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Psychological disorders Psychopathology Abnormal psychology

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Psychological disorders Psychopathology Abnormal psychology Chapter 14 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychological disorders Psychopathology Abnormal psychology


1
Psychological disorders Psychopathology Abnormal
psychology
  • Chapter 14

2
Medical model
  • Disease based
  • Diagnosis
  • distinguish from other diseases
  • Etiology cause
  • Prognosis probable outcome

3
Figure 14.1
  • Historical conceptions of mental illness
  • Demonic possession
  • Evil spirits
  • Inhumane treatment

4
Myths
  • No cure
  • Violent and dangerous
  • Bizzarre

5
Historical treatment of people with mental illness
  • Philippe Pinel
  • Dorothea Dix

6
Thomas Szaz
  • Criticized use of medical model
  • Problems in living

7
Defining abnormal behavior
  • Maladaptive
  • Unjustifiable
  • Distressing
  • Atypical

8
Concept check 14.1
  • Applying the criteria of Abnormal behavior

9
David Rosenhan
  • Describe his study

10
David Rosenhan
  • Claimed they heard voices and admitted to
    mental hospital
  • Staff identified their behavior as symptomatic
  • Controversy over findings

11
Diagnosis
  • Classification or taxonomy
  • Dangers in labeling

12
DSM-IV-TR
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
    Disorders
  • Version IV-Text Revised

13
DSM-IV-TR
  • American Psychiatric Association
  • Prototypical model
  • No CAUSE
  • No TREATMENT

14
DSM-IV-TR
  • Axis 1 Clinical disorders
  • Axis 2 Personality disorders and mental
    retardation
  • Axis 3 General medical conditions
  • Axis 4 Psychosocial and environmental problems
  • Axis 5 Global assessment of functioning

15
DSM-IV-TR
  • Axis 1 Cool
  • Axis 2 People
  • Axis 3 Get
  • Axis 4 P
  • Axis 5 Gs

16
DSM-IV-TR
  • You need to know the 5 axial system!!!
  • You love love love page 565

17
Prevalence
  • Epidemiology- study of prevalence
  • Prevalence- of population with the disorder

18
Clinical syndromes (Axis I)
  1. Childhood disorders
  2. Organic mental disorders
  3. Substance related
  4. Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
  5. Mood disorders

19
Clinical syndromes (Axis I)
  1. Anxiety disorders
  2. Somatoform disorders
  3. Dissociative disorders
  4. Sexual and gender-identity
  5. Eating disorders

20
Anxiety Disorders
  1. Generalized anxiety disorders
  2. Phobia
  3. Panic
  4. Agoraphobia or social phobia
  5. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  6. Post traumatic stress disorder

21
Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
  • Remember anxiety disorders are different
  • Understand the etiology for each one

22
Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
  1. Biological
  2. Conditioning and learning
  3. Cognitive factors
  4. Stress

23
Anxiety Disorders
  • Make a DSM-IV-TR multi-axial diagnosis
  • Case study activity

24
Somatoform Disorders
  • Soma body
  • Physical ailments that cannot be explained by
    organic conditions

25
Somatoform Disorders
  • Somatization
  • diverse complaints
  • Conversion
  • loss of one system
  • La belle indifference
  • Hypochondriasis

26
Conversion
27
Etiology of Somatoform Disorders
  • Defense mechanisms
  • Personality
  • Histrionic and Narcissitic
  • Cognitive
  • Sick role
  • Reinforcement
  • What are the benefits?

28
Concept check 14.2
  • Distinguishing anxiety and somatoform disorders

29
Dissociative disorders
  • Lose contact with identity or memory
  • Amnesia
  • Fugue
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

30
Dissociative amnesia
  • Remember not due to neurological impairment!
  • Retrograde (old memories)
  • Anterograde amnesia
  • new memories
  • hippocampus

31
Dissociative fugue
  • Usually a traumatic event
  • Lose memory of identity
  • Leave their home
  • Bourne Identity

32
DID
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Used to be Multiple Personality Disorder
  • Not schizophrenia

33
DID
  • Be careful of what you see on TV and Movies
  • Not everything is accurate!

34
Etiology of DID
  • Relatively little understanding
  • Excessive stress
  • Positive correlation with childhood abuse

35
Mood disorders
  • Affect emotions
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Dysthmic disorder
  • Double depression

36
Mood disorders
  • Bipolar
  • Cyclothmia
  • Bipolar II
  • Seasonal affective disorder (SADS)
  • Postpartum depression

37
Etiology of Mood disorders
  • Genetic vulnerability
  • Neurochemical factors
  • Cognitive factors
  • Interpersonal roots
  • Stress

38
Etiology of Major depressive disorder
  • Not bipolar disorder
  • Neurochemical
  • Serotonin
  • Norephinephrine
  • Cognitive

39
Cognitive etiology of Major Depressive Disorder
  • Learned helplessness
  • Pessimistic explanatory style
  • Hopelessness
  • Ruminate

40
Depression Researchers
  • Aaron Beck
  • Martin Seligman
  • Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
  • Alloy and Abramson

41
Featured Study
  • Does negative thinking CAUSE depression?

42
Featured Study
  • What was the
  • Independent variable
  • Dependent variable

43
Featured Study
  • Independent variable
  • cognitive style
  • Dependent variable
  • depression

44
Featured Study
  • Independent variable was not manipulated
  • Quasi-experimental design

45
Schizophrenic disorders
  • Delusions
  • Hallucinations
  • Deterioration of adaptive behavior
  • Disturbed emotion

46
Schizophrenic disorders
  • Delusions
  • False beliefs
  • I am superman
  • Hallucinations
  • False sensory perceptions
  • I see superman

47
Schizophrenic Subtypes
  • Paranoid type
  • Catatonic type
  • Disorganized
  • Undifferentiated
  • Residual

48
Andreasens alternative approach
  • Positive symptoms
  • Hallucinations
  • Delusions
  • Negative symptoms
  • Flat emotions
  • Withdrawal or apathy
  • Lack of speech

49
Etiology of Schizophrenia
  1. Genetic vulnerability
  2. Neurochemical
  3. Structural abnormailities
  4. Neurodevelopmental
  5. Expressed emotion
  6. Stress

50
Concept check 14.3
  • Distinguishng schizophrenic and mood disorders

51
Personality disorders
  • Extreme, inflexibly personality traits that cause
    distress or impairment in functioning

52
Personality disorders
  • Categories
  • Anxious/Fearful
  • Odd/Eccentric
  • Dramatic/Impulsive

53
Personality disorders
  • Anxious/Fearful
  • Avoidant
  • Dependent
  • Obsessive-compulsive
  • Schizoid
  • Schizotypal
  • Paranoid

54
Personality disorders
  • Odd/Eccentric
  • Schizoid
  • Schizotypal
  • Paranoid
  • Schizoaffective (not in book)

55
Personality disorders
  • Dramatic/Impulsive
  • Histrionic
  • Narcissistic
  • Borderline
  • Antisocial

56
Antisocial personality disorder
  • Impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive,
    irresponsible, no remorse
  • Often involved in crime

57
Antisocial personality disorder
  • Used to be called sociopath
  • Hannibal Lecter, Ted Bundy
  • Etiology
  • Physiological, slow to condition
  • Environmental factors

58
Psychological Disorders and the Law
  • Insanity plea
  • Involuntary commitment (Baker act)

59
Culture and pathology
  • Cultural variation
  • Culture-bound disorders
  • Koro fear of penis withdrawing into abdomen
  • Windigo fear of becoming a cannibal

60
Stress-vulnerability model
  • Diathesis stress model
  • Multiple causation
  • Interaction of factors
  • Figure 14.23, page 597

61
Eating disorders
  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Bulimia nervosa
  • Binge
  • purge

62
Etiology of Eating disorders
  1. Genetic vulnerability
  2. Personality
  3. Cultural values
  4. Family
  5. Cognitive factors

63
Critical thinking
  1. Representative heuristic
  2. Availability heuristic
  3. Cumulative probability
  4. Conjunctive probability
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