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Chapter 21 Revolutions in Politics

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Title: Chapter 21 Revolutions in Politics


1
Chapter 21Revolutions in Politics
2
Americas and EuropeSeven Years War 1756-63
3
The American RevolutionProclamation of 1763
4
American RevolutionThe Brits maintain a
standing army in the Colonies
5
Magna Carta1215Presumed Innocent Trail by
JuryBail
6
English Bill of Rights1689Habeas
CorpusStanding Army
7
Parliament Decides to Tax17645 April Sugar
ActBritish agents could jail without trial "No
freeman shall be taken, imprisoned, disseised,
outlawed, banished, or in any way destroyed, nor
will We proceed against or prosecute him, except
by the lawful judgment of his peers and by the
law of the land." Magna Carta
8
The Issue is Not what is taxed but who has the
power to tax- Parliament or the
Colonists?176522 March Stamp Act
9
Newspapers, legal documents and other written
materials
10
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11
In all cases whatsoever
176618 March Declaratory ActParliament
finalizes the repeal of the Stamp Act, but
declares that it has the right to tax colonies
in all cases whatsoever.
12
1767 the Townsend ActsTo establish the right to
tax in the colonies
13
Radical Reaction- The Sons of Liberty
14
Quartering Act 1765 Boston Massacre 1770
15
Boston Tea Party 1773
16
Coercive ActsIntolerable Acts
17
Lexington and Concord19 April 1775
18
Concord Bridge
19
Men, Women and ChildrenOh My!!!
20
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21
1st Continental CongressThe Olive Branch Petition
22
2nd Continental CongressThe Declaration
Unanimously Signed4 July 1776
23
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24
Bill of Rights and The Declaration
25
English and USA
26
The Preamble
We the people of the United States, in order to
form a more perfect union, establish justice,
insure domestic tranquility, provide for the
common defense, promote the general welfare, and
secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and
our posterity, do ordain and establish this
Constitution for the United States of America
27
The USA Constitution
28
The Old Regime 3 Estates
29
Old Regime
  • Carry over from Middle -Ages
  • 3 large social classes
  • 1st 2nd Estates wealth and privilege
  • Absolutism (monarch)
  • Feudal system
  • Taxes and serfdom
  • Unlike Britain

30
The French Monarchy1775 - 1793
Marie Antoinette Louis XVI
31
Marie AntoinettesPeasant Cottage
32
First Estate
  • 1 of population (conservatives)
  • Roman Catholic clergy
  • 10 of French land
  • Wealthy- arch/bishops
  • Poor- parish priests
  • No direct taxes (2 gift)

33
Second Estate
  • 2 of population
  • Nobility (conservatives and liberals)
  • 20 of French land
  • Highest offices (sons of nobles)
  • Govt., church, army
  • Refuses to pay taxes
  • Cause of revolution

34
Third Estate
  • 98 of population
  • Comprised of 3 economically different groups
  • City-dwelling middle class (bourgeoisie)
  • Urban lower class-Sans Cullotte
  • Peasant farmers

35
Bourgeoisie
  • Power growing since MA
  • Many well-educated
  • Enlightenment ideals of liberty and equality
  • many as wealthy as nobles
  • Mostly integrated in the power structure of
    French society
  • Paid much in taxes

36
Workers
  • Poorer than bourgeoisie
  • Urban Wore the sans-culottes (w/out knee
    britches)
  • Most were literate to some degree
  • Often hungry (bread)
  • Spring 1789 bad harvest, prices doubled
  • Most supported revolution

37
Peasants
  • 80 of population
  • 50 of income paid in taxes
  • Feudal dues, tithe, taxes
  • Owed the corvee- tax paid w/ work on govt. roads
  • No Enlightenment ideals
  • Revolt against oppression

38
Why Revolution?
  • All estates had reasons for hating Old Regime
  • Weak leadership at top
  • (Louis XVI)
  • MA relic
  • Nobility of the Robe
  • Nobility of the Sword
  • Public contempt

39
Problems of Louis XVI
40
Louis XVI
41
French Budget, 1774
42
Financial Problemsin France, 1789
  • Urban CommonersBudget
  • Food 80
  • Rent 25
  • Tithe 10
  • Taxes 35
  • Clothing 20
  • TOTAL 170
  • Kings Budget
  • Interest 50
  • Army 25
  • Versailles 25
  • Coronation 10
  • Loans 25
  • Admin. 25
  • TOTAL 160

43
American Revolution
  • 1777 France enters the war

44
Where is the tax money?
45
Socio-Economic Data, 1789
46
Problems
  • Wife Marie Antoinette
  • Austrian (hated) princess
  • Madame Deficit
  • The Austrian Whore
  • Lived extravagantly while poor suffered
    (Versailles)
  • Believed she was better than French

47
Marie Antoinette
48
The Necklace Scandal
1,600,000 livres100 million today
  • Cardinal Louis René Édouard de Rohan
  • The Countess de LaMotte

49
Problems
  • Govt. deeply in debt
  • Borrowed to help in Americans in Revolutionary
    War ( not troops)
  • Desire to tax nobles- refused unless Estates
    General called
  • Had not met since 1614
  • Called to Versailles May 1, 1789
  • Invitation to revolution

50
Problems
  • Necker
  • Director-General of Finances
  • Without American revolution govt. would have
    surplus
  • Too much money to aristocrats

51
The Estates General
52
The rise of The Third Estate
53
National Assembly
54
Stage One of Revolution
  • The Moderate Phase

55
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56
Estates General
  • Dominated by 1st and 2nd Estate
  • Since MA
  • Voting- each met in separate hall
  • One vote per estate
  • 1st and 2nd Estate outvoted 3rd

57
New Demands
  • 1789 3rd Estate demands all 3 estates meet
    together
  • Each vote count equally
  • 610 members in 3rd Estate
  • 591 members combined in 1st and 2nd Estates
  • King sides with nobles- follow old rules

58
New Demands
  • 3rd Estate determined-gain power
  • Spokesman Abbe Sieyes
  • June 16, 1789 suggests 3rd Estate change name to
    National Assembly
  • National Assembly- pass laws, reform in peoples
    name

59
Abbe Sieyes
60
The Tennis Court Oathby Jacques Louis David
June 20, 1789
61
National Assembly
  • Formed June 17, 1789
  • Tennis Court Oath
  • Caheres- list of grievances and desired reform
  • End to absolute monarchy
  • Representative govt.
  • 1st deliberate act of revolution

62
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63
The Third Estate Awakens
The commoners finally presented their credentials
not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as
representatives of the nation.
They proclaimed themselves the National
Assembly of France.
64
Louis Reaction
  • Make peace with 3rd Estate
  • All estates meet together
  • Swiss mercenaries ordered to Paris
  • Did not trust loyalty of French soldiers
  • Bourgeoisie fear end to Assembly
  • Mobs riot over price of bread

65
The French Urban Poor
66
Storming of the Bastille
  • July 14, 1789
  • Want gun powder to defend Paris and National
    Assembly

67
Long-term Causes
  • People of Paris were hungry
  • High unemployment
  • High prices

68
March on Bastille
69
Storming the Bastille
70
Storming of the Bastille
  • Significance
  • Militarily- Louis gives up use of troops
  • Politically- kings power reduced, National
    Assembly saved
  • Symbolic- act of revolution people ready to fight

71
Storming of Bastille
72
Desires of 3rd Estate
  • Peasants/workers- economic reform (liberal)
  • Achieve through violence
  • Middle class (bourgeoisie)- social reform
    (liberal)
  • Achieve through legitimate means
  • Controlled peasants to some degree
  • Price of grain leads to problems

73
The Great Fear
74
The People
  • Still in MA
  • No education
  • No news- rumors only of Bastille and killing
  • Fear of violence spreading
  • King will get even with them
  • Violent, superstitious, ignorant
  • Grouping together for 1st time

75
The Beginning
  • Rebellion from Paris spread to countryside
  • Rumors plot against common people
  • Nobles hire brigands to terrorize
  • Great Fear breaks out

76
Great Fear
  • Reaction peasants hid but no brigands
  • Peasants become brigands
  • Upset soldiers do not come- fight each other
  • Break into nobles houses-
  • Tore up legal documents binding them to the
    land/feudal dues
  • Houses burned

77
Reforms of the Assembly
78
Why Reforms?
  • Great Fear Paris mobs
  • Nobles pay taxes for reforms
  • Middle class small
  • Money came from feudal dues
  • Bourgeoisie pay taxes for rights
  • No benefits from ending feudalism

79
Accomplishments
  • End of Old Regime
  • End feudalism serfdom
  • End church tithes
  • End social privileges
  • Nobles clergy
  • End sale of offices
  • Opening of public offices

80
Liberty, Fraternity, Equality
  • Aug. 27, 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man
    and the citizen
  • Men born and remain free
  • Limited monarchy (constit.)
  • Law making assembly
  • Departments(83 districts/elected)
  • State controlled church
  • lose land, prop.owners elect officials (NEW
    PROBLEMS)

81
Declaration of the Rights of Women
  • 1791 by Olympe de Gouges
  • Revolutionary radical
  • To Queen Marie Antoinette
  • Applied Dec. Rights of Man to women
  • Women also citizens w/ property rights

82
Mary Wollstonecraft
  • Early feminist
  • 1792 A Vindication of the Rights of Women
  • Women and men do NOT have definite spheres

83
New Problems
  • Church issue divides peasants and bourgeoisie
  • Peasants will oppose other revolutionary changes

84
Kings Response
  • King reluctantly approves Constitution and
    Declaration
  • June 1791 Louis and family try to flee to
    Austrian Netherlands
  • Caught and returned to Paris
  • Louis discredited and plan for constitutional
    monarchy
  • Radicals influence increased

85
Change
  • Sept. 1791 new constitution completed
  • Legislative Assembly replaced National Assembly

86
Rule of the Radicals
87
Stage 2 of Revolution
  • The Radical Phase

88
Old Problems Remain
  • Legislative Assembly splits
  • Right (conservative)- limited monarchy, trusted
    king
  • Left (radicals)-reform, Republic, common people
    have power
  • Center (moderates)- few reforms

89
Radicals
  • Extreme right (nobles)- undo revolution, restore
    Old Regime
  • Emigres- nobles who fled during peasant uprising
  • Extreme left- sans-culottes of Paris who set up
    city govt.
  • Paris Commune became force

90
War with Austria
  • Ruler of Austria- Maries brother
  • Radicals- war spread revolution
  • Prussia joins Austria
  • War declared April 20, 1792
  • Radicals imprison Louis Marie

91
The Result
  • France defeats Prussia Austria
  • Parisian radicals
  • Legislative Assembly deposes king, end 1791
    Constitution
  • New legislature- National Convention

92
The Radicals
  • Summer 1792 radicals more power than govt.
  • Mobs poor
  • Leaders bourgeoisie
  • Most radicals Jacobins
  • Remove king, est. Republic
  • Leaders Danton, Marat
  • Levee in mass- 1st citizen army
  • Violent phase will begin

93
National Convention
  • Sept. 21, 1792- monarchy replaced by Republic
  • Adult males citizens right to vote, hold office
  • Louis tried for treason
  • Guillotined Jan. 21,1793
  • Army grew to 800,000 (women)
  • Protect against 1st coalition
  • 2nd war pushed by execution

94
Death of Louis XVI
95
Death of Marie Antoinette
96
Reign of Terror
  • Led by Robespierre the Incorruptible
  • Republic of Virtue- wipe out traces of monarchy
    and nobility
  • Most churches closed (old fashioned, dangerous)
  • Many did not killing

97
Robespierre
98
Robespierre
99
Committee of Public Safety
  • Leaders- Robespierre, Danton, Carnot (military
    leader)
  • Find enemies of the Republic
  • Guillotine (many innocent)
  • Problem- most enemies were other revolutionaries
    who challenged his leadership

100
Committee of Public Safety
  • 40,000 killed (80 commoners)
  • Oct. 1793- many leaders executed
  • Danton executed

101
Death List
102
Guillotine
103
Reign of Terror Ends
  • Aug. 27, 1794- Natl Convention guillotines
    Robespierre
  • End of Radical Stage of Revolution

104
Death by Guillotine
105
Stage 3 of Revolution
  • Return to Moderation

106
Thermidorian Reaction
  • Reaction against radicals
  • Church regain power
  • Political change
  • Sans-culottes must be checked
  • Royalists try to take power at Natl Convention-
    stopped by Napoleon

107
Bourgeoisie Led Third Stage
  • Goals of Bourgeoisie
  • No monarchy
  • No political power for commoners
  • Voting rights for tax payers only
  • 1795 New Constitution- France Republic with
    Directory

108
1799 Revolution Ends
  • 1789 Directory fails- they can not control
    inflation
  • Results of Revolution in France
  • End of absolute monarchy
  • Church and nobles lose power
  • Rise of bourgeoisie
  • Will come to dominate govt.

109
Revolutions Results in Europe
  • Ideals of liberty and individual rights spread
  • Nationalism spread
  • New types of warfare emerge
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