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Research Design

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Research Design & Analysis 1: Class 8 Annoucements lab partners sociology seminar Chapter 4 review and new stuff Midterm material and format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Research Design


1
Research Design Analysis 1 Class 8
  • Annoucements
  • lab partners
  • sociology seminar
  • Chapter 4 review and new stuff
  • Midterm material and format

2
Sociology seminar
  • The Department of Sociology is hosting
    seminar/discussion session on
  • "Privatization in the University
  • Implications for the Acadia Community"
  • Wednesday, October 6 from 1130 to 1230 in the
    BAC, Room 244.

3
Levels (scales) of measurement
  • Nominal
  • categorical (difference/qualitative) information
  • Ordinal
  • allows ranking, doesnt give absolute amounts
  • Interval
  • tell how far apart measures are (differences)
  • Ratio
  • has absolute zero (how much)
  • Not always clear which scale

4
When choosing, consider
  • information yielded
  • nominal - quality
  • ordinal - some index of quantity
  • interval - difference information
  • ratio - how much
  • usually, the more information, the better
  • statistical tests
  • measurement scale influences the type of
    statistics used
  • ecological validity

5
Ecological validity
  • Specific type of external validity
  • how generalizable are the experimental results to
    the specific set of external conditions- those of
    the natural (real-life) context in which the
    phenomena occurs
  • particularly important in applied work
  • may use a composite scale

6
Fig 4.1
  • 1 evidence well below a reasonable doubt
  • 2 evidence moderately below ...
  • 3 evidence slightly
  • 4 evidence slightly above a reasonable doubt
  • 5 evidence moderately above
  • 6 evidence well above
  • based on Horowitz et al 80

Not guilty
Guilty
7
Adequacy of Dependent Measures
  • Sensitivity
  • Range effects
  • floor effects
  • ceiling effects
  • decrease differences between treatment groups
  • decreases variance within groups

8
Tailoring measures to Participants
  • Importance that participants understand scales
    etc.
  • Infancy examples
  • habituation preferential looking, etc.

9
Types of dependent variables
  • Behavioral measures
  • frequency counts
  • durations
  • intervals
  • latencies
  • Physiological measures
  • Self-reports
  • rating scales (Likert scales)

10
Subject reactivity
  • Psychology experimental are often social
    situation
  • Demand characteristics
  • cues about the study
  • role attitude cues
  • cooperative, defensive, or negative
  • Other influences
  • Note also an issue in animal research

11
Experimenter effects
  • Experimenter bias
  • Expectancy effects
  • threaten both internal and external validity
  • Blind procedures

12
Automating experiments
  • Helps eliminate experimenter effects
  • Saves time
  • Makes measures more accurate and less variable
  • but
  • May miss important information

13
Automating experiments
  • Video taped instructions
  • Computer presented stimuli and data collection

14
Detecting correcting problems
  • Pilot studies
  • clarify instructions
  • set levels of IV (avoid range effects)
  • sensitivity of DV
  • assess reliability validity of measures
  • practice
  • do take time ( possible expense)
  • Manipulation check

15
Material covered to Midterm
  • Ways of knowing
  • Characteristics of psychological science
    (Stanovitch)
  • Scientific explanations (text)
  • Where to find what is already known
  • Evaluating questions (ROTI)
  • Turning questions into hypothesis
  • Directional vs non-directional hypothesis
  • Non-experimental designs (characteristics, types,
    limits of, why/when use them)
  • Correlations/regressions
  • Problems in interpreting causation from
    correlations

16
Material covered to Midterm
  • Experimental research (characteristics, types,
    limits of, why/when use them)
  • Types of variables
  • Validity (internal, external, ecological)
  • Factors influencing validity
  • Research settings
  • Using undergraduates as subjects
  • Research ethics - Nuremberg code 10 (4)
  • NCEHR guidelines
  • Guiding ethical principles (n8)
  • Minimal risk
  • Violating free and informed consent (when it
    might be allowed)

17
Material covered to Midterm
  • Scientific observations (systematic)
  • Problems dealing with big numbers
  • Operational definitions without distortion (goal)
  • Evaluating measures (accuracy, reliability
    validity)
  • Types of (measure) validity
  • Scales of measurement
  • Todaychoosing scale for variables
  • types and adequacy of DVs
  • Subject reactivity and experimenter effects
  • Minimizing problems

18
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