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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.

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Title: Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.


1
Step Up To Psychologyby John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Psychology, Eighth Edition By David G. Myers
  • Worth Publishers
  • (2007)

2
Chapter 8 Learning
Watch Learn
Reinforce Me
Think!
Animals Learn
Those Kids!
3
Animals Learn
500
400
300
200
100
4
Reinforce Me
500
400
300
200
100
5
Watch and Learn
500
400
300
200
100
6
Think!
500
400
300
200
100
7
Those Kids!
500
400
300
200
100
8
1. In Pavlovs experiment, the dogs salivation
to the bell is the
  • A) unconditioned stimulus.
  • B) unconditioned response.
  • C) conditioned stimulus.
  • D) conditioned response.

9
2. Jimmy was frightened by a barking dog. For
the next few months, he was afraid of all dogs.
This is an example of
  • A) stimulus generalization.
  • B) stimulus discrimination.
  • C) unconditioned response.
  • D) unconditioned stimulus.

10
3. After repeatedly presenting the CS without
the UCS, the CR will gradually disappear. This
is called
  • A) extinguished reaction.
  • B) extinction.
  • C) stimulus discrimination.
  • D) stimulus neutralization.

11
4. Once extinction has occurred, the CR may
return if enough time has passed. This is an
example of
  • A) spontaneous remission.
  • B) stimulus generalization.
  • C) spontaneous recovery.
  • D) conditioned recurrence.

12
Which of the following would be an example of
Classical Conditioning being applied to practical
problems?
  • A) teaching a dog to wag its tail?
  • B) using methadone for heroine addicts.
  • C) applying electric shock to depressed patients.
  • D) giving alcoholics a drug to make them sick if
    they drink.

13
6. Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced
with monetary winnings on a _____ schedule.
  • A) fixed-interval
  • B) variable-interval
  • C) fixed-ratio
  • D) variable-ratio

14
7. In ____, a response is strengthened in order
to avoid something unpleasant.
  • A) punishment.
  • B) negative reinforcement.
  • C) partial reinforcement.
  • D) positive reinforcement.

15
8. Even when punishment changes behavior, it has
several drawbacks, including
  • A) punishment doesnt teach the correct response.
  • B) punishment may result in fear of the one
    punishing.
  • C) effects may be only temporary.
  • D) all of the above.

16
9. Resistance to extinction is most strongly
encouraged by _____ reinforcement.
  • A) intermittent
  • B) delayed
  • C) continuous
  • D) negative

17
10. If you want to teach a pigeon to eat out of
your hand, you would place some bird seed closer
and closer to you until it finally had to come to
your hand. This is called
  • A) intermittent reinforcement.
  • B) shaping.
  • C) partial reinforcement.
  • D) continuous reinforcement.

18
11. Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward
because he noticed his older brother does so.
This illustrates the importance of
  • A) respondent behavior.
  • B) immediate reinforcement.
  • C) shaping.
  • D) modeling.

19
12. Albert Bandura contends that most human
behavior
  • A) is acquired through observational learning.
  • B) is shaped through repeated trial-and error.
  • C) is reinforced through positive conditioning.
  • D) is planned out and not accidental.

20
13. In Banduras Bobo Doll experiment, he
demonstrated
  • A) aggressive children will imitate aggressive
    behavior.
  • B) children will imitate aggressive behavior just
    by observing it.
  • C) children who are non-aggressive will not
    imitate aggressive behavior.
  • D) children will imitate aggressive behavior is
    reinforced with candy.

21
14. Research on children viewing violence on TV
is related to their own aggressive behavior in
that
  • A) there is only a modest correlation.
  • B) there is no real correlation between the two.
  • C) its effects are only temporary.
  • D) there is a positive and statistically
    significant correlation.

22
15. Based on what researchers have found about
the effect of modeling on behavior,
  • A) we can decrease violence in our society if we
    decrease the amount of violence on TV.
  • B) we can increase pro-social behavior if we
    increase the amount of it on TV.
  • C) all of the above.
  • D) none of the above TV doesnt change the
    way people behave.

23
16. After a week at college, Kim has formed a
mental representation of the layout of the campus
and no longer gets lost. She has developed a
  • A) visual memory.
  • B) perceptual delineation.
  • C) cognitive map.
  • D) retinal disparity.

24
17. The fact that learning can occur without
reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by
studies of
  • A) shaping.
  • B) latent learning.
  • C) spontaneous recovery.
  • D) computer-assisted instruction.

25
18. The desire to engage in an activity for the
sake of its own enjoyment involves
  • A) spontaneous reinforcers.
  • B) spontaneous recovery.
  • C) intrinsic motivation.
  • D) latent learning.

26
19. It is easier to train a dog to bark for food
than to train it to stand on its hind legs for
food. This best illustrates the importance of
______ in learning.
  • A) primary reinforcement
  • B) generalization
  • C) negative reinforcers
  • D) biological predispositions

27
20. According to Thorndikes Law of Effect, when
responses are followed by something unpleasant
  • A) the response is strengthened.
  • B) the unpleasant stimulus is avoided.
  • C) the response is weakened.
  • D) the CR is extinguished.

28
21. Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may
also begin to fear speeding trucks and
motorcycles. This best illustrates
  • A) generalization.
  • B) secondary reinforcement.
  • C) shaping.
  • D) latent learning.

29
22. By pushing vending machine buttons, children
often learn that this action is associated with
the delivery of a candy bar. This best
illustrates the process underlying
  • A) latent learning.
  • B) intermittent reinforcement.
  • C) spontaneous recovery.
  • D) operant conditioning.

30
23. For purposes of effective child-rearing, most
psychologists favor the use of _____ over _____.
  • A) shaping modeling
  • B) reinforcement punishment
  • C) spontaneous recovery extinction
  • D) negative reinforcement positive reinforcement

31
24 A childs fear at the sight of a hypodermic
needle is a(n)
  • A) conditioned response.
  • B) unconditioned stimulus.
  • C) conditioned stimulus.
  • D) unconditioned response.

32
25. In explaining juvenile delinquency, B.F.
Skinner would most likely have emphasized
  • A) inherited predispositions.
  • B) unconscious conflicts.
  • C) faulty child-rearing practices.
  • D) a lack of moral values in contemporary society.

33
Congratulations!
34
Answers
Stop here, or continue as a review
35
1. In Pavlovs experiment, the dogs salivation
to the bell is the
  • A) unconditioned stimulus.
  • B) unconditioned response.
  • C) conditioned stimulus.
  • D) conditioned response.

317
36
2. Jimmy was frightened by a barking dog. For
the next few months, he was afraid of all dogs.
This is an example of
  • A) stimulus generalization.
  • B) stimulus discrimination.
  • C) unconditioned response.
  • D) unconditioned stimulus.

320
37
3. After repeatedly presenting the CS without
the UCS, the CR will gradually disappear. This
is called
  • A) extinguished reaction.
  • B) extinction.
  • C) stimulus discrimination.
  • D) stimulus neutralization.

319
38
4. Once extinction has occurred, the CR may
return if enough time has passed. This is an
example of
  • A) spontaneous remission.
  • B) stimulus generalization.
  • C) spontaneous recovery.
  • D) conditioned recurrence.

319
39
Which of the following would be an example of
Classical Conditioning being applied to practical
problems?
  • A) teaching a dog to wag its tail?
  • B) using methadone for heroine addicts
  • C) applying electric shock to depressed patients
  • D) giving alcoholics a drug to make them sick if
    they drink

323
40
6. Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced
with monetary winnings on a _____ schedule.
  • A) fixed-interval
  • B) variable-interval
  • C) fixed-ratio
  • D) variable-ratio

332
41
7. In ____, a response is strengthened in order
to avoid something unpleasant.
  • A) punishment
  • B) negative reinforcement
  • C) partial reinforcement
  • D) positive reinforcement

329
42
8. Even when punishment changes behavior, it has
several drawbacks, including
  • A) punishment doesnt teach the correct response.
  • B) punishment may result in fear of the one
    punishing.
  • C) effects may be only temporary.
  • D) all of the above.

333
43
9. Resistance to extinction is most strongly
encouraged by _____ reinforcement.
  • A) intermittent
  • B) delayed
  • C) continuous
  • D) negative

331
44
10. If you want to teach a pigeon to eat out of
your hand, you would place some bird seed closer
and closer to you until it finally had to come to
your hand. This is called
  • A) intermittent reinforcement.
  • B) shaping.
  • C) partial reinforcement.
  • D) continuous reinforcement.

328
45
11. Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward
because he noticed his older brother does so.
This illustrates the importance of
  • A) respondent behavior.
  • B) immediate reinforcement.
  • C) shaping.
  • D) modeling.

341
46
12. Albert Bandura contends that most human
behavior
  • A) is acquired through observational learning.
  • B) is shaped through repeated trial-and error.
  • C) is reinforced through positive conditioning.
  • D) is planned out and not accidental.

343
47
13. In Banduras Bobo Doll experiment, he
demonstrated
  • A) aggressive children will imitate aggressive
    behavior.
  • B) children will imitate aggressive behavior just
    by observing it.
  • C) children who are non-aggressive will not
    imitate aggressive behavior.
  • D) children will imitate aggressive behavior is
    reinforced with candy.

343
48
14. Research on children viewing violence on TV
is related to their own aggressive behavior in
that
  • A) there is only a modest correlation.
  • B) there is no real correlation between the two.
  • C) its effects are only temporary.
  • D) there is a positive and statistically
    significant correlation.

345
49
15. Based on what researchers have found about
the effect of modeling on behavior,
  • A) we can decrease violence in our society if we
    decrease the amount of violence on TV.
  • B) we can increase pro-social behavior if we
    increase the amount of it on TV.
  • C) all of the above.
  • D) none of the above TV doesnt change the
    way people behave.

343
50
16. After a week at college, Kim has formed a
mental representation of the layout of the campus
and no longer gets lost. She has developed a
  • A) visual memory.
  • B) perceptual delineation.
  • C) cognitive map.
  • D) retinal disparity.

334
51
17. The fact that learning can occur without
reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by
studies of
  • A) shaping.
  • B) latent learning.
  • C) spontaneous recovery.
  • D) computer-assisted instruction.

334
52
18. The desire to engage in an activity for the
sake of its own enjoyment involves
  • A) spontaneous reinforcers.
  • B) spontaneous recovery.
  • C) intrinsic motivation.
  • D) latent learning.

335
53
19. It is easier to train a dog to bark for food
than to train it to stand on its hind legs for
food. This best illustrates the importance of
______ in learning.
  • A) primary reinforcement
  • B) generalization
  • C) negative reinforcers
  • D) biological predispositions

336
54
20. According to Thorndikes Law of Effect, when
responses are followed by something unpleasant
  • A) the response is strengthened.
  • B) the unpleasant stimulus is avoided.
  • C) the response is weakened.
  • D) the CR is extinguished.

327
55
21. Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may
also begin to fear speeding trucks and
motorcycles. This best illustrates
  • A) generalization.
  • B) secondary reinforcement.
  • C) shaping.
  • D) latent learning.

320
56
22. By pushing vending machine buttons, children
often learn that this action is associated with
the delivery of a candy bar. This best
illustrates the process underlying
  • A) latent learning.
  • B) intermittent reinforcement.
  • C) spontaneous recovery.
  • D) operant conditioning.

326
57
23. For purposes of effective child-rearing, most
psychologists favor the use of _____ over _____.
  • A) shaping modeling
  • B) reinforcement punishment
  • C) spontaneous recovery extinction
  • D) negative reinforcement positive reinforcement

333
58
24 A childs fear at the sight of a hypodermic
needle is a(n)
  • A) conditioned response.
  • B) unconditioned stimulus.
  • C) conditioned stimulus.
  • D) unconditioned response.

317
59
25. In explaining juvenile delinquency, B.F.
Skinner would most likely have emphasized
  • A) inherited predispositions.
  • B) unconscious conflicts.
  • C) faulty child-rearing practices.
  • D) a lack of moral values in contemporary society.

338
60
Acknowledgements
  • Step Up Created by
  • John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Based on Psychology, Eighth Edition
  • By David G. Myers
  • Published by
  • Worth Publishers (2007)

61
Answers
1. D
2. A
3. B
4. C
5. D
6. D
7. B
8. D
9. A
10. B
11. D
12. A
13. B
14. D
15. C
16. C
17. B
18. C
19. D
20. C
21. A
22. D
23. B
24. A
25. C
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