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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS THE CARIBBEAN PART 3: EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS

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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS THE CARIBBEAN PART 3: EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS THE CARIBBEAN PART 3: EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS


1
LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS THE
CARIBBEAN PART 3 EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS
Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster
Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA 
2
TECTONIC PLATES
3
Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters
  • Planet Earths heat flow causes lithospheric
    interactions, which cause EARTHQUAKES

4
Natural Phenomena that can Cause Disasters
  • Planet Earths Restlessness causes subduction of
    tectonic plates, which can cause
  • TSUNAMIS

5
THE NORTH AM. AND CARIBBEAN PLATES CHARACTERIZED
BY SUBDUCTION
6
THE CARIBBEAN BASIN
7
The Caribbean long referred to as the West
Indies, includes more than 7,000 islands of
these, 13 are independent island countries
8
ISLANDS POSSESSING MINOR VOLCANIC FEATURES
  • Aruuba, Barbados, Bahamas, Bonaire, Cayman
    Islands, Saint Croix, and Antigua

9
ISLANDS POSSESSING RUGGED MOUNTAIN RANGES
  • Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica,
    ,Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Saint Kitts, Saint
    Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola,
    Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique,
    and Trinidad and Tobago

10
ELEMENTS OF RISK AND DISASTER
11
ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI RISK
RISK
12
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13
EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI HAZARDS ARE POTENTIAL
DISASTER AGENTS
14
EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS
  • SURFACE FAULT RUPTURE, GROUND SHAKING, GROUND
    FAILURE (LIQUEFACTION, LANDSLIDES), AFTERSHOCKS

15
GROUND SHAKING
16
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS HAVE DIFFERENT
VULNERABILITIES TO GROUND SHAKING
MEAN DAMAGE RATIO, OF REPLACEMENT
VALUE
INTENSITY
17
CAUSES OF DAMAGE
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING
SOIL AMPLIFICATION
PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING GROUND
FAILURE)
IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN
EARTHQUAKES
FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES
DISASTER LABORATORIES
LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
INATTENTION TO NON-STRUCTURAL
ELEMENTS
18
TSUNAMI HAZARDS
  • TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP, WAVE REGRESSION, COASTAL
    EROSION

19
A TSUNAMI WAVE CAN REACH 10 M OR MORE IN HEIGHT
20
Tsunamis Are Associated with Subduction Zone
Earthquakes
  • M 7 or larger earthquakes that occur in oceanic
    subduction zones can cause
  • Tsunamis

21
CAUSES OF DAMAGE
HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVES
INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE RUNUP
VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE RUNUP
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS
TSUNAMIS
FLOODING
DISASTER LABORATORIES
INADEQUATE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATION
PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI
22
A DISASTER CAN HAPPEN WHEN THE POTENTIAL
DISASTER AGENTS OF AN EARTHQUAKE OR A TSUNAMI
INTERACT WITH A CARIBBEAN NATIONS COMMUNITIES
23
A DISASTER is ---
  • --- the set of failures that overwhelm the
    capability of a community to respond without
    external help  when three continuums 1)  people,
    2) community (i.e., a set of habitats,
    livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3)
    complex events (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis,)
    intersect at a point in space and time.

24
Disasters are caused by single- or
multiple-event natural hazards that, (for
various reasons), cause extreme levels of
mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness,
economic losses, or environmental impacts.
25
THE REASONS ARE . . .
  • When it does happen, the functions of the
    communitys buildings and infrastructure will be
    LOST because they are UNPROTECTED with the
    appropriate codes and standards.

26
THE REASONS ARE . . .
  • The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely
    happen, not to mention the low-probability of
    occurrencehigh-probability of adverse
    consequences event.

27
THE REASONS ARE . . .
  • The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO
    or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic
    framework for early threat identification and
    coordinated local, national, regional, and
    international countermeasures.

28
THE REASONS ARE . . .
  • The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in
    a timely and effective manner to the full
    spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency
    situations.

29
THE REASONS ARE . . .
  • The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and
    reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from
    either the current experience or the cumulative
    prior experiences.

30
MAJOR EARTHQUAKESTSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN
31
MAJOR CARIBBEAN EARTHQUAKES--TSUNAMIS
  • A major earthquake (some accompanied by tsunamis)
    occurs on average every 50 years in the Caribbean.

32
MAJOR CARIBBEAN EARTHQUAKES--TSUNAMIS
  • In the past 500 years, a dozen major earthquakes
    of magnitude 7.0 or greater (some with tsunamis)
    have occurred in the Caribbean near Puerto Rico,
    the U.S. Virgin Islands and the island of
    Hispaniola, shared by Haiti and the Dominican
    Republic.

33
MAJOR CARIBBEAN EARTHQUAKES--TSUNAMIS
  • Before the March 12, 2010 destructive earthquake
    in Haiti, the most recent major earthquake was
    the M8.1 quake that occurred in 1946 off the
    northeast coast of the Dominican Republic,
    triggering a tsunami that killed about 1,800
    people.

34
THE CARIBBEAN DYNAMIC LABORATORIES FOR LEARNING
  • EACH CARIBBEAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI TEACHES
    IMPORTANT TECHNICAL AND POLITICAL LESSONS ABOUT
    DISASTER RESILIENCE.

35
HAITI EARTHQIAKE
36
THE HAITI EARTHQUAKE MARCH 12, 2010
37
NO TSUNAMI THE M7.0 EARTHQUAKE OCCURRED ON A
STRIKE-SLIP FAULT
38
THE DEADLIEST DISASTER OF 2010 MARCH 12, 2010
  • M7.0 Haiti Earthquake that killed 230,000,
    largely because of the inadequacy of the building
    code, left survivors stuck in tent cities
    battling a hurricane (Tomas), cholera outbreak,
    and health-care problems for the rest of the
    year.

39
DEATH TOLL REACHED AN ESTIMATED 230,OOO
40
PUERTO RICO EARTHQUAKE (AKA SAN FERMIN QUAKE) AND
TSUNAMI
41
PUERTO RICAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI
  • At 10 am on October 11, 1918, the island of
    Puerto Rico was struck by a magnitude 7.5
    earthquake, centered in the Mona Passage.
    approximately 15 kilometers off Puerto Ricos
    northwestern coast

42
PUERTO RICAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI
  • The earthquake killed 80 and caused widespread
    destruction rated at 4 million across Puerto
    Rico.
  • The tsunami produced wave run-up as high as
    6-12 m (20-35 feet) along the western coast of
    the island, killing at least 40.

43
THE ALTERNATIVE TO AN EARTHQUAKE--TSUNAMI
DISASTER IS EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI DISASTER
RESILIENCE
44
CARIBBEAN NATIONS COMMUNITIES
DATA BASES AND INFORMATION
HAZARDS GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE
SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN
UP AFTERSHOCKS
45
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • ALL EARTHQUAKES-TSUNAMIS
  • PREPAREDNESS FOR ALL THE LIKELY HAZARDS IS
    ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

46
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • ALL EARTHQUAKES-TSUNAMIS TECHNOLOGIES
    THAT FACILITATE THREAT IDENTI-FICATION AND/OR
    EARLY WARNING AND EVACUATION ARE ESSENTIAL FOR
    DISASTER RESILIENCE

47
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • ALL EARTHQUAKES-TSUNAMIS
  • TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR
    DISASTER RESILIENCE

48
EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN BASIN
ARE INEVITABLE
  • ---SO, DONT WAIT FOR ANOTHER REMINDER OF THE
    IMPORTANCE OF BECOMING EARTHQUAKETSUNAMI
    DIS-ASTER RESILIENT.

49
STRATEGIC COLLABORATION FOR BECOMINMG WINDSTORM
DISASTER RESILIENT
50
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51
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52
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
53
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EQTS DISASTER
RESILIENCE
  • MEASURMENT TECHNOLOGIES (E.G., GROUND SHAKING
    STRAIN)
  • INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (E.G., GIS)
  • RISK MODELING (E.G., HAZUS, INSURANCE
    UNDERWRITING)
  • DATABASES
  • DISASTER SCENARIOS
  • ZONATION OF POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS AS A TOOL
    FOR POLICY DECISIONS

54
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EQTS DISASTER
REWILIENCE
  • AUTOMATED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMEMT
  • PREFABRICATION AND MODULARIZATION
  • ADVANCED MATERIALS (E.G., COMPOSITES)
  • COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN
  • PERFORMANCE BASED CODES AND STANDARDS
  • ACTIVE AND PASSIVE ENERGY DISSIPATION DEVICES
    (E.G., BASE ISOLATION)
  • REAL-TIME MONITORING AND WARNING SYSTEMS

55
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EQTS DISASTER
RESILIENCE
  • PROBABILISTIC FORECASTS OF PHYSICAL EFFECTS
  • MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES (E.G., SEISMIC
    NETWORKS, TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM)
  • DATABASES
  • SEISMIC ENGINEERING
  • MAPS GROUND SHAKING, GTOUND FAILURE, TSUNAMI
    WAVE RUNIP
  • DISASTER SCENARIOS
  • WARNING SYSTEMS
  • RISK MODELING (E.G., HAZUS, INSURANCE
    UNDERWRITING)

56
TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
  • FACILITATES GETTING PEOPLE OUT OF HARMS WAY OF
    TSUNAMI WAVE RUN UP THROUGH HORIZONAL AND
    VERTICAL EVACUATION
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