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Learner Centered Astronomy A Teaching Excellence Workshop

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Learner Centered Astronomy A Teaching Excellence Workshop Ed Prather and Gina Brissenden University of Arizona Center for Astronomy Education – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Learner Centered Astronomy A Teaching Excellence Workshop


1
Learner Centered Astronomy A Teaching
Excellence Workshop
  • Ed Prather and Gina Brissenden University of
    Arizona
  • Center for Astronomy Education
  • Sponsored by the NASA Navigator Public Engagement
    Programs
  •  
  • http//astronomy101.jpl.nasa.gov

2
What Can I do Besides Lecture to Engage Students
in their Learning?
  • Ask students questions (not all questions are
    equal). Use demonstrations (interactive lecture
    demos)
  • Surprise quizzes (graded/ungraded)
  • In-class writing (with/without discussion) -
    muddiest point - summary of today's main points -
    5-minute free writing
  • Think-Pair-Share (Peer Instruction-ConcepTests)
  • Small Group Interactions
  • Student Debates (individual/group)
  • Whole Class Discussions
  • Jigsawing

3
Let's Try an In-Class Small Group Activity
  • From 
  • Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy
  • Prather, Slater, Adams and Brissenden (2nd
    edition 2007)

4
How Research on Student Beliefs and Reasoning
Difficulties are used to Promote a
Learner-Centered Introductory Astronomy Classroom
5
OR Are you really teaching if your students are
not learning?
6
Another talk about the teaching and learning..
7
How often do you hear the following from your
students?
  • I just cant do science!
  • I just cant do math!
  • I understand your lectures and the readings, but
    I cant do the homework.
  • I did all of the homework three times, but I
    cant do well on your tests.
  • I just cant do history!

From a teaching and learning perspective, just
what is it that makes astronomy different?
8
Astronomy Diagnostics Test (ADT)
BUT I AM A GREAT TEACHER!!!!
  • If you could see stars during the day, this is
    what the sky would look like at noon on a given
    day. The Sun is near the stars of the
    constellation Gemini. Near which constellation
    would you expect the Sun to be located at sunset?
  • A) Leo C) Gemini E) Pisces
  • B) Cancer D) Taurus

11
73
OOPS!!
West ?
? East
South
9
From How People Learn
  • Humans are viewed as goal-directed agents who
    actively seek information. They come to formal
    education with a range of prior knowledge,
    skills, beliefs, and concepts that significantly
    influence what they notice about the environment
    and how they organize and interpret it. This, in
    turn, affects their abilities to remember,
    reason, solve problems, and acquire new
    knowledge. If students initial ideas and
    beliefs are ignored, the understandings that they
    develop can be very different from what the
    teacher intends.

HOW PEOPLE LEARN, National Research Council,
National Academy Press, 2000.
10
How People Learn
  • Students enter the classroom with preconceptions
    about how the world works. If their initial
    understanding is not fully engaged, they may fail
    to grasp new concepts in meaningful ways that
    last beyond the purposes of an exam.
  • To fully develop competence, students must (1)
    have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, (2)
    understand interrelationships among facts and
    concepts and (3) organize knowledge in ways that
    facilitate retrieval and application
  • A metacognitive approach to instruction can
    help students learn to take control of their own
    learning and monitor progress.
  • How People Learn Brain, Mind, Experience, and
    School (Expanded Edition), National Research
    Council, National Academy Press, 2000.

11
A Commonly Held Inaccurate Model of Teaching and
Learning
12
So What Can You Do About It?
  • Lecture more loudly?

13
Assumption 1 - Lecture is ineffective at
promoting deep conceptual change.
  • This was NOT a traditional case study that had a
    control group and used two treatments with a
    randomized population of participants
  • Population students enrolled in the
    introductory astronomy course for non-science
    majors

14
Assumption 1 - Lecture is ineffective at
promoting deep conceptual change.
  • Instrument used A 68 items research based
    multiple choice questionnaire
  • Pre-Course two forms, AB, which each contained
    a subset of questions
  • Post-Lecture questions administered in subsets
    that directly reflected topic of lecture

15
Celestial Motion of Objects
16
Celestial Motion of Objects
  • Before Lecture (N42) 2 correct

17
What Causes Moon Phases
  • The diagram below shows Earth and the Sun as
    well as five different possible positions for the
    Moon. Which position of the Moon best corresponds
    with the phase of the Moon shown in the figure at
    the right?

18
What Causes Moon Phases
  • The diagram below shows Earth and the Sun as
    well as five different possible positions for the
    Moon. Which position of the Moon best corresponds
    with the phase of the Moon shown in the figure at
    the right?
  • Before Lecture (N42) 5 correct

19
Blackbody Radiation LT
  • The graph below shows the blackbody spectra for
    three different stars. Which of the stars is at
    the highest temperature?
  • a)  Star A
  • b)  Star B
  • c)  Star C

20
Blackbody Radiation LT
  • The graph at right shows the blackbody spectra
    for three different stars. Which of the stars is
    at the highest temperature?
  • a) Star A
  • b) Star B
  • c) Star C
  • Before Lecture (N42) 12 correct

21
H-R Diagrams and Spectral Class
  • A red giant of spectral type K9 and a red main
    sequence star of the same spectral type have the
    same
  • a)  luminosity.
  • b)  temperature.
  • c)  absolute magnitude.

22
H-R Diagrams and Spectral Class
  • A red giant of spectral type K9 and a red main
    sequence star of the same spectral type have the
    same
  • a)  luminosity.
  • b)  temperature.
  • c)  absolute magnitude.
  • Before Lecture (N39) 41 correct

23
Expansion of the Universe
24
Expansion of the Universe
  • Before Lecture (N39) 19 correct

25
Looking at Distant Objects
Imagine that you simultaneously receive the
satellite transmission of two pictures of two
people that live on planets orbiting two
different stars. Each image shows the people at
their 21st birthday parties. Consider the
following possible interpretations that could be
made from your observations. Which do you think
is the most plausible interpretation?
a) Both people are the same age but at different
distances from you. b) The people are actually
different ages but at the same distance from
you. c)  The person that is closer to you is
actually the older of the two people. d)  The
person that is farther from you is actually the
older of the two people.
26
Looking at Distant Objects
Imagine that you simultaneously receive the
satellite transmission of two pictures of two
people that live on planets orbiting two
different stars. Each image shows the people at
their 21st birthday parties. Consider the
following possible interpretations that could be
made from your observations. Which do you think
is the most plausible interpretation?
a) Both people are the same age but at different
distances from you. b) The people are actually
different ages but at the same distance from
you. c)  The person that is closer to you is
actually the older of the two people. d)  The
person that is farther from you is actually the
older of the two people.
  • Before Lecture (N39) 53 correct

27
Assumption 1 - Lecture is ineffective at
promoting deep conceptual change.
  • Instrument used A 68 items research based
    multiple choice questionnaire
  • Pre-Course two forms, AB, which each contained
    a subset of questions
  • Pre-Course mean 30 (nA39,nB42)

28
So What Can You Do About It?
  • Lecture more loudly?

29
Funky Winkerbean BY TOM BATIUK
30
(No Transcript)
31
(No Transcript)
32
Celestial Motion of Objects
  • Before Lecture (N42) 2 correct

33
Celestial Motion of Objects
  • Before Lecture (N42) 2 correct
  • After Lecture (N 135) 19 correct

34
What Causes Moon Phases
  • The diagram below shows Earth and the Sun as
    well as five different possible positions for the
    Moon. Which position of the Moon best corresponds
    with the phase of the Moon shown in the figure at
    the right?
  • Before Lecture (N42) 5 correct

35
What Causes Moon Phases
  • The diagram below shows Earth and the Sun as
    well as five different possible positions for the
    Moon. Which position of the Moon best corresponds
    with the phase of the Moon shown in the figure at
    the right?
  • Before Lecture (N42) 5 correct
  • After Lecture (N127) 53 correct

36
Blackbody Radiation LT
  • The graph at right shows the blackbody spectra
    for three different stars. Which of the stars is
    at the highest temperature?
  • a) Star A
  • b) Star B
  • c) Star C
  • Before Lecture (N42) 12 correct

37
Blackbody Radiation LT
  • The graph at right shows the blackbody spectra
    for three different stars. Which of the stars is
    at the highest temperature?
  • a) Star A
  • b) Star B
  • c) Star C
  • Before Lecture (N42) 12 correct
  • After Lecture (N120) 16 correct

38
H-R Diagrams and Spectral Class
  • A red giant of spectral type K9 and a red main
    sequence star of the same spectral type have the
    same
  • a)  luminosity.
  • b)  temperature.
  • c)  absolute magnitude.
  • Before Lecture (N39) 41 correct

39
H-R Diagrams and Spectral Class
  • A red giant of spectral type K9 and a red main
    sequence star of the same spectral type have the
    same
  • a)  luminosity.
  • b)  temperature.
  • c)  absolute magnitude.
  • Before Lecture (N39) 41 correct
  • After Lecture (N86) 48 correct

40
Expansion of the Universe
  • Before Lecture (N39) 19 correct

41
Expansion of the Universe
  • Before Lecture (N39) 19 correct
  • After Lecture (N 85) 27 correct

42
Looking at Distant Objects
Imagine that you simultaneously receive the
satellite transmission of two pictures of two
people that live on planets orbiting two
different stars. Each image shows the people at
their 21st birthday parties. Consider the
following possible interpretations that could be
made from your observations. Which do you think
is the most plausible interpretation?
a) Both people are the same age but at different
distances from you. b) The people are actually
different ages but at the same distance from
you. c)  The person that is closer to you is
actually the older of the two people. d)  The
person that is farther from you is actually the
older of the two people.
  • Before Lecture (N39) 53 correct

43
Looking at Distant Objects
Imagine that you simultaneously receive the
satellite transmission of two pictures of two
people that live on planets orbiting two
different stars. Each image shows the people at
their 21st birthday parties. Consider the
following possible interpretations that could be
made from your observations. Which do you think
is the most plausible interpretation?
a) Both people are the same age but at different
distances from you. b) The people are actually
different ages but at the same distance from
you. c)  The person that is closer to you is
actually the older of the two people. d)  The
person that is farther from you is actually the
older of the two people.
  • Before Lecture (N39) 53 correct
  • After Lecture (N 94) 51 correct

44
Assumption 1 Lecture is ineffective at
promoting deep conceptual change.
  • Instrument used A 68 items research based
    multiple choice questionnaire
  • Pre-Course two forms, AB, which each contained
    a subset of questions
  • Post-Lecture questions administered in subsets
    that directly reflected topic of lecture

Pre-Course mean 30 (nA39,nB42) Post-Lecture
mean 52 (n 100)
45
So What Can You Do About It?
  • Lecture more loudly?
  • Its not what the instructor does that matters
    rather, it is what the students do that matters
  • Create a learner-centered environment that
    promotes the intellectual engagement of your
    students
  • For large-enrollment lectures, we created
    Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy

46
(No Transcript)
47
Development of Lecture-Tutorials for
Introductory Astronomy
  • Based on the topics faculty most often cover
  • Require 15-minutes and are designed for easy
    implementation into existing traditional lecture
    courses
  • Socratic-dialogue driven, highly-structured
    collaborative learning activities designed to
  • elicit misconceptions
  • confront naïve, incomplete, or inaccurate ideas
  • resolve contradictions
  • demonstrate the power of THEIR conceptual models

48
Idealized Classroom Implementation
  • Professor lectures for approximately 20 minutes
    on core ideas of the topic to prepare students
    for working on the activity
  • Students are posed a conceptually challenging
    question on the presented lecture material to set
    the stage for the activity to come
  • Class is divided into pairs or small groups and
    instructed to work collaboratively and reach
    consensus on the questions presented in the
    lecture-tutorial activity
  • Professor debriefs the activity interactively
    highlighting the difficulties in reasoning and
    common problems
  • Professor returns to lecture mode on next course
    topic

49
Drum roll please
Lecture-Tutorial Motion
50
(No Transcript)
51
Idealized Classroom Implementation
  • Professor lectures for approximately 20 minutes
    on core ideas of the topic to prepare students
    for working on the activity
  • Students are posed a conceptually challenging
    question on the presented lecture material to set
    the stage for the activity to come
  • Class is divided into pairs or small groups and
    instructed to work collaboratively and reach
    consensus on the questions presented in the
    lecture-tutorial activity
  • Professor debriefs the activity interactively
    highlighting the difficulties in reasoning and
    common problems
  • Professor returns to lecture mode on next course
    topic

52
  • What Do You Do During a Small Group Activity?
  • This is the chance to actually get to talk with
    your students about their learning of astronomy.
  • Nudge groups with helpful question to steer their
    group discussion in the right direction.
  • Ask two nearby groups to check their answer and
    to account for any differences to facilitate
    class interactions.
  • Pull in non-participants by asking them what and
    why the other group members answered the way that
    they did.
  • Offer thought provoking questions that help
    students engage with the concepts.
  • Circle the wagons afterward ( i.e., debrief )
  • Always in pursuit of the TEACHABLE MOMENT

53
Topics
  • Light and EM Spect.
  • Trig. Parallax
  • Cosmology and B.B.
  • Telescopes and Star Maps
  • Solar System
  • Our Sun
  • Solar System Motion
  • Moon Phases
  • Stellar Evolution
  • Char. of Milky Way
  • Celestial Sphere
  • Stellar Magnitudes
  • Stellar Spectra

54
Topics
  • Light and EM Spect.
  • Trig. Parallax
  • Cosmology and B.B.
  • Telescopes and Star Maps
  • Solar System
  • Our Sun
  • Solar System Motion
  • Moon Phases
  • Stellar Evolution
  • Char. of Milky Way
  • Celestial Sphere
  • Stellar Magnitudes
  • Stellar Spectra

55
Topics
  • Cause of Moon Phases
  • Predicting Moon Phases

56
Predicting Moon Phases
  • Which of the following is possible?
  • a)  a waxing crescent Moon on the eastern
    horizon just after sunset.
  • b)  a waning gibbous on the western horizon just
    after sunset.
  • c)  a waning crescent Moon on the eastern horizon
    just before sunrise.
  • d) a full Moon on the western horizon at sunset
  • e) a first quarter moon rising at dawn.

57
Predicting Moon Phases
  • Which of the following is possible?
  • a)  a waxing crescent Moon on the eastern horizon
    just after sunset.
  • b)  a waning gibbous on the western horizon just
    after sunset.
  • c)  a waning crescent Moon on the eastern horizon
    just before sunrise.
  • d) a full Moon on the western horizon at sunset
  • e) a first quarter moon rising at dawn.

58
  • Consider the following debate between two
    students about the cause of the phases of the
    Moon.  
  • Which, if either, do you agree with and why?
  • Student 1 The phase of the Moon depends on how
    the Moon, Sun and Earth are aligned with one
    another. During some alignments only a small
    portion of the Moons surface will receive light
    from the Sun, in which case we would see a
    crescent moon.

59
  • Consider the following debate between two
    students about the cause of the phases of the
    Moon.   Which, if either, do you agree with? Why?
  • Student 1 The phase of the Moon depends on how
    the Moon, Sun and Earth are aligned with one
    another. During some alignments only a small
    portion of the Moons surface will receive light
    from the Sun, in which case we would see a
    crescent moon.
  • Student 2 I disagree. The moon would always get
    the same amount of sunlight its just that in
    some alignments Earth casts a larger shadow on
    the Moon. Thats why the Moon isnt always a full
    moon.

60
Modern Topics too!!
  • Milky Way Scales
  • Expansion of the Universe
  • Looking at Distant Objects

61
Assumption 2 Lecture-Tutorials can
intellectually engage students at a level that is
more effective than traditional lecture at
promoting deep conceptual change.
  • Post Lecture-Tutorial questions administered in
    subsets
  • Pre-Course mean 30 (nA39,nB42)
  • Post-Lecture mean 52 (n 100)

62
Celestial Motion of Objects
  • Before Lecture (N42) 2 correct
  • After Lecture (N 135) 19 correct

63
Celestial Motion of Objects
  • Before Lecture (N42) 2 correct
  • After Lecture (N 135) 19 correct
  • After Lecture Tutorial (N134) 66 correct

64
Blackbody Radiation LT
  • The graph at right shows the blackbody spectra
    for three different stars. Which of the stars is
    at the highest temperature?
  • a) Star A
  • b) Star B
  • c) Star C
  • Before Lecture (N42) 12 correct
  • After Lecture (N120) 16 correct

65
Blackbody Radiation LT
  • The graph at right shows the blackbody spectra
    for three different stars. Which of the stars is
    at the highest temperature?
  • a) Star A
  • b) Star B
  • c) Star C
  • Before Lecture (N42) 12 correct
  • After Lecture (N120) 16 correct
  • After Lecture Tutorial (N80) 80 correct

66
What Causes Moon Phases
  • The diagram below shows Earth and the Sun as
    well as five different possible positions for the
    Moon. Which position of the Moon best corresponds
    with the phase of the Moon shown in the figure at
    the right?
  • Before Lecture (N42) 5 correct
  • After Lecture (N127) 53 correct

67
What Causes Moon Phases
  • The diagram below shows Earth and the Sun as
    well as five different possible positions for the
    Moon. Which position of the Moon best corresponds
    with the phase of the Moon shown in the figure at
    the right?
  • Before Lecture (N42) 5 correct
  • After Lecture (N127) 53 correct
  • After Lecture Tutorial (N104) 72 correct

68
H-R Diagrams and Spectral Class
  • A red giant of spectral type K9 and a red main
    sequence star of the same spectral type have the
    same
  • a)  luminosity.
  • b)  temperature.
  • c)  absolute magnitude.
  • Before Lecture (N39) 41 correct
  • After Lecture (N86) 48 correct

69
H-R Diagrams and Spectral Class
  • A red giant of spectral type K9 and a red main
    sequence star of the same spectral type have the
    same
  • a)  luminosity.
  • b)  temperature.
  • c)  absolute magnitude.
  • Before Lecture (N39) 41 correct
  • After Lecture (N86) 48 correct
  • After Lecture Tutorial (N83) 73 correct

70
Expansion of the Universe
  • Before Lecture (N39) 19 correct
  • After Lecture (N 85) 27 correct

71
Expansion of the Universe
  • Before Lecture (N39) 19 correct
  • After Lecture (N 85) 27 correct
  • After Lecture Tutorial (N75) 56 correct

72
Looking at Distant Objects
Imagine that you simultaneously receive the
satellite transmission of two pictures of two
people that live on planets orbiting two
different stars. Each image shows the people at
their 21st birthday parties. Consider the
following possible interpretations that could be
made from your observations. Which do you think
is the most plausible interpretation?
a) Both people are the same age but at different
distances from you. b) The people are actually
different ages but at the same distance from
you. c)  The person that is closer to you is
actually the older of the two people. d)  The
person that is farther from you is actually the
older of the two people.
  • Before Lecture (N39) 53 correct
  • After Lecture (N 94) 51 correct

73
Looking at Distant Objects
Imagine that you simultaneously receive the
satellite transmission of two pictures of two
people that live on planets orbiting two
different stars. Each image shows the people at
their 21st birthday parties. Consider the
following possible interpretations that could be
made from your observations. Which do you think
is the most plausible interpretation?
a) Both people are the same age but at different
distances from you. b) The people are actually
different ages but at the same distance from
you. c)  The person that is closer to you is
actually the older of the two people. d)  The
person that is farther from you is actually the
older of the two people.
  • Before Lecture (N39) 53 correct
  • After Lecture (N 94) 51 correct
  • After Lecture Tutorial (N77) 77 correct

74
Assumption 2 Lecture-Tutorials can
intellectually engage students at a level that is
more effective than traditional lecture at
promoting deep conceptual change.
  • Post Lecture-Tutorial questions administered in
    subsets
  • Pre-Course mean 30 (nA39,nB42)
  • Post-Lecture mean 52 (n 100)
  • Post-Lecture Tutorial 72 (n 100)

75
Qualitative Results (focus group)
  • Students believe that the tutorials are one of
    the greatest strength of the class
  • I liked the Tutorial, they were very helpful. I
    am not a science person but feel that I learned a
    lot from them.
  • Why dont all professors use tutorials during
    class?
  • The student interaction and tutorials are a very
    effective approach to both teaching and learning.
    I guarantee most students will retain most of
    this course.

76
Qualitative Results (interview)
  • And then the tutorials? I dont know who ever
    thought of that. But its really how classes
    should be taught.The tutorials review concepts
    because they break it down. You start with
    something so simpleand then it slowly gets to
    more. Marti

77
Qualitative Results (interviews)
  • I know the worksheets are real helpful. I found
    it sometimes hard to talk to as many people as I
    wanted to talk to and finish the worksheet in
    time. Joe

78
But wait there is more!!
  • For those of you who prefer to emphasize
    quantitative or mathematical reasoning we have
    created - Ranking Tasks for Introductory
    Astronomy

79
Results over Eight Core Topics
Core Topics Seasons Keplers Laws Star Magnitude
Distance Motion of the Sky Phases of the
Moon Gravity Luminosity of Stars Doppler Effect
( N 100 )
100
75
Percent Correct
50
25
0
Pretest
Post-Lecture
Post-Ranking Tasks
Study Trial
80
Results Averages for Eight Core Topics
( N 100 )
100

More difficult gains!
75
77
Best results with lecture!
Percent Correct
50
61
Both gains are statistically significant at .05
level. Based on series of 8 mixed-factors ANOVA
Least Significant Differences tests.
25
32
0
Pretest
Post-Lecture
Post-Ranking Tasks
Study Trial
81
Results Averages for Eight Core Topics
( N 100 )
100

More difficult gains!
75
77
Best results with lecture!
Percent Correct
50
61
Post-Lecture to Post-Ranking Task Hakes
Normalized Gain 0.41 (moderately large
effect) Cohens d 0.62 (Large effect)
25
32
0
Pretest
Post-Lecture
Post-Ranking Tasks
Study Trial
82
Other Effects of Ranking Tasks?
( Based on repeated factor ANOVA )
Gender? High/Low Students on Pretest?
83
Ranking Tasks Gender Effect?
( N 100 )
100

75
Ranking Tasks benefited both groups equally.
Percent Correct
50
Male
Female
25
0
Pretest
Post-Lecture
Post-Ranking Tasks
Study Trial
84
Ranking Tasks High vs Low Pretests Groups?
( N 100 )
100

76
75
64
76
Upper Median Group
Ranking Tasks benefited both groups equally.
Percent Correct
55
50
59
25
Lower Median Group
11
0
Pretest
Post-Lecture
Post-Ranking Tasks
Study Trial
85
Student Attitudes about Ranking Tasks
Students reported that RTs contributed
to my interest in course topics? 52 RTs
were enjoyable part of classroom experience?
62 RTs helped me prepare for tests? 72
RTs helped my learning of course material?
83
86
  • What Do You Do During a Small Group Activity?
  • This is the chance to actually get to talk with
    your students about their learning of astronomy.
  • Nudge groups with helpful question to steer their
    group discussion in the right direction.
  • Ask two nearby groups to check their answer and
    to account for any differences to facilitate
    class interactions.
  • Pull in non-participants by asking them what and
    why the other group members answered the way that
    they did.
  • Offer thought provoking questions that help
    students engage with the concepts.
  • Circle the wagons afterward ( i.e., debrief )
  • Always in pursuit of the TEACHABLE MOMENT

Always in pursuit of the TEACHABLE MOMENT
87
Some Benefits to Doing Activities in Groups
  • Capitalize on students in your class who like to
    socialize
  • Revisit complicated concepts in ways besides
    lecture
  • Actually talk to your students about concepts
  • Emphasize learning the material that will be on
    test during class time
  • Demonstrate to students that science is about
    doing stuff, a social endeavor that involves
    collaboration, not memorizing lists of facts

88
Critical Questions
  • What are YOUR beliefs about teaching and learning
    and how do they guide your instruction?
  • How do YOU want your students to be different as
    a result of the experiences you design?
  • What do YOU know about the research on how
    STUDENTS learn?
  • What strategies and resources are available that
    are proven to actively engage students and
    improve their understanding?
  • What evidence would YOU accept that your students
    have made significant gains in conceptual
    understanding, as well as attitudinal and skill
    domains?

89
Just how does one create learning sequences that
motivate students to learn what we want them to
know?
Creating the Learner-Centered Environment
90
How do you decide what to teach out of all that
could be covered? How do you choose which
learning strategies to integrate into you class
and make it meaningful for the students?
91
You must choose to engineer this sequence by
considering the answers to the following
questions What is the highest level question(s)
you would want your students to be able to
answer? Choose a question(s) that would
demonstrate that they really understand? What
activities and experiences do your students need
to engage with in order to develop their
understanding? What feedback do you and your
students need so you both know you are ready for
the next steps and to guide your
instruction? What limited interactive
lecturing do you need to do to set students up
for successful learning experiences in their
activities?
92
Example Moon Phases What is the highest level
question(s) you would want your students to be
able to answer? Choose a question(s) that would
demonstrate that they really understand?
93
  • If the moon is in the new phase today, how many
    of the moon phases shown above would the moon go
    through during the next 11 days.
  • only one
  • two
  • three
  • more than three
  • none




Now start thinking through the instruction
sequence in terms of what a students needs to
know to be able to answer this question.
94
  • Which of the following groups of moon phases can
    be seen (above the horizon) at 1100 am?
  • Third Quarter, Waning Crescent, and Waxing
    Crescent
  • New Moon, First Quarter, and Waxing Gibbous
  • Waxing Gibbous, Full Moon, Waning Gibbous
  • Waxing Crescent, First Quarter, Waxing Gibbous

Now start thinking through the instruction
sequence in terms of what a students needs to
know to be able to answer this question.
95
  • If the moon is highest in the sky this morning at
    600 am, what phase will the Moon be in one week
    from now?
  • full
  • waxing crescent
  • waning crescent
  • waning gibbous
  • new

Now start thinking through the instruction
sequence in terms of what a students needs to
know to be able to answer this question.
96
Example Moon Phases What is the highest
level question(s) you would want your students to
be able to answer? Choose a question(s) that
would demonstrate that they really understand?
What activities and experiences do your
students need to engage with in order to develop
their understanding?
97
Example Moon Phases What is the highest level
question(s) you would want your students to be
able to answer? Choose a question(s) that would
demonstrate that they really understand? What
activities and experiences do your students need
to engage with in order to develop their
understanding?
  • Think Pair Share Questions Lecture Tutorials
  • Case Studies Ranking Tasks
  • Computer simulations labs Writing Prompts
  • and many more

You actually need to work through the activity
you choose before you can move forward or you
will not be able to design the lecture that
supports the activity.
98
Example Moon Phases What is the highest level
question(s) you would want your students to be
able to answer? Choose a question(s) that would
demonstrate that they really understand? What
activities and experiences do your students need
to engage with in order to develop their
understanding? What feedback do you and your
students need so you both know you are ready for
the next steps and to guide your instruction?
99
  • Questions that a student needs to be asked
    (during the interactive lecture)

How many phases shown in the picture at the right
will the Moon go through in one day? How long
does it take the Earth to complete one rotation?
How far will the Moon have moved? How long does
it take the Moon to complete one orbit? How many
of the phases will the Moon have gone through in
this time? How much of the Moons total surface
is illuminated when it is in the phase
identified? How much of the illuminated surface
of the Moon is visible from Earth when it is in
the phase identified? What time is it when the
phase identified is highest in the sky? Rising?
Setting? What phase will it be in in two weeks.

100
Discovering the Night Sky - Tail Gate
Party 1 (a.k.a Exam 1 Review Session) From
400 pm 600pm on Tues Sep 12th in RM N210
- Exam 1 Wednesday, Sep 13th Here N210
101
How are the motions and positions of Earth and
the Sun connected to what happens on Earth?
  • Earths rotation on its axis determines the
    length of the day.
  • Earths orbit around the Sun determines the
    length of the year.
  • The tilt of Earths rotational axis with respect
    to the plane of Earths orbit causes the seasons.

102
The changing phases of the Moon originally
inspired the concept of the month
103
Moon Phase Names
  • New Moon
  • Waxing Crescent
  • First Quarter
  • Waxing Gibbous
  • Full Moon
  • Waning Gibbous
  • Third Quarter
  • Waning Crescent

104
Watch Movie at http//aa.usno.navy.mil/graphics/M
oon_movie.gif http//antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/im
age/9911/lunation_ajc.gif OR http//www.solarv
iews.com/raw/moon/vmoon2.mpg
105
The Causes of Moon Phases
  • Think to yourself about the answer to this
    question
  • What causes the phases of the Moon?
  • Take out a piece of paper and quickly write out
    a brief answer.

106
Although the Moon is always ½ lit by the Sun, we
see different amounts of the lit portion from
Earth depending on where the Moon is located in
its orbit.
107
How long does it take to complete the full cycle
of Moon Phases?
  • About a day
  • About a week
  • About a month
  • About a year
  • None of the above

Check your answer with your partner!!
108
(No Transcript)
109
Although the Moon is always ½ lit by the Sun, we
see different amounts of the lit portion from
Earth depending on where the Moon is located in
its orbit.
110
Lets Watch some Moon Phase Animations!
Pay attention to where the Moon, Sun and Earth
are located and how the Moon appears from Earth
at each of these positions. Look at how much of
the Moon is illuminated when at each position.
Look at which side of the Moon is illuminated
when at each position.
111
Although the Moon is always ½ lit by the Sun, we
see different amounts of the lit portion from
Earth depending on where the Moon is located in
its month-long orbit.
112
How many phases shown in the picture at the right
will the Moon go through in one day? How long
does it take the Earth to complete one rotation?
How far will the Moon have moved? How long does
it take the Moon to complete one orbit? How many
of the phases will the Moon have gone through in
this time? How much of the Moons total surface
is illuminated when it is in the New Phase? Full
Phase? How much of the illuminated surface of
the Moon is visible from Earth when it is in the
First Quarter Phase, Full Phase? What time is it
when the Waxing Gibbous Phase is highest in the
sky, Rising? Setting? What phase will it be in
one week later.
113
What time is it when the waxing crescent moon is
highest in the sky? When does it first rises?
When does it set?
East
West
114
What time is it when the waxing crescent moon is
highest in the sky? When does it first rises?
When does it set?
East
West
115
West
What time is it when the waxing crescent moon is
highest in the sky? When does it first rises?
When does it set?
East
116
What moon phase would be rising in the East at
3pm? What Moon phase would be setting in the
West at 3pm?
East
West
117
The Moon Phase is highest in the sky at 9pm
today. What phase will the Moon be in three
weeks after today?
118
Lecture Tutorials Cause and Predicting Moon
Phases pgs (25 32)
  • Work with a partner!
  • Read the instructions and questions carefully.
  • Discuss the concepts and your answers with one
    another. Take time to understand it now!!!!
  • Come to a consensus answer you both agree on.
  • If you get stuck or are not sure of your answer,
    ask another group.
  • If you get really stuck or dont understand what
    the Lecture Tutorial is asking, ask one of us for
    help.

119
Which Moon position (A-E), shown in the diagram
at right, best corresponds with the moon phase
shown below?
C
B
D
A
E
Orbit of the Moon
120
Which of the situations shown above occurs at a
time closest to sunset?
121
If the Moon were in the phase shown above, what
phase would it be in two weeks later?
122
  • If the moon is in the Full phase today, how many
    of the moon phases shown above would the moon go
    through during the next 11 days.
  • only one
  • two
  • three
  • more than three
  • none




123
  • Which of the following groups of moon phases can
    be seen (above the horizon) at 300 am?
  • Third Quarter, Waning Crescent, and Waxing
    Crescent
  • New Moon, First Quarter, and Waxing Gibbous
  • Third Quarter, Full Moon, Waning Gibbous
  • Waxing Crescent, First Quarter, Waxing Gibbous
  • None of the above is correct

124
Just how does one create learning sequences that
motivate students to learn what we want them to
know?
Creating the Learner-Centered Environment
125
How do you decide what to teach out of all that
could be covered? How do you choose which
learning strategies to integrate into you class
and make it meaningful for the students?
126
You must choose to engineer this sequence by
considering the answers to the following
questions What is the highest level question(s)
you would want your students to be able to
answer? Choose a question(s) that would
demonstrate that they really understand? What
activities and experiences do your students need
to engage with in order to develop their
understanding? What feedback do you and your
students need so you both know you are ready for
the next steps and to guide your
instruction? What limited interactive
lecturing do you need to do to set students up
for successful learning experiences in their
activities?
127
Example Doppler Shift What is the highest
level question(s) you would want your students to
be able to answer? Choose a question(s) that
would demonstrate that they really understand?
128
Use the four spectra shown at right for objects
A-D, to answer the next question. Note that one
of the spectra is from an object at rest (not
moving) and the remaining spectra come from
objects that are all moving toward the observer.
  • Which of the four objects A-D is moving with the
    fastest speed?
  • Object A
  • Object B
  • Object C
  • Object D
  • More than one object is moving with the fastest
    speed.

Now start thinking through the instruction
sequence in terms of what a students needs to
know to be able to answer this question.
129
Example Doppler Shift What is the highest
level question(s) you would want your students to
be able to answer? Choose a question(s) that
would demonstrate that they really understand?
What activities and experiences do your
students need to engage with in order to develop
their understanding?
130
- Example Doppler Shift What is the highest
level question(s) you would want your students to
be able to answer? Choose a question(s) that
would demonstrate that they really understand?
What activities and experiences do your
students need to engage with in order to develop
their understanding?
  • Think Pair Share Lecture Tutorials
  • CLEA Ranking Tasks
  • Class-Action Project Light
  • and many more

You actually need to work through the activity
you choose before you can move forward or you
will not be able to design the lecture that
supports the activity.
131
Example Doppler Shift What is the highest
level question(s) you would want your students to
be able to answer? Choose a question(s) that
would demonstrate that they really understand?
What activities and experiences do your
students need to engage with in order to develop
their understanding? What feedback do you and
your students need so you both know you are ready
for the next steps and to guide your
instruction?
132
BLUE RED
  • Questions that a student needs to be asked
    (during the interactive lecture)

Consider the two spectra shown above of two
different Stars A and B. Which star appears
blueshifted? Which star is moving toward you? If
it actually turns out that both stars are
redshifted relative to a stationary source of
light which star is moving the fastest?
133
4
1
3
Earth
2
  • Questions that a student needs to be asked
    (during the interactive lecture)
  • Consider the star moving counterclockwise.
  • When was the star moving toward Earth?
  • The stars light is redshifted by the greatest
    amount when it is at position ______
  • The stars light would not appear shifted at all
    when it is at ____________

134
The Origin and Nature of Light
  • Celebration of Knowledge 2 (aka Exam 2) is
    Wednesday October 11th in N210
  • Tailgate Party (aka exam review) is Tuesday
    October 10th in N210 from 4-6pm here in N210
  • HW 5 Handed out in class September 29th on the
    topic of Luminosity Area and Temperature, and Due
    IN-CLASS Wednesday October 4th

135
The Origin and Nature of Light
  • HW6 Masteringastronomy online homework on
    properties of light, atoms and the Doppler Shift.
    Available October 4th, Due October 11th by 9am.

136
What physical situation (or object) makes this
spectrum?
137
What can we learn by analyzing starlight?
  • A stars temperature
  • A stars chemical composition

- peak wavelength of the spectral curve
- dips in the spectral curve or the lines in the
absorption spectrum
  • A stars motion

138
The Doppler Effect
  • Definition The change in wavelength of
    radiation (light) due to the relative motion
    between the source and the observer along the
    line of sight.

139
Astronomers use the Doppler Effect to learn about
the radial (along the line of sight) motions of
stars, and other astronomical objects.
140
Real Life Examples of Doppler Effect
  • Doppler Radar (for weather)
  • Airplane navigation system
  • Speed Detection used by Law Enforcement Officers
  • Ok, anything with radar!!!

141
The Doppler Effect
  • Definition The change in wavelength of
    radiation (light) due to the relative motion
    between the source and the observer along the
    line of sight.

142
Doppler Effect
  • When something which is giving off light moves
    towards or away from you, the wavelength of the
    emitted light is changed or shifted

V0
143
Doppler Effect
  • When the source of light is moving away from the
    observer the wavelength of the emitted light will
    appear to increase. We call this a redshift.

144
Doppler Effect
  • When the source of light is moving towards the
    observer the wavelength of the emitted light will
    appear to decrease. We call this a blueshift.

145
The Doppler Effect
  • Definition The change in wavelength of
    radiation due to relative motion between the
    source and the observer along the line of sight.

146
Doppler Effect
  • Along the line of sight means the Doppler
    Effect happens only if the object which is
    emitting light is moving towards you or away from
    you.
  • An object moving side to side or perpendicular,
    relative to your line of sight, will not
    experience a Doppler Effect.

147
Astronomy Application
Not moving
Star moving away from you
Star moving toward you
148
Doppler Shifts
  • Redshift (to longer wavelengths) The source is
    moving away from the observer
  • Blueshift (to shorter wavelengths) The source is
    moving towards the observer
  • Dl wavelength shift
  • lo wavelength if source is not moving
  • v velocity of source
  • c speed of light

149
BLUE RED
150
4
4
1
1
3
3
Earth
2
2
151
Doppler Shift Lecture Tutorial Handout
  • Work with a partner!
  • Read the instructions and questions carefully.
  • Discuss the concepts and your answers with one
    another. Take time to understand it now!!!!
  • Come to a consensus answer you both agree on and
    write complete thoughts into your LT.
  • If you get stuck or are not sure of your answer,
    ask another group.

152
The Doppler Effect causes light from a source
moving away to
  1. be shifted to shorter wavelengths.
  2. be shifted to longer wavelengths.
  3. changes in velocity.
  4. Both a and c above
  5. Both b and c above

153
You observe two spectra (shown below) that are
redshifted relative to that of a stationary
source of light. Which of the following
statements best describes how the sources of
light that produced the two spectra were moving?
BLUE RED
  1. Source A is moving faster than source B.
  2. Source B is moving faster than source A.
  3. Both sources are moving with the same speed.
  4. It is impossible to tell from looking at these
    spectra.

154
A bright star is moving toward Earth. If you
were to look at the spectrum of this star, what
would it look like?
  1. an absorption spectrum that is redshifted
    relative to an unmoving star
  2. an emission spectrum that is redshifted relative
    to an unmoving star
  3. a continuous spectrum that is blueshifted
    relative to an unmoving star
  4. an absorption spectrum that is blueshifted
    relative to an unmoving star
  5. a continuous spectrum that is redshifted
    relative to an unmoving star

155
What can we learn by analyzing starlight?
  • A stars temperature
  • A stars chemical composition

- peak wavelength of the spectral curve
- dips in the spectral curve or the lines in the
absorption spectrum
  • A stars motion

- Doppler shift
156
Solving Our "Problems"
  • Work in a group to complete the following
    assignment
  • You are going to be teaching about the subject of
    ____________
  • What is the highest level question(s) you would
    want your students to be able to answer? Choose a
    question(s) that would demonstrate that they
    really understand? What activities and
    experiences do your students need to engage with
    in order to develop their understanding? What
    feedback do you and your students need so you
    both know you are ready for the next steps and to
    guide your instruction? What limited
    interactive lecturing do you need to do to set
    students up for successful learning experiences
    in their activities?
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