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History of Health Care

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Title: History of Health Care Author: LBH Last modified by: Chabot, Susan Created Date: 8/23/2004 2:52:34 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Health Care


1
History of Medicine
2
4000 BC - 3000 BC
  • Believed that illness and disease
  • were caused by supernatural
  • spirits and demons.
  • Ceremonies were used to drive
  • out evil spirits.
  • Herbs and plants were used for medication.
  • Skeletal evidence has been found demonstrating
    trepanation .
  • Average life span 20 years.

3
Trepanation
Unearthed in Peru 6000 BC.
  • Unearthed in Peru 7000 BC

4
2000 BC 300 BCAncient Egypt
  • Earliest known health records.
  • Offerings to gods for healing.
  • Imhotep (2700 BC) first recognized physician.
  • Use of blood-letting and leeches as treatment.
  • Herbs and plants used as medicine
  • Average life span 20 to 30 years.

Ancient papyrus
Imhotep
5
1700 BC 220 ADAncient Chinese
  • Monitored pulse rate to determine the condition
    of the body.
  • Believed in curing whole body by curing the
    spirit and nourishment
  • Yin and Yang
  • First recorded pharmacy of herbs.
  • Use of acupuncture and acupressure.
  • Began searching for organic causes of disease.
  • Average life span 20 to 30 years.

Acupuncture
6
1200 BC 200 BCAncient Greeks
Hippocrates
  • The start of the Hippocratic tradition
  • will cause no harm to the patient.
  • Believed illness the result of natural causes.
  • Introduction of massage therapy and continued use
    of herbal therapy.
  • Introduced concept that good diet and cleanliness
    prevented disease.
  • Average life span 25 to 35 years.

7
753 BC 410 ADAncient Romans
  • First to organize medical care for wounded
    soldiers.
  • Early hospitals allowed for separation of well
    and sick.
  • Beginning of public health and sanitation
    systems.
  • Diet, exercise and medication used to treat
    disease.
  • Average life span 25 to 35 years.

Surgical hooks
Various surgical tools
8
800 1400 ADMiddle Ages
  • Renewed interest in work of Greeks and Romans.
  • Medical universities open in the 9th century.
  • Pandemic of bubonic plague occurred.
  • Chemistry advances in pharmacology.
  • Average life span
  • 20 to 35 years.

Doctor dressed for visiting patient believed to
suffer from Black Death.
9
1350 1650 ADRenaissance
  • Dissection of the human body allowed for better
    understanding of anatomy and physiology
  • Michelangelo and da Vinci used dissection to give
    their art a more realistic look.
  • Invention of the printing press allowed knowledge
    to be spread to others.
  • Three important contributors
  • Vesalius, Servetus, and Bacon
  • Average life span 30 to 40 years.

David, by Michelangelo
Circle Man, by da Vinci
10
16th and 17th Centuries
  • Not many discoveries or advances.
  • Ambroise Pare (1510-1590)
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1578-1723)
  • Causes of disease still unknown.
  • Many died from infection and childbirth fever.
  • Apothecaries made, prescribed, and sold
    medications.
  • Average life span 35 to 45 years.


Mortar pestle
11
Ambroise Pare1510-1590
  • Father of Modern Surgery
  • Introduced amputation to
  • battlefield care of
  • wounded soldiers.
  • Began using ligatures to
  • stop bleeding and bind
  • arteries instead of boiling-
  • oil cauterization.
  • Promoted use of
  • artificial limbs.

12
Anton van Leeuwenhoek1632-1723
  • Developed one of the most important inventions of
    all time the microscope!
  • Began using the lenses to observe the
  • microscopic world.
  • Discovered bacteria, protists, rotifers, and
    blood cells.

Early microscope
Rotifer
13
18th Century
Franklin
  • Fahrenheit created first mercury thermometer.
  • Priestly discovered the element oxygen.
  • Ben Franklin invented bifocals for glasses.
  • Lind prescribed limes to prevent scurvy.
  • Jenner developed first smallpox vaccine.
  • Average life span 40 50 years.

14
Edward Jenner1749-1823
  • Edward Jenner learned early in his medical career
    that if at one time one had cowpox, they would
    not get smallpox.
  • The human immunity from the infection of
    smallpox was tested by vaccinating patients with
    fluid from pustules of cowpox-infected patients
    and then showing that these subjects were immune
    to smallpox.

15
The 19th Century
16
19th Century
  • Many discoveries and inventions
  • First use of anesthetic for surgeries.
  • International Red Cross was founded in 1863.
  • Discovery of bacterial causes of disease.
  • Average life span 40 60 years.

17
Important Dates
  • 1819 First successful human blood transfusion
    by James Blundell.
  • 1819 Rene Laennec invented the stethoscope.
  • 1849 Elizabeth Blackwell was the first female
    physician in the U.S.
  • 1865 First use of antiseptics during surgery by
    Joseph Lister.
  • 1892 Discovery of viruses by Dimitri Ivanfski.
  • 1895 X-rays discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen.

18
Louis Pasteur1822-1895
  • Worked to disprove the idea of spontaneous
    generation.
  • Proved that microorganisms cause disease
  • Germ Theory of Disease
  • Developed pasteurization to kill microorganisms
    in milk.
  • Created a vaccine for rabies.

19
Gregor Mendel1822-1884
  • Developed Mendels Laws of Inheritance. These
    laws established principles of heredity and
    dominant/recessive patterns.
  • Presented his finding to the medical community,
    but they werent widely accepted until the early
    1900s.

20
The 20th Century
21
You name it, it happened!
  • 1901 ABO blood groups identified
  • 1920 Health insurance plans are introduced.
  • 1928 Fleming discovered penicillin
  • 1952 Development of polio vaccine.
  • 1953 DNA structure described by Watson Crick.
  • 1954 First kidney transplant.
  • 1962 First severed arm reattached.
  • 1963 First liver transplant.
  • 1964 First lung transplant.
  • 1968 First heart transplant.
  • 1970 First synthesized gene.
  • 1975 Amniocentesis used to diagnose birth
    defects in-utero.

22
And more!
Dolly
Introduction of sperm into egg cytoplasm
  • 1978 First test tube baby.
  • 1981 AIDS appeared in the population.
  • 1982 Artificial heart is implanted in human.
  • 1984 HIV identified.
  • 1990 Gene therapy used to treat disease.
  • 1990s Human Genome Project begins
  • 1997 Dolly the sheep is cloned.

The Human Genome Project
Jarvik-7 artifical heart
23
The Possibilities are Endless!
24
Potential
  • Cures for current diseases like AIDS.
  • Gene manipulation to prevent inherited
    diseases/Designer babies.
  • Slow the aging process.
  • Treatment for spinal cord injuries.
  • Improved transplantation techniques.
  • Reduced antibiotic resistance.
  • Computerized body parts.
  • Increased cloning activities.
  • Increased average life span to 100 years.
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