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The Maya

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The Maya I. Maya Create City-States Homeland: southern Mexico into northern Central America (Yucatan Pen.) A. Urban Centers 250-900 CE: the Classic Prd. of Maya civ ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Maya


1
The Maya
2
I. Maya Create City-States
  • Homeland southern Mexico into northern Central
    America (Yucatan Pen.)

3
A. Urban Centers
  • 250-900 CE the Classic Prd. of Maya civ.
  • Built great cities
  • Tikal, Copan, Palenque, Uxmal, Chichen Itza
  • Ruled by god-king
  • Centers of religious ceremonies trade
  • Giant pyramids, temples, palaces

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  • Temple IV pyramid (Tikal)

6
  • Hip ulama ball court
  • Chichin Itza (545 long, 225 wide)
  • WINNER?!

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B. Ag. Trade Support Cities
  • Mayan comms
  • Based on ag., handicrafts, long-distance trade
  • Intensive Ag. BASIS OF LIFE!
  • cleared (slash/burn), irrigated, terraced
  • Squash, chili peppers, maize (80 of food)
  • Maya city-states linked by trade
  • Metal work, cotton cloth, flint
  • Used currencies (cocoa beans, polished beads,
    salt, lengths of cotton)

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C. Kingdoms Built on Dynasties
  • Maya social classes
  • Nobility (priests warriors) no labor
  • Merchants artisans
  • Peasants majority
  • PRIEST KING (top)
  • Descendent of a god
  • Hereditary
  • Govt. levied taxes controlled outlying villages
  • Also made war (stone-bladed weapons)

11
II. Religion in Mayan Life
  • Religion permeated all phases of life
  • Life burden (time is a measure)
  • Need to appease the gods thru pain/suffering
  • Complex
  • Worshiped over 160 gods
  • gods of corn, of death, of rain, of war
  • Could be good or evil (both)
  • Each day was a living god

12
A. Religious Practices
  • Prayed, made offerings
  • Pierced cut bodies (nourish the gods)
  • Human sacrifice
  • Threw captives into deep sinkhole (cenote)

13
B. Math Religion
  • Time burden carried on back of gods
  • Important to have accurate calendar
  • 2 calendars
  • 260 day religious calendar (thirteen 20 day mos.)
  • 365 day solar calendar (eighteen 20 day mos.)
  • Identified best times to plant crops, attack
    enemies, crown new rulers)
  • Based on observation of planets (better than
    Euro.)
  • Calculated solar year at 365.2420 days
  • Math system based on 20 w/concept of zero

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C. Mayan Written Language
  • Only complete writing system in Amers.
  • 800 hieroglyphic symbols (glyphs)
  • Recorded history in stone or bark-paper
  • Codex
  • Spanish documented Maya history
  • Popol Vuh Maya version of creation
  • Before the world was created, Calm and Silence
    were the great kings that ruled.
  • Nothing existed, there was nothing

16
III. Maya Architecture Art
  • Plaza pyramid topped w/temple
  • Religious structures, tombs
  • Temple I (Tikal) tomb of Ha Sawa Chaan Kawil
  • Mural painting
  • Stele inscribed or carved marker

17
IV. Maya Decline
  • 900 CEabandoned cities (mystery)
  • Toltec invaders moved in
  • Why did Maya decline?
  • 1. internal conflict that disrupted trade
    economic hardship?
  • 2. over farming of soil food shortages,
    famine?
  • 3. peasant revolts?
  • Early 1500sMaya were small, weak city-states
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