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The Media : Conducted and Wireless

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Title: Media Author: Curt M. White Last modified by: cwhite Created Date: 3/31/2000 5:25:39 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Media : Conducted and Wireless


1
Data Communications and Computer Networks A
Business Users Approach
  • Chapter 3
  • The Media Conducted and Wireless

2
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3
  • Introduction
  • The world of computer networks and data
    communications would not exist if there were no
    medium by which to transfer data.
  • The two major categories of media include
  • Conducted media
  • Wireless media

3
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Twisted Pair Wire One or more pairs of single
conductor wires that have been twisted around
each other. Twisted pair wire is classified by
category. Twisted pair wire is currently
Category 1 through Category 6, although
Categories 2 and 4 are obsolete. Twisting the
wires helps to eliminate electromagnetic
interference between the two wires. Shielding
can further help to eliminate interference.
4
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

5
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

6
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

7

8
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Coaxial Cable A single wire wrapped in a foam
insulation surrounded by a braided metal shield,
then covered in a plastic jacket. Cable can be
thick or thin. Baseband coaxial technology uses
digital signaling in which the cable carries only
one channel of digital data. Broadband coaxial
technology transmits analog signals and is
capable of supporting multiple channels of data.
9
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

10
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

11
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Fiber Optic Cable A thin glass cable
approximately a little thicker than a human hair
surrounded by a plastic coating and packaged into
an insulated cable. A photo diode or laser
generates pulses of light which travel down the
fiber optic cable and are received by a photo
receptor.
12
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

13
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Fiber Optic Cable Fiber optic cable is capable
of supporting millions of bits per second for
1000s of meters Thick cable (62.5/125 micron)
causes more ray collisions, so you have to
transmit slower. This is step index multimode
fiber. Typically use LED for light source,
shorter distance transmissions Thin cable very
thin (8.3/125 microns) very little reflection,
fast transmission, typically uses a laser, longer
distance transmissions. AKA single mode fiber
14
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

15
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Fiber Optic Cable Fiber optic cable is
susceptible to reflection (where the light source
bounces around inside the cable) and refraction
(where the light source passes out of the core
and into the surrounding cladding). Thus, fiber
optic cable is not perfect either. Noise is
still a potential problem.
16
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3
It is very common to mix fiber with twisted pair
in LANs.

17
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

18
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Wireless Media Radio, satellite transmissions,
and infrared light are all different forms of
electromagnetic waves that are used to transmit
data. Note in the following figure how each
source occupies a different set of frequencies.
19
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

20
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Terrestrial Microwave Land-based, line-of-sight
transmission Approximately 20-30 miles maximum
between towers Transmits data at hundreds of
millions of bits per second Popular with
telephone companies and business to business
transmissions
21
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

22
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3
Often the microwave antennas are on towers and
buildings.

23
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Satellite Microwave Similar to terrestrial
microwave except the signal travels from a ground
station on earth to a satellite and back to
another ground station. Satellites can be
classified by how far out into orbit each one is
(LEO, MEO, GEO, and HEO).
24
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

25
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Satellite Microwave LEO - Low Earth Orbit - 100
miles to 1000 miles. Used for pagers, wireless
e-mail, special mobile telephones, spying,
videoconferencing. MEO - Middle Earth Orbit -
1000 to 22,300 miles. Used for GPS (global
positioning systems) and government. GEO -
Geosynchronous Orbit - 22,300 miles. Always over
the same position on earth (and usually over the
equator). Used for weather, television, and
government operations.
26
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Satellite Microwave HEO Highly Elliptical
Orbit A fourth type of orbit used by the
military for spying and by scientific
organizations for photographing celestial
bodies. When satellite is far out into space, it
takes photos. When satellite is close to earth,
it transmits data.
27
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

28
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Satellite Microwave Satellite microwave can also
be classified by its configuration Bulk carrier
configuration Multiplexed configuration Single-u
ser earth station configuration (e.g. VSAT)
29
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

30
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Cellular Telephone Wireless telephone service,
also called mobile telephone, cell phone, and
PCS. To support multiple users in a metropolitan
area (market), the market is broken into
cells. Each cell has its own transmission tower
and set of assignable channels.
31
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

32
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

33
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Cellular Telephone 1st Generation AMPS -
Advanced Mobile Phone Service - First popular
mobile phone service, uses analog signals and
dynamically assigned frequency division
multiplexing. D-AMPS - Digital Advanced Mobile
Phone Service - Applies digital time division
multiplexing on top of AMPS.
34
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Cellular Telephone 2nd Generation PCS -
Personal Communication Systems - All-digital
mobile phone service 2nd generation PCS phones
came in three technologies TDMA - Time division
multiple access CDMA - Code division multiple
access GSM - Global system for mobile
communications
35
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3
Cellular Telephone 2.5 Generation ATT
Wireless, Cingular Wireless, and T-Mobile
(formerly VoiceStream) now using GPRS (General
Packet Radio Service) in their GSM networks (can
transmit data at 30 kbps to 40 kbps) Verizon
Wireless, Alltel, U.S. Cellular, and Sprint PCS
are using CDMA2000 1xRTT (one carrier radio -
transmission technology) (50 kbps to 75
kbps) Nextel uses IDEN technology

36
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Cellular Telephone 3rd Generation UMTS
(Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) -
also called Wideband CDMA the 3G version of
GPRS UMTS is not backward compatible with GSM,
so first UMTS phones will have to be dual-mode
based on TDMA (same as D-AMPS and GSM) 1XEV (1 X
Enhanced Version) - The 3G replacement for 1xRTT
will come in two flavors 1xEV-DO for data
only 1xEV-DV for data and voice
37
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Cellular Digital Packet Data Technology that
supports a wireless connection for the transfer
of computer data from a mobile location to the
public telephone network and the Internet. Can
be used in conjunction with mobile telephones and
laptop computers. All digital transfer but
relatively slow at 19,200 bps. Emergency
services make use of CDPD.
38
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Infrared Transmissions Special transmissions
that use a focused ray of light in the infrared
frequency range. Very common with remote control
devices, but can also be used for
device-to-device transfers, such as PDA to
computer.
39
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) WAP allows
wireless devices such as mobile telephones, PDAs,
pagers, and two-way radios to access the
Internet. WAP is designed to work with small
screens and with limited interactive
controls. WAP incorporates Wireless Markup
Language (WML) which is used to specify the
format and presentation of text on the screen.
40
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) WAP may be
used for applications such as - travel
directions - sports scores - e-mail - online
address books - traffic alerts - banking -
news Possible short-comings of WAP include low
speeds, security, and a very small user interface.
41
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

42
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Broadband Wireless Systems Delivers Internet
services into homes and businesses. Designed to
bypass the local loop telephone line. Transmits
voice, data and video over high frequency radio
signals.
43
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

44
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Broadband Wireless Systems Multichannel
multipoint distribution service (MMDS) and local
multipoint distribution service (LMDS) looked
promising a couple years ago but died off. Now
companies are eyeing Wi-Max an IEEE 802.16
spec initially 300k to 2M bps over a range of as
much as 30 miles forthcoming spec (802.16e) will
allow for mobile devices
45
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Bluetooth Bluetooth is a Radio Frequency
specification for short-range, point-to-multipoint
voice and data transfer. Bluetooth can transmit
through solid, non-metal objects. Its typical
link range is from 10 cm to 10 m, but can be
extended to 100 m by increasing the power.
46
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Bluetooth Bluetooth will enable users to connect
to a wide range of computing and
telecommunication devices without the need of
connecting cables. Typical uses include phones
and pagers, modems, LAN access devices, headsets,
notebooks, desktop computers, and PDAs. Want to
go to the movies?
47
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11) This technology
transmits data between workstations and local
area networks using high speed radio
frequencies. Current technologies allow up to 54
Mbps data transfer at distances up to hundreds of
feet. (IEEE 802.11b, a, g) More on this in
Chapter Seven (LANs)
48
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Free Space Optics Uses lasers, or more
economically infrared transmitting devices Line
of sight between buildings Typically short
distances, such as across the street Newer
auto-tracking systems keep lasers aligned when
buildings shake from wind and traffic
49
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Free Space Optics Current FSO speeds go from T-3
(45 Mbps) up to OC-48 (2.5 Gbps) with faster
systems in the lab Major weakness is fog A
typical FSO has a link margin of about 20
dB Under perfect conditions air reduces a
systems power by approx 1 dB/km
50
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Free Space Optics Heavy fog can cause a loss of
400 db/km (rendering 20 dB systems to 50
meters) Scintillation is also a problem
(especially in hot weather).
51
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Ultra-wideband UWB not limited to a fixed
bandwidth but broadcasts over a wide range of
frequencies simultaneously. Many of these
frequencies are used by other sources, but UWB
uses such low power that it should not
interfere with these other sources. Can achieve
speeds up to 100 Mbps (unshared) but for small
distances such as wireless LANs.
52
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Ultra-wideband Proponents say UWB gets something
for nothing, since it shares frequencies with
other sources. Opponents say too much
interference. Cell phone industry really against
UWB because CDMA most susceptible to
interference. GPS may also be affected One
solution may be have two types of systems one
for indoors (stronger) and one for outdoors (1/10
the power)
53
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

54

55

56
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Media Selection Criteria Cost Speed Distance and
expandability Environment Security
57
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Media Selection Criteria - Cost Different types
of cost Initial cost - What does a particular
type of medium cost to purchase? To
install? Maintenance/support cost ROI (return
on investment) - If one medium is cheaper to
purchase and install but is not cost effective,
where is the savings?
58
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Media Selection Criteria - Speed Two different
forms of speed Propagation speed the time to
send the first bit across the medium. This speed
depends upon the medium. Airwaves and fiber are
speed of light. Copper wire is two thirds the
speed of light. Data transfer speed the time to
transmit the rest of the bits in the message.
This speed is measured in bits per second.
59
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Media Selection Criteria - Distance and
Expandability Can this choice of medium be
expanded easily? What is needed to extend the
distance? A repeater? An amplifier? How much
noise is introduced with this expansion?
60
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Media Selection Criteria - Environment Is the
intended environment electromagnetically noisy?
If so, should you use shielding? Or fiber? If
using wireless, are there other wireless signals
that can interfere? Will the microwave or free
space optics be affected by bad weather?
61
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Media Selection Criteria - Security Is the
medium going to be carrying secure data? Should
you worry about wiretapping? Encryption of the
signal/data can help, but may not be the perfect
solution.
62
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Conducted Media In Action How do we wire a local
area network? Remember using Category 5e
unshielded twisted pair, the maximum segment
length is 100 meters. A wall jack is a passive
device and does not regenerate a signal. Hub to
hub connections are often fiber optic cable.
63
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

64
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Interconnecting Two Buildings Two buildings are
separated by 400 meters. How do we interconnect
them? Twisted pair? (Do we even have
access?) Coax? Fiber? Wireless? Other? (Chapter
12)
65
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Wireless Media In Action DataMining Corporation
has one office in Chicago and one in Los
Angeles. There is a need to transmit large
amounts of data between the two
sites. DataMining is considering using a Very
Small Aperture Terminal satellite system.
66
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3

Wireless Media In Action Cost is proportional to
high amount of traffic with very high
reliability. Speed is high enough to support
companys needs. Distance can easily expand
across the U.S. Satellite systems are robust in
most environments. Security can be very good
with encryption.
67
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 3
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