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THE AGE OF REFORM-Progressivism (1890s-1920)

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Title: THE AGE OF REFORM-Progressivism (1890s-1920)


1
THE AGE OF REFORM-Progressivism (1890s-1920)
  • Roots of Progressivism
  • progressives were never a single unified group
    seeking a single objective
  • they sought civil service reform, political
    reform, government regulation of big business,
    improvement of conditions in the workplace, and
    the enactment of antitrust legislation
  • in response to an increasingly complex society,
    progressivism represented a search for order

2
PROGRESSIVISM
CivilRights
Suffragettes
Muckrackers
Temperance
Labor Unions
MidclassWomen
Goo Goos
Popul ists
3
The Muckrakers
  • the popular press published articles on social,
    economic, and political issues of the day
  • McClures published Ida Tarbells critical series
    on Standard Oil and Lincoln Steffenss expose on
    city machines
  • soon, other editors rushed to adopt McClures
    formula
  • a veritable army of journalists published stories
    exposing labor gangsterism, the adulteration of
    foods and drugs, corruption in college athletics,
    and prostitution

4
Muckrakers
5
  • the degree of sensationalism used by some authors
    prompted Theodore Roosevelt to label them
    muckrakers

6
The Progressive Mind
  • despite its democratic rhetoric, progressivism
    was paternalistic, moderate, and often
    soft-headed
  • reformers oversimplified issues and regarded
    their personal values as absolute standards
  • progressives came from all walks of life and
    included great tycoons, small operators,
    advocates of social justice, prohibitionists, and
    others

Carry Nation with her hatchet
7
  • progressivism never truly challenged the
    fundamental principles of capitalism nor did it
    seek to reorganize the basic structures of
    society
  • many progressives held anti-immigrant views, and
    few progressives concerned themselves with the
    plight of blacks

8
Radical Progressives The Wave of the Future
  • influenced by European revolutionary theories,
    some segments of American society sought radical
    relief for the ills of industrialism
  • some labor leaders rejected craft unionism and
    advocated socialism
  • in 1905, a coalition of mining and other unions,
    socialists, and other radicals formed a new
    union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)

9
International Workers of the World (Wobblies)
10
Mother Jones The Miners Angel
  • Mary Harris.
  • Organizer for theUnited MineWorkers.
  • Founded the SocialDemocratic Party in 1898.
  • One of the founding members of the I. W. W. in
    1905.

11
  • the openly anticapitalist IWW never attracted the
    support of mainstream labor
  • other nonpolitical European ideas influenced
    progressive intellectuals
  • few understood, and even fewer read, Freud, but
    his theories became a popular topic of
    conversation
  • some used Freud to argue against conventional
    standards of sexual morality

12
Political Reform Cities First
  • corrupt political machines ruled many cities
  • city bosses and machine politics became the
    primary targets of progressivism
  • reformers could not defeat the machines without
    changing urban political structures
  • new forms included home rule, nonpartisan
    bureaus, city commissioners, and city managers
  • beyond reforming the political process,
    progressives hoped to use it to improve society

13
  • some experiments at the municipal level included
    urban renewal, municipalizing public utilities
    and public transportation systems, and reform of
    penal institutions

14
State Social Legislation
  • by the 1890s, many states passed laws regulating
    conditions in the workplace
  • these laws restricted child labor, set maximum
    hours for women and children, and regulated
    conditions in sweatshops
  • conservative judges, unwilling to accept an
    expansion of the states coercive power, often
    struck down such laws on the ground that they
    violated the due process clause of the
    Fourteenth Amendment

15
Child Labor
16
Here, Marie Michaels poses in an apron
advertising the cause for 8-hour workday for
women in Oregon.
17
Women Working
18
  • progressives also achieved state legislation
    regulating the transportation, utilities,
    banking, and insurance industries
  • however, piecemeal regulation by the states
    failed to solve the problems of an increasingly
    complex society

19
Political Reform The Womens Suffrage Movement
  • the Progressive Era saw the culmination of the
    struggle for womens suffrage
  • the womens movement was handicapped by rivalry
    between the NWSA and the AWSA, by Victorian
    attitudes about the role of women, and by
    applications of Darwinian theory
  • feminists attempted to turn ideas of womens
    moral superiority to their advantage in the
    struggle for voting rights
  • in doing so, however, they surrendered the
    principle of equality

20
Women Win Suffrage
  • in 1890, the two major womens groups combined to
    form the National American Womens Suffrage
    Association (NAWSA)
  • the growth of progressivism contributed to the
    cause of suffrage
  • after winning the right to vote in several
    states, NAWSA focused its attention on the
    national level
  • the Nineteenth Amendment (1920) granted women the
    right to vote

It took 41 years from the beginning of the
womens suffrage movement for women to finally
get voting rights!
21
Political Reform Income Taxes and Popular
Election of Senators
  • progressivism also found expression in the
    Sixteenth Amendment, which authorized a federal
    income tax, and the Seventeenth Amendment (1913),
    which provided for direct election of senators
  • a group of progressive members of Congress also
    managed to reform the House of Representatives by
    limiting the power of the Speaker

22
Theodore Roosevelt Cowboy in the White House
  • Roosevelt assumed the presidency following
    McKinleys assassination
  • he brought to the presidency solid political
    qualifications, a distinguished war record, and
    credentials as a historian
  • although the prospect of Roosevelt in the White
    House alarmed conservatives, he moved slowly and
    with restraint
  • his domestic program included some measure of
    control of large corporations, more power for the
    Interstate Commerce Commission, and the
    conservation of natural resources

23
Teddy Roosevelts Square Deal
President Teddy Roosevelt took a leading role in
the Progressive Era. Among other reforms that he
championed, Roosevelt fought against corporate
monopolies and for consumer and environmental
protections.
24
Roosevelt and Big Business
  • although Roosevelt won a reputation as a
    trustbuster, he did not believe in breaking up
    big corporations indiscriminately he preferred
    to regulate them
  • Roosevelt was not an enemy to all large-scale
    enterprises, merely those that flagrantly seemed
    to restrain trade
  • facing a Congress that would not pass strong
    regulatory laws, Roosevelt resorted to use of the
    Sherman Act

25
(No Transcript)
26
  • although his Justice Department brought suit
    against the Northern Securities Company, the
    President preferred to reach gentlemanly
    agreements with large trusts
  • this approach proved successful with U.S. Steel
    and International Harvester
  • when Standard Oil reneged on an agreement,
    however, the Justice Department brought suit

27
Roosevelt and the Coal Strike
  • Roosevelt effectively used the powers and
    prestige of his office to intervene in the
    anthracite coal strike of 1902
  • he attempted to arbitrate between management and
    the United Mine Workers, but management proved
    intransigent
  • the presidents threat to seize and operate the
    mines convinced the owners of the wisdom of
    accepting arbitration

28
  • neither side was entirely pleased, but, to the
    American public, the incident seemed to
    illustrate the progressive spirit and Roosevelts
    square deal
  • Roosevelts use of executive power in this case
    dramatically extended presidential authority and
    hence that of the federal government

29
TRs Triumphs
  • Roosevelt easily defeated the Democratic
    candidate, Alton B. Parker, in 1904
  • encouraged by his victory and aware of the
    growing militancy of progressives, the president
    pressed Congress for passage of the Hepburn Act
    (1906), which allowed the ICC to inspect the
    books of railroad companies and to fix maximum
    rates
  • it also gave the ICC authority over other
    interstate carriers and prohibited railroads from
    issuing passes freely

30
TRs Triumphs Upton Sinclairs The Jungle
  • in response to Upton Sinclairs novel, The
    Jungle, which described the filthy conditions in
    the meat-packing industry, Roosevelt pressed
    Congress to pass the Pure Food and Drug Act
    (1907)

31
The Jungle
Meatpacking Industry
32
  • What unsanitary practices did Sinclair publicize
    in his book?
  • Was the primary purpose of The Jungle to expose
    the meat industry?
  • What kinds of regulation ultimately emerged from
    this investigation?
  • Upton Sinclairs book The Jungle exposed the
    unsanitary practices of the nation's meatpackers
    and launched a full-scale government
    investigation. Here President Roosevelt takes
    hold of the investigation and muckrakers in the
    packinghouse scandal.

33
Roosevelt Tilts Left
  • as the progressive impulse advanced, Roosevelt
    advanced with it
  • Roosevelts approach became increasingly liberal
  • he placed more than 150 million acres of public
    lands in federal reserves, strictly enforced
    usage laws on federal lands, and encouraged state
    governments actively to regulate their public
    lands
  • as Roosevelt moved toward the left, many Old
    Guard Republicans turned against the president

34
  • the Panic of 1907 exacerbated the split
  • when conservatives blamed him for the panic,
    Roosevelt responded by moving further toward
    progressive liberalism he advocated federal
    income and inheritance taxes, stricter regulation
    of interstate corporations, and reforms designed
    to help industrial workers
  • when Roosevelt began to criticize the courts, he
    lost all chance of obtaining further reform
    legislation

35
William Howard Taft The Listless Progressive, or
More is Less
  • Roosevelts hand-picked successor, William Howard
    Taft, garnered the support of Old Guard
    Republicans as well as progressives and easily
    defeated William Jennings Bryan
  • although he enforced the Sherman Act vigorously
    and signed the Mann-Elkins Act, which expanded
    the power of the ICC, Taft made a less aggressive
    president than T.R. had been

36
Progressive President Taft
37
  • Taft was not comfortable with Roosevelts
    sweeping use of executive power
  • his political ineptness contributed to Tafts
    problems
  • he alienated progressives when he failed to lend
    full support to a Congressional movement to
    reform the tariff system
  • Taft ran afoul of the growing conservation
    movement in 1910 when he fired the chief forester
    of the United States, Gifford Pinchot

38
Breakup of the Republican Party
  • the Ballinger-Pinchot affair signaled the
    beginning of a split between Roosevelt and Taft
  • perhaps inevitably, the Republican party split
    into factions
  • Roosevelt sided with the progressives, and Taft
    threw in his lot with the Old Guard
  • Tafts management of antitrust action brought
    against U.S. Steel in 1911 finalized the split
  • a portion of the suit was directed against the
    merger of the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company
    with U.S. Steel in 1907

39
  • Roosevelt had personally approved of merger and
    viewed Tafts action as a personal attack
  • Roosevelt decided to challenge Taft for the
    nomination in 1912
  • while Roosevelt carried the bulk of the
    primaries, Taft controlled the party apparatus
    and secured the nomination
  • Roosevelt formed the breakaway Progressive party,
    also known as the Bull Moose party, and ran in
    the general election

40
The Election of 1912
  • the Democrats ran Woodrow Wilson, the reform
    governor of New Jersey
  • Wilsons New Freedom promised eradication of
    special interests and a return to competition
  • Roosevelt called for a New Nationalism, based
    on regulation of large corporations
  • hard-core Republicans voted for Taft, but the
    progressive wing went for Roosevelt
  • Democrats, both conservative and progressive,
    voted for Wilson as a result, Wilson won easily

41
Wilson The New Freedom
  • Wilson quickly established his legislative agenda
    and successfully steered his legislation through
    Congress
  • in 1913, the Underwood Tariff substantially
    reduced tariffs a graduated income tax made up
    for lost revenue
  • the Federal Reserve Act finally provided the
    nation with a centralized banking system
  • Congress created the Federal Trade Commission to
    regulate unfair trade practices

42
Wilson The New Freedom
  • the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 outlawed price
    discrimination, tying agreements, and the
    creation of interlocking directorates
  • Wilsons decisive management style and a
    Democratic majority in Congress accounted in
    large part for his successes
  • Wilsons progressivism had its limits he refused
    to support legislation to provide low-interest
    loans to farmers or to exempt unions from
    antitrust actions
  • Wilson also declined to push for a federal law
    prohibiting child labor and refused to back a
    constitutional amendment granting the vote to
    women

43
The Progressives and Minority Rights
  • a darker side of progressivism manifested itself
    in the area of race relations
  • a reactionary on racial matters, Wilson was
    fairly typical of progressive attitudes only a
    handful failed to exhibit prejudice against
    nonwhite people
  • most progressives assumed that Native Americans
    were incapable of assimilating into white society
  • Asians were subject to intense discrimination

44
  • in the South, the Progressive Era witnessed the
    institutionalization of Jim Crow
  • many progressive women adopted racist arguments
    in support of the Nineteenth Amendment, while
    Southern progressives argued for the
    disenfranchisement of blacks to purify the
    political system
  • Booker T. Washington and his philosophy of
    accommodation failed to stem the rising tide of
    racism, and a number of young and well-educated
    blacks broke away from his leadership

45
Black Militancy
  • W. E. B. Du Bois, the first American black to
    earn a Ph.D. from Harvard, called upon blacks to
    reject Washingtons accommodationism
  • he urged them to take pride in their racial and
    cultural heritage and demanded that blacks take
    their rightful place in society without waiting
    for whites to give it to them
  • he recognized that environment, not racial
    factors, caused problems of poverty and crime
  • Du Bois was not, however, an admirer of the
    ordinary black American

46
W. E. B. Du Bois
  • frankly elitist in approach, Du Bois contended
    that a talented tenth of blacks would lead the
    way to their races success
  • in 1905, he and other like-minded blacks founded
    the Niagara Movement
  • while it failed to attract mass support, it did
    stir some white consciences
  • a group comprised largely of white liberals
    founded the National Association for the
    Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909

47
  • the NAACP was dedicated to the eradication of
    racial discrimination from American society
  • the leadership of the NAACP was largely white in
    its early years, but Du Bois became a national
    officer and editor of the organizations journal
  • more important, after the founding of the NAACP,
    virtually every leader in the struggle for racial
    equality rejected Washingtons approach

48
New Constitutional Amendments
  • 16th Income Tax
  • 17th Direct election of U.S. Senators
  • Purpose- Reduce corruption and give people a
    voice in government
  • 18th Prohibition of Alcoholic Beverages
  • Purpose- believe it hurt the family
  • 19th Womens Suffrage
  • Most Controversial- Divided households and the
    longest to achieve

49
The Progressive MovementElection Reforms
  • INITIATIVE bill proposed by the people instead
    of lawmakers put on a ballot (voters can
    propose laws)
  • REFERENDUM- voters, not legislature, decide if
    initiative becomes law
  • RECALL voters remove elected official through
    early election
  • passage of statewide direct primary election
    which led to the
  • 17th AMENDMENT direct election of Senators by
    voters rather than state legislators

50
Chapter 22 The Progressive
Movement Reforms
What actions did the Progressives take to create
reforms? In the boxes below, list 2 (or more)
examples of actions taken by people and/or
organizations aimed at reform.
Social
Workplace (women/children)
The Progressive Movement
Moral
Economic
Political
Which group was the MOST SUCCESSFUL and WHY?
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