OBS BN0540 GEOID HEIGHT- -22.17
(meters) GEOID99 BN0540
DYNAMIC HT - 541.984 (meters) 1778.16
(feet) COMP BN0540 MODELED GRAV-
979,243.1 (mgal) NAVD 88
BN0540 BN0540 HORZ ORDER - B BN0540 VERT
ORDER - FIRST CLASS II BN0540 ELLP ORDER
- THIRD CLASS I
H h - N
542.73 520.52 - (- 22.17) 542.73 ? 542.69
(EGM96 - 23.09 m)
51
GEODETIC DATA SHEET
  • BN0540.The horizontal coordinates were
    established by GPS observations
  • BN0540.and adjusted by the National Geodetic
    Survey in May 1994.
  • BN0540
  • BN0540.The orthometric height was determined by
    differential leveling
  • BN0540.and adjusted by the National Geodetic
    Survey in June 1991.
  • BN0540
  • BN0540.The X, Y, and Z were computed from the
    position and the ellipsoidal ht.
  • BN0540
  • BN0540.The Laplace correction was computed from
    DEFLEC99 derived deflections.
  • BN0540
  • BN0540.The ellipsoidal height was determined by
    GPS observations
  • BN0540.and is referenced to NAD 83.
  • BN0540
  • BN0540.The geoid height was determined by
    GEOID99.
  • BN0540
  • BN0540.The dynamic height is computed by
    dividing the NAVD 88
  • BN0540.geopotential number by the normal gravity
    value computed on the
  • BN0540.Geodetic Reference System of 1980 (GRS
    80) ellipsoid at 45
  • BN0540.degrees latitude (g 980.6199 gals.).



52
GEODETIC DATA SHEET
BN0540 Primary Azimuth Mark
Grid Az BN0540SPC TX C -
CHERRY AZ MK 183 41
09.7 BN0540UTM 14 - CHERRY AZ MK
184 22 21.6 BN0540
BN0540-------------------------------------------
-------------------------- BN0540 PID
Reference Object Distance
Geod. Az BN0540
dddmmss.s
BN0540 BN0541 CHERRY RM 2
7.440 METERS 00148 BN0540 CV4542
CHERRY RM 1 7.675
METERS 17732 BN0540 BN0539 CHERRY RM 3
7.710 METERS 17741
BN0540 BN0538 CHERRY AZ MK
1842201.7 BN0540 BN0722 LOYAL
MTN MICROWE RADIO MAST APPROX. 9.3 KM
3531351.6 BN0540------------------------------
--------------------------------------- BN0540
BN0540 SUPERSEDED SURVEY
CONTROL BN0540 BN0540 ELLIP H (05/09/94)
520.61 (m) GP( ) 4
2 BN0540 NAD 83(1986)- 30 29 48.49063(N)
099 00 39.27999(W) AD( ) 3 BN0540 NAD 27
- 30 29 47.81630(N) 099 00 38.10070(W)
AD( ) 3 BN0540 NAVD 88 (05/09/94) 542.73
(m) 1780.6 (f) LEVELING 3
BN0540 NGVD 29 (10/23/89) 542.68 (m)
1780.4 (f) LEVELING 3 BN0540
BN0540.Superseded values are not recommended for
survey control. BN0540.NGS no longer adjusts
projects to the NAD 27 or NGVD 29 datums.
BN0540.See file dsdata.txt to determine how the
superseded data were derived.

53
GEODETIC DATA SHEET
BN0540_U.S. NATIONAL GRID SPATIAL ADDRESS
14RMU9895373837(NAD 83) BN0540_MARKER DS
TRIANGULATION STATION DISK BN0540_SETTING 7
SET IN TOP OF CONCRETE MONUMENT BN0540_STAMPING
CHERRY 1956 BN0540_MARK LOGO CGS
BN0540_PROJECTION PROJECTING 12 CENTIMETERS
BN0540_MAGNETIC O OTHER SEE DESCRIPTION
BN0540_STABILITY C MAY HOLD, BUT OF TYPE
COMMONLY SUBJECT TO BN0540STABILITY SURFACE
MOTION BN0540_SATELLITE THE SITE LOCATION WAS
REPORTED AS SUITABLE FOR BN0540SATELLITE
SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS - September 05, 2001
BN0540 BN0540 HISTORY - Date Condition
Report By BN0540 HISTORY - 1956
MONUMENTED CGS BN0540 HISTORY - 1969
GOOD CGS BN0540 HISTORY -
1982 GOOD NGS BN0540 HISTORY
- 19890106 GOOD NGS BN0540 HISTORY
- 19930306 GOOD NGS BN0540
HISTORY - 19960309 GOOD USPSQD
BN0540 HISTORY - 19980307 GOOD
NGS BN0540 HISTORY - 20010905 GOOD
INDIV BN0540 BN0540
STATION DESCRIPTION BN0540 BN0540'DESCRIBED BY
COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY 1956 (WFD) BN0540'THE
STATION IS 0.65 MILE NORTH OF CHERRY SPRINGS, 0.1
MILE BN0540'SOUTH OF THE GILLESPIE-MASON COUNTY
LINE AND ON THE RIGHT-OF-WAY

54
GEODETIC CONTROL DATA SHEET
National Geodetic Survey, Retrieval
Date SEPTEMBER 11, 2003 TA0047

TA0047 DESIGNATION - G
216 TA0047 PID - TA0047 TA0047
STATE/COUNTY- MN/COOK TA0047 USGS QUAD -
LONG ISLAND LAKE (1986) TA0047 TA0047
CURRENT SURVEY CONTROL TA0047
__________________________________________________
_________________ TA0047 NAD 83(1986)- 48 04
54.20 (N) 090 45 48.42 (W) HD_HELD1
TA0047 NAVD 88 - 512.698 (meters)
1682.08 (feet) ADJUSTED TA0047
__________________________________________________
_________________ TA0047 GEOID HEIGHT-
-30.65 (meters) GEOID99
TA0047 DYNAMIC HT - 512.802 (meters)
1682.42 (feet) COMP TA0047 MODELED GRAV-
980,798.7 (mgal) NAVD 88
TA0047 TA0047 VERT ORDER - SECOND CLASS 0
TA0047 TA0047.The horizontal coordinates were
established by differentially corrected
TA0047.hand held GPS obs and have an estimated
accuracy of /- 3 meters. TA0047 TA0047.The
orthometric height was determined by differential
leveling TA0047.and adjusted by the National
Geodetic Survey in June 1991. TA0047
TA0047.Photographs are available for this
station. TA0047 TA0047
North East Units Estimated Accuracy
TA0047SPC MN N - 278,477.4 974,048.5
MT (/- 3 meters HH1 GPS) TA0047
Up dated position by hand held GPS
55
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56
NAD 83 READJUSTMENT
NAD 83 READJUSTMENT
  • ONLY GPS DATA
  • CONTINUOUSLY OPERATING REFERENCE STATIONS
  • FEDERAL BASE NETWORK
  • COOPERATIVE BASE NETWORK
  • USER DENSIFICATION NETWORK
  • LAYERED ADJUSTMENT OF
  • 3,000 INDIVIDUAL PROJECTS INLCUDING MORE THAN
    59,000 STATIONS
  • BOTH NAD 83(NSRS) AND ITRF COORDINATES WILL BE
    PUBLISHED

57
NETWORK READJUSTMENTS
  • NAD 83 data that is NOT part of NSRS must be
    readjusted by contractor/user with original
    observations

58
NEW STANDARDS FOR GEODETIC CONTROL
  • Two accuracy standards
  • (http//fgdc.er.usgs.gov/standards/status/swgstat.
    html)
  • local accuracy ------------- adjacent
    points
  • network accuracy ---------- relative to CORS
  • Numeric quantities, units in cm (or mm)
  • Both are relative accuracy measures
  • Do not use distance dependent expression
  • Horizontal accuracies are radius of 2-D 95 error
    circle
  • Ellipsoidal/Orthometric heights are 1-D (linear)
    95 error

59
CONTINUOUSLY OPERATING REFERENCE STATIONS (CORS)
  • Installed and Operated by various
    Federal-State-local Agencies
  • NOAA/National Geodetic Survey
  • NOAA/OAR Forecast Systems Lab
  • U.S. Coast Guard - DGPS/NDGPS
  • Corps of Engineers - DGPS
  • FAA - WAAS/LAAS (Future)
  • State DOTs
  • County and City
  • Academia
  • Private Companies

CHL1 - CAPE HENLOPEN, DE
60
CONTINUOUSLY OPERATING REFERENCE STATIONS (CORS)
  • Variety of Geodetic Quality Dual-Frequency
  • Antennas and Receivers
  • Allen-Osborne
  • Ashtech/Thales
  • Leica
  • Trimble

CHL1 - CAPE HENLOPEN, DE
61
CONTINUOUSLY OPERATING REFERENCE STATIONS (CORS)
  • Some stations provide real-time code phase
    observations
  • 1-5 - 15 - 30 post-process carrier phase
    observations
  • Free access via Internet (RINEX-2 Format)
  • More than 425 Station National Network

62
CONTINUOUSLY OPERATING REFERENCE STATIONS (CORS)
  • NGS PROVIDES
  • Reference Site Survey Monumentation
  • Horizontal and Vertical NSRS Connections
  • NAD 83, ITRF94, ITRF96, ITRF97, ITRF00
    Coordinates
  • Network Data Collection - Hourly Daily
  • Daily 3D Network Integrity Adjustment
  • Public Data Distribution - Internet
  • (http//www.ngs.noaa.gov/CORS/cors-data.html)
  • 9 Year On-Line Data Holding

63
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64
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65
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66
ITRF 00 HOUSTON RRP2 (TXHU), TEXAS
Retrieved from NGS DataBase on 11/15/03 at
141449. _______________________________________
_____________________________________

Antenna Reference
Point(ARP) HOUSTON RRP2 CORS ARP
--------------------------------------
-------------
PID DF4379



ITRF00 POSITION (EPOCH
1997.0)
Computed in Mar., 2003 using 13 days of
data. X
-524578.515 m latitude 29 46 45.91022 N
Y -5515562.145 m
longitude 095 25 58.76631 W
Z 3149180.614 m ellipsoid height
12.001 m

ITRF00 VELOCITY
Set
equal to vel of hous Mar., 2003.
VX -0.0145 m/yr
northward -0.0045 m/yr
VY 0.0096 m/yr eastward
-0.0153 m/yr VZ
-0.0099 m/yr upward -0.0120 m/yr



NAD_83 POSITION (EPOCH
2002.0)
Transformed from ITRF00 (epoch 1997.0)
position in Mar., 2003. X
-524577.977 m latitude 29 46 45.89147 N
Y -5515563.571 m
longitude 095 25 58.74137 W
Z 3149180.732 m ellipsoid height
13.247 m

NAD_83 VELOCITY

Transformed from ITRF00 velocity in Mar., 2003.
VX -0.0008
m/yr northward -0.0002 m/yr
VY 0.0108 m/yr eastward
-0.0018 m/yr VZ
-0.0063 m/yr upward -0.0124 m/yr
_______________________________
_____________________________________________
67
CORS DATA QUALITY
68
IGS Tracking Network
http//igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/
69
OPUS WHAT IS IT?
  • On-line Positioning User Service
  • Provide GPS users faster easier access to the
    National Spatial Reference System (NSRS)

70
OPUS HOW DOES IT WORK?
  • Submit RINEX file through NGS web page
  • Processed automatically with NGS computers
    software
  • With respect to 3 suitable or user-selected
    National CORS
  • Solution via email in minutes

71
OPUS HOW DO I USE IT?
  • Go to OPUS web page www.ngs.noaa.gov/OPUS
  • Enter your email address
  • Use browse feature to select RINEX file on your
    computer
  • Select antenna type from menu
  • Enter antenna height in meters
  • Option to select State Plane Zone
  • Click UPLOAD
  • Check your email in a few minutes

72
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73
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74
DATUM TRANSFORMATIONS
  • 1. WHAT DATUM ARE THE EXISTING COORDINATES ON?
  • 2. WHAT DATUM DO I WANT THE NEW COORDINATES ON?
  • 3. HOW LARGE A GEOGRAPHICAL AREA DO I WANT TO
    CONVERT AT ONE TIME?
  • 4. HOW MANY POINTS ARE COMMON TO BOTH DATUMS?
  • 5. WHAT IS THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE COMMON
    POINTS?
  • 6. HOW ACCURATE ARE THE EXISTING COORDINATES?
  • 0.1 Foot
  • 1.0 Foot
  • 10. Feet
  • 7. HOW ACCURATE DO I WANT THE NEW COORDINATES?

75
DATUM TRANSFORMATIONS
  • MOLODENSKY
  • Converts latitude, longitude and ellipsoidal
    height to X,Y,Z Earth-Centered Coordinates.
  • Applies a 3-dimensional change in the origin (dX,
    dY,dZ)
  • Applies a change in the size and shape of the
    reference ellipsoid
  • Converts new X,Y,Z Earth-Centered Coordinates
    back to latitude, longitude and ellipsoidal
    height

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DATUM TRANSFORMATIONS
  • MOLODENSKY
  • For continental regions accuracy can be /- 8
    to 10 meters
  • Does not model network distortions very well.
  • Assumes heights in both systems are ellipsoidal
    (NAD 27 did not have ellipsoidal heights).

77
Z
Earth-Centered Earth-Fixed (ECEF)
Coordinate System
(X,Y,Z,)
A
Latitude Longitude Ellipsoid Height
Greenwich Meridian
ZA
Earth Mass Center
- Y
- X
YA
Y
X
XA
Equator
- Z
78
Z
Earth-Centered Earth-Fixed (ECEF)
Coordinate System
Y
X
Z
X
Y
79
3 Parameter Molodensky Transformation
In The Real World
dZ
dY
dX
80
I NEED TO TRANSFORM BETWEEN NAD 27 AND WGS 84
81
I NEED TO TRANSFORM BETWEEN NAD 27 AND WGS 84
82
MOLODENSKY TRANSFORMATION
  • COMPUTED vs. MODELED
  • Station CHERRY
  • NAD 27 NAD 83(1992)
    dX, dY,dZ
  • X -861,565.807 m X -
    861,575.021 m - 9.214 m
  • Y - 5,433,217.188 m Y -
    5,433,071.971 m 145.217 m
  • Z 3,218,031.876 m Z
    3,218,212.963 m 181.087 m
  • COMPUTED NIMA EAST
    NIMA CONUS
  • dX - 9 m dX -9 (0 m)
    dX -8 (1m)
  • dY 145 dY 161 (16 m)
    dY 160 (15 m)
  • dZ 181 dZ 179 (2 m)
    dZ 176 (5 m)

83
DATUM TRANSFORMATION IDEAL METHOD
  • SATISFIES ALL USERS REQUIREMENTS
  • CAPABLE OF TRANSFORMING LARGE HOLDINGS OF
    COORDINATE DATA
  • NEAR-REAL TIME APPLICATIONS
  • SIMPLE - METHOD SHOULD NOT REQUIRE AN EXPERT OR
    DECISIONS TO BE MADE
  • ACCURATE

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NADCON
  • DESIGNED TO SATISFY THE MAJORITY OF THE IDEAL
    METHOD DESIGN AND HAS DEFINED AS THE NATIONAL
    STANDARD.
  • DESIGN CRITERIA
  • Relies only on NGS archived data existing in both
    NAD 27 and NAD 83
  • Provides consistent results, both forward and
    inverse
  • Fast
  • Not tied to NGS Data Base
  • Small - Fit on PC
  • Accurate
  • 15 cm (1 sigma) in Conterminous U.S. NAD 27 -
    NAD 83(1986)
  • 5 cm (1 sigma) per State/Region NAD 83 (1986) -
    HARN

85
NADCON
N 0.12344 8 -1.87842
N 0.12249 8 -1.88963
N 0.12423 8 -1.81246
N 0.12568 8 -1.83364
N 0.12449 8 -1.88905
N 0.12640 8 -1.85407
N 0.12499 8 -1.86543
86
COORDINATE TRANSFORMATION COMPARISON NAD 27 to
NAD 83(1992)
  • MOLODENSKY
  • ADJUSTED vs. TRANSFORMED
  • Station CHERRY
  • LATITUDE
    LONGITUDE
  • 30-29- 48.47740
    099-00-39.29203 - PUBLISHED
  • 30-29-48.67650
    099-00-39.37955 - MOLODENSKY

  • .19910 .08752

  • 6.131 m 2.334 m
  • THIS CORRESPONDS TO A POSITIONAL
  • DIFFERENCE OF 6.560 m (21.52 ft)

87
COORDINATE TRANSFORMATION COMPARISON NAD
27 to NAD 83(1992)
  • NADCON
  • (ftp//ftp.ngs.noaa.gov/pub/pcsoft/nadcon/)
  • ADJUSTED vs. TRANSFORMED
  • Station CHERRY

  • LATITUDE LONGITUDE
  • 30-29-48.47740 099-00-39.29203
    - PUBLISHED
  • 30-29-48.48670
    099-00-39.28787 - NADCON

  • .00930 .00416

  • 0.286 m 0.111 m
  • THIS CORRESPONDS TO A POSITIONAL
  • DIFFERENCE OF 0.307 m (1.01 ft)

88
GPS NETWORKS TO SUPPORT GIS
  • CLASSICAL
  • Lots of control points spaced at regular
    intervals
  • (1-3 miles)
  • CONTEMPORARY
  • CORS and Monumentation as needed

89
GPS NETWORKS TO SUPPORT GIS
  • OBSERVE TO NATIONAL STANDARDS
  • TIES TO CORS, HARN and LOCAL BMs
  • QUALITY MONUMENTATION

90
GPS NETWORKS TO SUPPORT GIS CLASSICAL
91
GPS NETWORKS TO SUPPORT GIS CONTEMPORARY
92
CLASSICAL GPS NETWORKS
  • PROS
  • Monumentation usually established in only 1 or 2
    GPS survey campaigns
  • Complete coverage
  • No time lag for users access to control
  • CONS
  • Large initial cost
  • Continual network maintenance
  • Monumentation destroyed or disturbed before
    theyre used

93
CONTEMPORARY GPS NETWORKS
  • PROS
  • Minimal permanent monumentation
  • Project control established when and where needed
  • Costs spread over time
  • CONS
  • Qualified staff to coordinate user requirements
  • Time lag to establish project control

94
GPS NETWORKS TO SUPPORT GIS
  • GPS SURVEY DATA
  • BLUE - BOOK SUBMISSION OF DATA FOR
  • INCLUSION IN NSRS
  • OR
  • DATA MAINTAINED AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

95
GPS NETWORKS TO SUPPORT GIS BLUE-BOOK
  • PROS
  • DATA MAINTAINED IN NSRS IN PERPETUTITY
  • PROVIDES IMPROVED DATA FOR FUTURE NATIONAL GEOID
    MODELS
  • UNIVERSAL DATA ACCESS VIA NGS WEB SITE
  • GOOD HOUSEKEEPING SEAL OF APPROVAL
  • CONS
  • INCREASED INITIAL COST (15 - 20)
  • SLIGHT INCREASE IN INITIAL DATA PROCESSING TIME

96
GPS NETWORKS TO SUPPORT GIS LOCAL MAINTENANCE
  • PROS
  • DECREASED INITIAL SURVEY COSTS
  • LOCAL CONTROL OF ALL DATA
  • CONS
  • READJUSTMENTS TO FUTURE REFERENCE FRAME CHANGES
    MUST BE DONE AT THE LOCAL LEVEL
  • DATA MAY BE DIFFICULT TO LOCATE FOR NON-LOCALS
  • DATA DOES NOT CONTRIBUTE TO FUTURE NATIONAL GEOID
    MODELS

97
GOOD COORDINATION BEGINS WITH GOOD COORDINATES
GEOGRAPHY WITHOUT GEODESY IS A FELONY
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