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Animal kingdom groups (phyla)

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Animal kingdom groups (phyla) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal kingdom groups (phyla)


1
Animal kingdom groups (phyla)
2
What is an animal?
  • Heterotroph (consumer, not decomposer)
  • Multicellular
  • Eukaryote
  • No cell wall (unlike fungi, plants, and bacteria)
  • Specialized cells (unlike protists)

3
Evolution of complexity
  • Need sense and chase down food source
  • Adaptation nervous / motor systems
  • Need break up food and absorb nutrients
  • Adaptation digestive system
  • Need deliver oxygen to all cells
  • Adaptation circulatory / respiratory systems

4
Sponges
5
Sponges
  • O2 and food come in through diffusion
  • Filter feeds as an adult

6
Sponges
  • Unique among animal groups
  • No symmetry in overall body plan
  • No tissues (complex organization of cells)

7
Sponge reproduction
  • Sexual release sperm into water (external
    fertilization very common in aquatic animals)
  • Hermaphroditism sponges have sperm AND eggs to
    increase the odds of reproduction
  • Offspring can swim to a new location
  • Asexual fragmentation also possible

8
Sponges
  • Simplest animals
  • Possible colonial protozoan ancestor

9
Cnidarians
Sea anemone
Jellyfish
10
Evolution of radial symmetry
  • Definiton can cut in equal halves more than one
    way
  • Ex letters O, X
  • Purpose extending tentacles equally in all
    directions (increase food uptake)

11
Cnidarian
  • Basic digestive system
  • Also basic nervous system (nerve net)
  • O2 still enters by diffusion

12
Revolution 1 active movement
  • Filter feeding will not be sufficient for larger
    animals
  • Filter feeding will not work on land or in air
  • 2 major adaptations to help organisms sense and
    move in their environment

13
Adaptation 1) Body symmetry
  • Bilateral symmetry allows for development of
    brain region in a central location (head)
  • Bilateral symmetry ? cephalization

14
Adaptation 2 Body cavity
  • Coelom is a space inside body (empty / fluid)
  • Two purposes in evolutionary history
  • a) Short-term something for muscles to
  • push against to move
  • b) Long-term space for larger organs
  • Not present in all animals (some have lost over
    evolutionary time)

15
Revolution 1 active movement
  • Cephalization command center to coordinate
    senses and movement
  • Coelom support for muscle movement

16
Flatworms
Planarian not parasitic
Tapeworm parasitic
17
Trends in flatworms
  • No coelom
  • Why? Many are parasitic
  • O2 and sugar absorbed in hosts intestine

18
Tapeworm life cycle
19
Roundworms
hookworm -- parasitic
20
Trends in roundworms
  • Semi-developed coelom (moves a bit more)
  • Can burrow through skin (walking around
    barefoot), also enters through contaminated food

21
Not a problem in U.S.
22
Why not?
  • Food safety inspections
  • Good sanitation
  • Medication widely available

23
Mollusks
Clam 2 shells
Snail 1 shell
Squid no shell
24
These are all in the same group!?!
inside of a clam
25
Mollusk traits
  • Getting food filter feeders (clams), grazers
    (snails), predators (slugs)
  • Getting O2 gills in aquatic mollusks, primitive
    lung in snails
  • Open or closed circulatory system

26
Open vs. closed
  • Open
  • No blood vessels
  • Blood surrounds bodys organs, delivers O2
  • Smaller animals
  • Closed
  • Blood vessels
  • Larger animals

27
Reproduction
  • Hermaphrodites (both mollusks and segmented
    worms)
  • Aquatic release sperm and eggs into water
  • Land meet and swap sperm, fertilize eggs inside

28
Segmented worms
leech
earthworm
29
Segmented worms
  • Full coelom (full range of motion, complex organs
    inside)
  • O2 Gets O2 directly from moist skin,
  • closed circulatory system with hearts to deliver
  • Food blood (leeches), or dirt (earthworms)

30
Earthworms rule
  • Swallow dirt, filter out food
  • Loosen soil, helps to aerate soil for plants
  • Also fertilizes plants with castings (poop)

31
Leeches rule
  • Two chemicals in saliva to help it take blood
    from hosts
  • Anesthetic
  • Anti-coagulant

32
Revolution 2 - skeletons
  • Structural support for larger bodies (remember,
    no cell walls in animal cells)
  • Two varieties
  • 1) Exoskeleton outside body (arthropods) 2)
    Endoskeleton inside body (echinoderms,
  • chordates)

33
Arthropods
  • Four main classes within this HUGE phylum
  • Arachnids
  • Crustaceans
  • Centipedes / millipedes
  • Insects

34
Arachnids
Black widow
Brown recluse
35
Arachnids
Chigger (flea)
Tick
Scorpion
36
Crustaceans
Crab
Lobster
Barnacles
37
Many-footed ones
Centipede
Millipede
38
Insects
Wasp
Fire ants
Grasshopper
39
Arthropod traits
  • Coelomate (I will also stop writing this now)
  • Segments still (possible connection to segmented
    worms)
  • Exoskeleton

40
Exoskeleton
  • NOT the same as mollusk shell
  • Functions 1) protection, 2) prevent water loss
    on land (waxy layer)
  • Problems Heavy, growth requires molting
  • Therefore arthropods tend to be smaller

41
For respiration
  • System for collecting O2 (tracheal tubes /
    spiracles)
  • Open circulatory system

42
Complex nervous system
Sophisticated sensory / motor control
Compound eye of a fruit fly
43
Arthropod reproduction
  • Internal fertilization (mating) in land
    arthropods
  • External fertilization in sea arthropods

44
Echinoderms
sea urchin
sea star
sea cucumber
45
Echinoderm traits
  • adults radial symmetry (live on ocean floor)
  • larvae are bilaterally symmetric
  • endoskeleton

46
Echinoderm traits
  • Food variety of diet (some eat clams, some eat
    algae, some filter feed)
  • Water vascular system (water instead of blood to
    carry O2)
  • Reproduction typical in water

47
Chordates
48
All chordates
  • Have notochord precursor to vertebral spinal
    column (semirigid, filled with fluid)
  • Vertebrates replace this with a full spinal cord
  • Some chordates are invertebrates still

49
Invertebrate chordates
tunicate
lancelet
50
Endoskeleton advantage
  • Organisms can grow larger with skeleton inside
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