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September 11, 2014

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September 11, 2014 Objectives: To develop a better understanding of the foundations of American Government. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: September 11, 2014


1
September 11, 2014
  • Objectives To develop a better understanding of
    the foundations of American Government.

2
Foundations of the Constitution
3
In the beginning
  • 1750s-Great Britain was in debt and searching for
    new revenue.
  • The colonies paid little in taxes and had just
    been defended by the British during the French
    and Indian War
  • The colonies, however, had lived under self rule
    for over 100 years and were not willing to give
    that up.

4
Formation of the first governments of the 13
colonies
  • Highly Influenced by
  • English Law
  • English Tradition
  • English Religion (mix of Protestantism and
    Catholicism)
  • What ideas influenced the first colonial
    governments?
  • Hebrews-
  • (Ten Commandments) laws based on morals
  • Greeks-
  • (direct democracy) everyone participated
    directly (smaller society)
  • Romans-
  • (Classical republic) elect people to represent
    you. People practice civic virtue. Promotion of
    the common good. Moral education.

5
What influenced the colonists?
  • Old English Documents
  • Magna Carta
  • (1215) first document to limit the Kings power
  • Established Due Process
  • Habeas Corpus Act
  • (1678) government must tell you what you are
    being held for and show evidence against you.
  • Petition of Right
  • (1628) Government could not tax without consent
  • Government could not quarter troops
  • English Bill of Rights
  • (1689) Parliament replaced dominant power of King
    (legislative supremacy)
  • Trial by jury
  • No cruel and unusual punishment
  • Right to bear arms

6
Mayflower Compact
  • Written and signed by 41 Pilgrims in 1620.
  • The first example at self-government.

7
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
  • Written by former Massachusetts Bay Colonist
    Puritans in 1639.
  • Americans first formal constitution.
  • Allowed citizens to elect officials to make laws.

8
The Virginia Houseof Burgesses
  • First legislature in America.
  • Established in 1619.
  • The ideals and origins established here would
    later factor into the writing of the Constitution.

9
Britain Tightens Control
  • For more than 150 years Britain practiced
    salutary neglect toward the colonies.
  • What changed?
  • Seven Years War (a.k.a. The French and Indian
    War) 1754-1763.
  • George III became king in 1760.

10
Theres a War to pay for!!!
1765 Stamp Act First direct Act. Repealed in
1766, but
11
The Coercive ActsorThe Intolerable Acts
  • All Acts were directed at reminding the colonists
    of who was in control Britain.

12
United in Brotherhood
We Will Not Comply
Colonists take another look at Franklins Albany
Plan of Union, which he offered during the French
and Indian War. 1765 Stamp Act Congress 1773
Committees of Correspondence.
13
First Continental Congress
  • September 5, 1774 in Philadelphia.
  • All colonies present except Georgia.
  • 56 men wrote and sent a letter of grievances and
    resolves to King George III (The Olive Branch
    Petition.)
  • Meet back the next year.
  • Before meeting answer came on April 19, 1775.
    (KGIII Nuts to this)

14
Second Continental Congress
  • May 1775 in Philadelphia
  • 56 men from all 13 colonies.
  • Chose John Hancock as president of Congress.
  • Richard Henry Lee would propose resolutions for
    independence.
  • Committee was appointed to write.

15
Final 5
  • Write down an example of representation in your
    lives

16
September 11, 2014
  • Objectives To develop a better understanding of
    the foundations of the American Constitution

17
The Declaration of Independence.
  • Committee
  • Thomas Jefferson (VA)
  • Benjamin Franklin (PA)
  • John Adams (MA)
  • Roger Sherman (CT)
  • Robert Livingston (NY)
  • Selected to write the document. Offered
    suggestions.

18
Declaration of Independence
  • Approved on July 2, 1776.
  • Began signing on July 4, 1776.
  • All had signed by August 4, 1776.

19
Articles of Confederation
  • First functioning Government
  • Ratified in 1781
  • While Revolution is in progress
  • Most real power with the States
  • Binding was a rope of sand
  • Lots of quarrelling between the states
  • Just one Congress
  • Unicameral (one house)
  • each State had 1 representative
  • it took 9/13 States to pass a law
  • it took 13/13 States to approve a treaty or amend
    the Articles
  • No executive or judicial branch
  • Could pass laws, make treaties, declare war
    peace, borrow money, and create a postal system

20
Articles of Confederation has Problems
21
Weaknesses of the A of C
  • Congress couldn't require States to obey national
    laws (no Judicial branch)
  • The central government has little power over
    foreign trade
  • Congress could not tax (ask states for money or
  • borrow) Natl Govt in debt
  • 4. The Confederation has no effective military
    force.
  • 5. Each state issues its own coins and paper
    money
  • 6. The Confederation must ask states for money
    to support the federal Government
  • 7. At least nine states are required to pass
    legislation (difficult to pass laws)
  • 8. Changes in the Articles require a unanimous
    vote of the thirteen, makes it impossible to
    change the constitution

22
Final 5
  • What are 2 of the grievances listed in the Dec.
    of Independence? Why were these grievances
    important to the colonists?

23
September 12, 2014
  • Objectives To develop an understanding of the
    background to the U.S. Constitution

24
We NEED a stronger Government!!!
  • Shays Rebellion scares a lot of people A
    Small Rebellion of Massachusetts farmers that
    were veterans of the war, and had not received
    pay, and many lost their farms due to debt.
  • Have a Constitutional Convention meet in
    Philadelphia, to rework the Articles
  • Philadelphia in May 1787
  • End up creating a new Constitution

25
Constitutional Convention
  • 55 delegates from 12 states meet for the sole
    and express purpose of revising the Articles of
    Confederation
  • the well-bred, the well-fed, the well-read, and
    the well-wed
  • Average age is 42, 2/3 lawyers, 1/3 owned slaves
  • No Rhode Island, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson,
    Sam Adams, John Hancock, or Patrick Henry!
  • Father of the Constitution
  • James Madison of Virginia
  • Spoke over 200 times
  • Took extensive notes

26
Constitutional Conflict!!!
Lots of ideas Decided to throw out the old
Constitution what to do now?
  • Virginia Plan
  • Strong national government
  • Three branches of government
  • (legislative, executive, judicial)
  • Two houses of congress, based on population
  • Big states like it!
  • VA, Penn, NC, Mass, NY, MD
  • The small state delegates are upset! Convention
    almost collapses.

27
The Virginia Plan
  • Introduced by Edmund Randolph.
  • Governmental Plan
  • -Strong National Executive
  • -Strong National Judicial
  • Strong bicameral legislature. (Represetation
    based
  • on population
  • Lower house chosen by the people.
  • Upper house chosen by the lower.
  • Problem Larger populated states would control.

28
The New Jersey Plan
  • JUST before was voted on, NJ introduced a new
    plan
  • New Jersey Plan Introduced by William Paterson.
  • Governmental Plan
  • Keep main provisions of Articles of
    Confederation.
  • Unicameral legislature, one vote for each state.
  • Weak executive branch would be chosen by
    Congress.
  • National judiciary with limited power chosen by
    Congress.

29
The Compromises
  • The Great Compromise
  • The Connecticut Plan Introduced by Roger Sherman.
  • Legislature be bicameral
  • House of Representatives based on state
    population.
  • Senate with two members from each state.
  • Established the process of compromise to solve
    issues!!!!

30
Representation of Slaves?.
  • South wanted slaves to be counted in population
  • Elbridge Gerry (Mass) said If you want slaves
    to count make them citizens and let them vote.
  • 3/5 of them would be counted for tax purposes and
    representation. (5 slaves would count as 3
    people)
  • Also agreed Congress would not ban slave trade
    until 1808.
  • 3/5 COMPROMISE

31
How to Elect the President?
  • Liberals proposed Popular Vote
  • Conservatives feared and distrusted of people
    electing the Pres!
  • Compromise Popular vote BUT
  • The people would not directly elect the
    President.
  • Each state would choose electors that would
    elect the President (Electoral College)

32
Constitutional Convention Ends
  • -Sept. 17, 1787 17 long weeks
  • 42 original members sign
  • No one was completely satisfied
  • (so many compromises)
  • CONVENTION DID NOT HAVE THE
  • AUTHORITY TO ESTABLISH.
  • MUST BE SENT TO THE STATES FOR RATIFICATION!!!!!!!
    !!!!!

33
September 26, 2013Ratification
  • Special State Elections
  • Federalists support acceptance Constitution
  • Favored strong central govt
  • lawyers, merchants, NE states.
  • Alexander Hamilton
  • -Anti Federalists Opposed acceptance
    Constitution
  • Too much federal power
  • Not enough guarantee personal rights BILL OF
    RIGHTS
  • Thomas Jefferson

34
States Decide
  • Constitution four states quickly approve
  • Massachusetts stern test
  • Shaysists
  • Lack of Bill of Rights
  • 187-168
  • 3 more states approve
  • June 21, 1788 N.H. approves 9

35
Final states ratify
  • Virginia
  • Patrick Henry/George Mason oppose
  • George Washington/James Madison support
  • 89-79 support
  • New York Strong opposition
  • Alexander Hamilton/John Jay Federalist Papers
  • 30-27 support
  • North Carolina
  • Rhode Island 34-32 June 1790 (after govt
    began)

36
CONCLUSION
  • Minority Triumph
  • Represented wealthy conservative factions
  • ¼ of adult white males had voted for delegate
  • Unusual methods (compromise) but created
    effective govt

37
Shays Rebellion-Americas first Civil War
  • After war, Americans buying up luxury goods on
    credit. British began demanding money back,
    British leaned on importers, who leaned on
    shopkeepers, who leaned on farmers (most of whom
    were veterans of the Revolution) who had no
    money.
  • Farmers that lacked money, were put in debtors
    prison, sometimes for life.
  • In Massachusetts, the state government raised
    taxes to pay off war debt (but where would money
    come from?)
  • Farmers were hardest hit, so they banned together
    and rebelled, closing courthouses and burning
    records of debt. As the rebellion grew, the
    people looked to national government, which could
    do nothing because of Articles

38
Impact of Shays rebellion
  • Following rebellion, Washington was quoted as
    saying, What a triumph for our enemies to find
    that we are incapable of governing ourselves.
  • And, Good God! who besides a Briton predicted
    them! were these people wiser than others, or did
    they judge of us from the corruption, and
    depravity of their own hearts? The latter I am
    persuaded was the case, and that notwithstanding
    the boasted virtue of America, we are far gone in
    every thing ignoble and bad.
  • Calls for a convention to revise the Articles
    went out, and on May 25, 1787 delegates began
    working on the Constitution.
  • By the way, Shay fled to Vermont, pardoned in
    1788, received his promised 20 a month pension
    by 1820 and died in 1825.
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