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Unit One

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Unit One Why THIS type of government? How did we get here? Values Addressed: Citizenship, Democracy, Equality, Freedom of Conscience and Expression, Liberty – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit One


1
Unit One Why THIS type of government? How
did we get here?
Values Addressed Citizenship, Democracy,
Equality, Freedom of Conscience and Expression,
Liberty
2
Bell Ringer
  • Journal Entry Write a well-developed paragraph
    over the topic, Which policies of the government
    make your life better? Which do you think make
    your life worse?

3
Unit 1 Day 1
  • Essential Question How do various theories
    explain the origin of government?

4
Aristotle
  • Scholar in ancient Greece
  • Was one of the first students of government

5
Important Terms
  • State
  • Sovereignty
  • Nation
  • Nation-state
  • Consensus
  • Government
  • Social Contract
  • Use chapter 1, section 1 to define these terms!!

6
Essential Features of a State
  • Population most essential feature
  • Affects the political organization through
    stability and mobility
  • Territory
  • The exact location or shape of political
    boundaries is often a source of conflict among
    states
  • Sovereignty
  • State has absolute authority within boundaries
  • Government
  • Maintains order

7
Purposes of Government
  • To maintain social order
  • To provide public services
  • To provide for national security and a common
    defense
  • To provide for and control the economic system

8
Governments Authority
  • Legitimacy
  • The willingness of citizens to obey the
    government
  • Coercive
  • Government can force people to pay taxes and can
    punish offenders

9
Create a Graphic Organizer
  • -Using page 8-9, create a graphic organizer of
    the Major Political Ideas
  • The Force Theory
  • The Evolutionary Theory
  • The Divine Right Theory
  • The Social Contract Theory

10
Theories of the Origin of the State
  • Evolutionary Theory
  • Head of primitive family was the authority
  • Force Theory
  • Government emerged when all the people of an area
    were brought under the authority of one person or
    group
  • Divine Right Theory
  • Notion that a god or gods chose a certain person
    to rule
  • Social Contract Theory
  • By contract, people within a given area agreed to
    give up to the state as much power as was needed
    to promote the safety and well-being of all

11
Review
  • What are five ways you can be an effective and
    thoughtful citizen?
  • Who was one of the first students of government?
  • What are the four essential features of a state?
  • What are two purposes of having a government?

12
Bell Ringer Match the correct form of
government with the correct leader.
Parliamentary
Presidential
Tony Blair
Adolf Hitler
Hirohito
Democratic
Oligarchic
Thabo Mbeki
F. Roosevelt
Federal
Confederal
Queen Elizabeth II
Unitary
George W. Bush
Winston Churchill
13
Answers to Bell Ringer
  • Tony Blair Unitary, Democratic, Parliamentary
  • Adolf Hitler Presidential, Oligarchic
  • Hirohito Oligarchic
  • Franklin D Roosevelt Federal, Presidential,
    Democratic
  • Thabo Mbeki Unitary, Democratic, Presidential
  • George W. Bush Federal, Presidential,
    Democratic
  • Winston Churchill Unitary, Democratic,
    Parliamentary
  • Queen Elizabeth II Unitary, Democratic,
    Parliamentary

14
Bell Ringer
  • Define the following terms
  • (Chapter 1, sections 2 and 3)
  • Unitary System
  • Federal System
  • Confederacy
  • Autocracy
  • Monarchy
  • Oligarchy
  • Democracy
  • Republic

15
Bell Ringer Crossword Puzzle
  • Absolute Monarch
  • Autocracy
  • Communism
  • Confederacy
  • Constitution
  • Constitutional Law
  • Democracy
  • Direct Democracy
  • Divine Right
  • Federal System
  • Force Theory
  • Government
  • Monarchy
  • Oligarchy
  • Preamble
  • Political Party
  • Representative
  • Republic
  • Social Contract
  • Sovereignty

16
Different Types of Governments throughout
HISTORY
Unit 1 Day 2 - EQ - How does the American
distribution of power compare with other forms of
government around the world?
17
Unitary, Confederal, Federal
  • There are three basic types of distribution of
    sovereignty federal, unitary and confederal.
  • Unitary - practically all political power lies
    with a central government (i.e. United Kingdom)
  • Confederal - sovereignty is located in
    regions/provinces/states and only limited power
    is granted to the central government (Articles of
    Confederation)
  • Federal - recognizes the division of sovereignty
    between the central government and
    provinces/regions/states (US Constitution)

18
Oligarchic and Democratic
  • Oligarchic political power rests with a small,
    elite segment of society (either because of
    wealth, family, or military)
  • Autocratic power and authority to rule are in
    the hands of a single individual
  • Totalitarian Dictatorship single leader
    glorified
  • Monarchy kings and queens
  • Democratic political power is shared by all the
    people

19
4 types of Democratic Systems of Government
  • 1. Representative - involves the selection of
    government officials by a majority of votes by
    the people being represented.
  • 2. Liberal - is a representative democracy along
    with the protection of minorities, the rule of
    law, separation of powers, and protection of
    liberties speech, assembly, religion, and
    property
  • 3. Direct - is a political system where the
    citizens vote on major policy decisions. Most
    direct democracies to date have been weak forms,
    relatively small communities
  • 4. Socialist - combines consensus democracy with
    representative democracy.

20
Presidential
  • Presidential also called a congressional
    system, is a system of government where an
    executive branch exists and presides separately
    from the legislature, to which it is not
    accountable and which cannot in normal
    circumstances dismiss it
  • Republican Presidential systems
  • President is the head of state and head of
    government
  • President does not have the ability to legislate
    directly
  • President has a fixed term of office
  • President has the power to pardon or commute
    sentences
  • Non-Republican Presidential systems
  • A dictator not popularly or legitimately elected
    are sometimes styled "president".
  • many parliamentary democracies have presidents, a
    position which is largely ceremonial

21
Parliamentary
  • Parliamentary - is distinguished by the executive
    branch of government being dependent on the
    direct or indirect support of the parliament
  • There is no clear-cut separation between the
    executive and legislative branches
  • Has a clear differentiation between the head of
    state (president) and the head of government
    (prime minister)
  • Two types of Parliamentary systems
  • Westminster System (i.e. United Kingdom)
  • Western European Parliamentary Model (i.e. Spain,
    Germany)

22
3-2-1
  • 3 Ways Oligarchic and Democratic forms of
    government differ!
  • 2 Ways Presidential and Parliamentary are
    similar!
  • 1 The type of government that the United States
    has TODAY!

23
Bell Ringer
  • Journal Entry - Students will write a
    well-developed paragraph over the topic, If you
    were put in charge of a country, how would your
    government look and run? Why did you make the
    decision that you made? Is it beneficial for all
    citizens of your country or just those in charge?
    How would your government compare to that of the
    United States government?

24
Flip Chart
Thomas Hobbes
Magna Carta
John Locke
Petition of Rights
English Bill of Rights
Montesquieu
25
Unit 1 Day 3 English Documents and Philosophers
  • EQ How was Americas government influenced by
    English documents and philosophers?
  • SSCG1

26
An English Political Heritage
  • The English colonists advanced two basic
    political principles
  • limited governmentthe concept that a monarchs
    power is limited, not absolute
  • representative government a government in which
    people elect delegates to make laws and conduct
    government

27
An English Political Heritage (cont.)
  • The Magna Carta came to represent the idea of
    limited government to protect from
  • unjust punishment and the loss of life, and
  • levying of taxes without popular consent.
  • The Petition of Right limited the power of
    Charles I by preventing him from collecting tax
    without Parliaments consent.

28
An English Political Heritage (cont.)
  • The English Bill of Rights advanced several
    principles including
  • Monarchs do not have absolute authority.
  • The monarch must have Parliaments consent to
    suspend laws, levy taxes, and maintain an army.
  • The monarch cannot interfere with parliamentary
    elections.

29
The English Bill of Rights was established to
A. limit the power of the monarch. B. strengthen
the monarchys absolute power. C. permanently
dismantle the monarchy.
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

30
Thomas Hobbes
  • THE SOCIAL CONTRACT
  • All power is transferred from subjects to Hobbes
    sovereign authority the Leviathan.
  • Government is set up by a covenant that transfers
    all power and authority to the sovereign.

31
Thomas Hobbes
Social Contract Theory
Thomas Hobbes promoted the idea of a social
contract in which people surrendered their
freedom to the state, but in return they received
order and security.
32
John Locke
  • In Lockes Two Treatises of Government (1689),
    he starts out with the concept of the state
    of nature.
  • Before government, people in their natural state
    were free and equal, because God did not give
    anyone superiority over anyone else.
  • People are free in not being subject to another.
  • People are not born into submission, except unto
    God.

33
John Locke Second Treatise on Government
  • John Locke believed that in a state of nature,
    men and women had certain natural rights
    including the rights to
  • life,
  • liberty, and
  • property.
  • Lockes social contract was made between the
    people and a government that promised to preserve
    these natural rights.

34
Charles Montesquieu The Spirit of Laws
  • - Montesquieu argued that the best government
    would be one in which power was balanced among
    three groups of officials.
  • - He thought England which divided power
    between the executive (i.e. the king who
    enforced laws), legislative (i.e. Parliament
    which made laws), and the judicial (i.e. judges
    of the English courts who interpret laws) was a
    good model of this.

Separation of Powers
35
Charles Montesquieu The Spirit of Laws
  • - Montesquieu called the idea of dividing
    government power into three branches the
    separation of powers.
  • - According to Montesquieu, each branch of
    government could check the power of the other two
    branches called checks and balances.

36
According to Thomas Hobbes social contract
theory, what did the people receive in exchange
for surrendering their freedom to the state?
A. liberty B. security C. money D. property
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

37
Post-its
  1. What were Montesquieus two major principles that
    the United States used in the U.S. Constitution?
  2. What type of government did Hobbes believe was
    best for the people?
  3. What were the natural rights that John Locke
    believed that all humans were born with?

38
Bell Ringer
  1. Look over the My Countrys Government paper
    that is located on the projector box.
  2. Choose a partner that you want to work with on
    this project and start discussing which country
    you would like to research for this assignment.

39
Bell Ringer Journal Entry
  • How does the countrys government that you
    researched in the computer lab for your project,
    compare and contrast to that of the United
    States?

40
  • STUDY FOR 10 MINUTES QUIETLY FOR YOUR QUIZ!!

41
Bell Ringer (After Quiz)
  • Vocabulary Activity Chapter 2
  • You will need your textbook off of the shelf,
    grab your numbered book!

42
Unit 1 DAY 4
  • ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
  • How did American independence come about, and
    what were its effects?

43
British Colonial Policies
  • Until the mid-1700s, the colonies were allowed a
    great deal of freedom in their governments by the
    English monarchy.
  • In 1760, King George III imposed new taxes and
    laws on the colonists.
  • The colonists started a confederation, proposed
    an annual congress, and began to rebel.

44
Growing Colonial Unity
  • Early Attempts
  • In 1643, several New England settlements formed
    the New England Confederation.
  • A confederation is a joining of several groups
    for a common purpose.
  • The Albany Plan
  • In 1754, Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany
    Plan of Union, in which an annual congress of
    delegates (representatives) from each of the 13
    colonies would be formed.

The Stamp Act Congress In 1765, a group of
colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress
in New York. These delegates prepared the
Declaration of Rights and Grievances against
British policies and sent it to the king.
45
The Continental Congresses
  • First Continental Congress
  • The colonists sent a Declaration of Rights to
    King George III.
  • The delegates urged each of the colonies to
    refuse all trade with England until British tax
    and trade regulations were repealed, or recalled.
  • Second Continental Congress
  • In 1775, each of the 13 colonies sent
    representatives to this gathering in
    Philadelphia.
  • The Second Continental Congress served as the
    first government of the United States from 1776
    to 1781.

46
Common Features of U.S. and State Constitutions
The principle of popular sovereignty was the
basis for every new State constitution. That
principle says that government can exist and
function only with the consent of the governed.
The people hold power and the people are
sovereign.
The concept of limited government was a major
feature of each State constitution. The powers
delegated to government were granted reluctantly
and hedged with many restrictions.
In every State it was made clear that the
sovereign people held certain rights that the
government must respect at all times. Seven of
the new constitutions contained a bill of rights,
setting out the unalienable rights held by the
people.
The powers granted to the new State governments
were purposely divided among three branches
executive, legislative, and judicial. Each branch
was given powers with which to check (restrain
the actions of) the other branches of the
government.
47
American Independence
  • On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress
    adopted the Declaration of Independence.
  • Between 1776 and 1777, most of the States adopted
    constitutions instead of charters.

48
Quick Assessment
  • 1. The Declaration of Independence was signed in
  • (a) 1765.
  • (b) 1776.
  • (c) 1781.
  • (d) 1787.
  • 2. The Stamp Act of 1765 was a law enacted by
    the British that
  • (a) increased the colonists taxes.
  • (b) was repealed by the Magna Carta.
  • (c) the colonists ratified one year later.
  • (d) raised the price of postage stamps by two
    cents.

49
Bell Ringer
  • Grab In the Course of Human Events off of the
    top of the projector box.
  • Read and complete questions 1-10.
  • You MAY write on this paper!!

50
Unit 1 Day 5
  • EQ How does the theories in the Social Contract
    compare to that of the Declaration of
    Independence?
  • SSCG2a

51
Discussion on Declaration of Independence
  • Declaration of Independence
  • Continental Congress (1776)
  • Representatives from 13 colonies met in
    Philadelphia
  • Thomas Jefferson wrote majority of the
    Declaration of Independence
  • Approved on July 4, 1776
  • Explain the reasons the 13 colonies decided to
    separate from Great Britain and to form an
    independent country.
  • The colonists believed that the power of the
    government comes from the consent of the
    governed.
  • Natural Rights to ALL individuals Life, Liberty
    and Pursuit of Happiness!!
  • ALL men are created EQUAL!!

52
Independence Hall Then and Now
Declaration of Independence
53
Social Contract Theory
  • People give up some personal freedoms for safety,
    created the state.
  • State arose out of a voluntary act by free
    people.
  • It holds that the state exists only to serve the
    will of the people.
  • People are the sole source of political power,
    and that they are free to give or to withhold
    that power as they choose.
  • State exists to serve the people and was created
    by them.

54
Social Contract Theory Rousseau, Locke, Hobbes
  • 1. Popular Sovereignty - consent of the
    governed
  • - it is because people have agreed to be
    ruled, that governments are entitled to rule
  • - the government is charged with implementing
    and enforcing the general will of the people
  • 2. Limited Government
  • 3. Natural rights are universal rights that are
    seen as inherent in the nature of people and not
    contingent on human actions or beliefs (including
    life, liberty, and pursuit of property)

55
Using your notes and pages 8 and 38 to compare
and contrast the Declaration of Independence and
the Social Contract Theory.
Declaration of Independence
Social Contract
Dont forget WHO, WHAT, WHEN , WHERE, and WHY
IMPORTANT when comparing and contrasting.
56
  • Thomas Jefferson borrowed heavily from the
    theories of John Locke in writing the Declaration
    on Independence.  One of the concepts is that
    legitimate government must respect the
    inalienable rights if its citizens.  Among these
    rights, Locke includined "life, liberty, and
    property".  Jefferson adjusted this in the
    Declaration to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of
    happiness." Both Locke and Rousseau's ideas had
    an impact on the Constitution as well.  Rousseau
    had a strong believe in the sovereignty of the
    people, i.e. that the people had to have ultimate
    control over their government.  Rousseau's ideas
    went much farther than the Constitution's, since
    he supported direct democracy rather than
    representative democracy through a republic.  Yet
    the notion that "We the people" could create a
    Constitution was something from Rousseau.  Also,
    the Constitutional Amendment process being
    ratified by public convention (Article V)
    expresses this sentiment.

57
CDA Unit 1a
  • Study Guide

58
Journal Entry
  • Assume that you are an individual living in the
    colonies in 1776 who has just read the
    Declaration of Independence.
  • - How well did the Declaration of Independence
    persuade you to support the cause for
    independence?

59
Articles of Confederation
Unit 1 Day 6 EQ - What ideals were in conflict in
regards to the ratification of the Constitution?
60
Articles of Confederation
  • Written during the early parts of the American
    Revolution
  • Because of their experience with Great Britain,
    the 13 states feared a powerful central
    government
  • Americas first form of government
  • The A of C were in force from 1781 to 1789
  • The A of C created a loose confederation of
    sovereign states and a weak central government,
    leaving most of the power with the state
    governments.

61
The Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation established a firm
league of friendship among the States.
Powers Congress could declare war, deal with
national finance issues, and settle disputes
among the States.
62
Problems of the Articles of Confederation
  • Congress had no power to enforce decisions
  • Unanimous approval before any modifications could
    be made to the articles
  • Congress was denied the power of taxation.it
    could only REQUEST money from the states
  • inability to regulate trade and levy taxes.
  • Congress could not force the states to adhere to
    the terms of the Treaty
  • NO executive branch to enforce laws
  • NO judicial branch to interpret laws/punish
    lawbreakers

63
Shays Rebellion
  • An armed uprising in Western Massachusetts from
    1786 to 1787.
  • led by Daniel Shays
  • were mostly small farmers angered by crushing
    debt and taxes.
  • The war's debt ultimately trickled down to
    individuals, in large part to small farmers.
  • States government decided to increase taxes
    instead of issue paper money
  • Poor farmers found it impossible to pay their
    taxes and their mortgages.many lost their
    property and some faced imprisonment

64
A Call for a Stronger Government
  • Representatives from Maryland and Virginia met at
    Mount Vernon, Virginia, in 1785 to discuss trade
    issues.
  • The meeting was so successful that the Virginia
    General Assembly requested a meeting of all
    thirteen States, which eventually became the
    Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.

65
Constitutional Convention 1787
  • Nationalist.people who supported a stronger
    national government
  • 55 delegates from the 13 states meet in
    Philadelphia
  • LARGE states (Virginia Plan) v. SMALL states (New
    Jersey Plan)
  • Great Compromise (aka Connecticut Compromise)
  • 3/5 Compromise

66
Great Compromise
- aka Connecticut Compromise - Roger Sherman -
Bicameral Legislature ( 1 House of
Representatives population 2 Senate equal)
- scraped A of C - bicameral leg.
- gave equal representation in one house
- William Patterson - did NOT do away with A of
C - Unicameral Legislature based on equal
representation - Raise taxes and regulate trade
- benefited SMALL states
- dealt with the legislative branch
- Edmund Randolph - 3 branches of govt - did
away with A of C - Bicameral Legislature -
Legislature based on population - benefited large
states
- both sides demanded changes
New Jersey Plan
Virginia Plan
67
3/5 Compromise
  • For every 5 slaved people would equal 3 free when
    determining representation and taxation
  • South wanted to count slave population for more
    representation in Congress. Northerners
    objected, stating that slaves could not vote


68
Quick Assessment
  • 1. The government set up by the Articles of
    Confederation had
  • (a) the power to make treaties and build a navy.
  • (b) a bicameral congress.
  • (c) separation of powers.
  • (d) a President to carry out its laws.
  • 2. Which of the following was a weakness of the
    Articles of Confederation?
  • (a) Congress could not make treaties.
  • (b) Congress could not borrow money.
  • (c) The States did not agree to obey the
    Articles.
  • (d) Congress could not lay or collect taxes or
    duties.

69
Quick Assessment
  • 1. A government is
  • (a) the institution through which a society makes
    and enforces its public policies.
  • (b) a collection of people.
  • (c) always democratic.
  • (d) the organization representing farms and
    industries.
  • 2. A state has the following four
    characteristics
  • (a) population, territory, sovereignty, and
    government.
  • (b) sovereignty, a perfect union, welfare, and
    territory.
  • (c) people, places, force, and divine right.
  • (d) justice, defense, liberty, and domestic
    tranquility.

70
Quick Assessment
  • 1. In a democracy,
  • (a) independent states form an alliance.
  • (b) supreme political authority rests with the
    people.
  • (c) those who rule cannot be held responsible to
    the will of the people.
  • (d) the rule by a few, select individuals
    regulates the will of the people.
  • 2. The United States government has the
    following characteristics
  • (a) confederate, parliamentary, and dictatorship.
  • (b) unitary, presidential, and democracy.
  • (c) federal, presidential, and democracy.
  • (d) unitary, parliamentary, and dictatorship.

71
Assignment Chapter 3
  • Previewing Vocabulary - Define the following
    terms Preamble, articles, rule of law,
    separation of powers, checks and balances,
    judicial review, unconstitutional, federalism,
    amendment, Bill of Rights
  • What is the purpose of the Preamble to the
    Constitution?
  • List two examples of how checks and balances work
    in the Federal Government.
  • What are the different roles of the executive,
    legislative, and judicial branches?

72
Word Wall Activity
Amendment
Checks and Balances
separation of powers
Judicial Review
Popular Sovereignty
Federalism
Preamble
Articles
73
U.S. Constitution
Unit 1 Day 7 EQ - How effective is the
Constitution at distributing power in terms of
checks and balances and separation of powers?
How does the idea of rule of law manifest itself
in the Constitution?
74
Review.Flaws of the Articles of Confederation
  • 1 vote each state REGARDLESS of size
  • Congress cant taxonly can BEG for money
  • Congress cant regulate trade
  • No EXECUTIVE Branch
  • No JUDICIAL Branch
  • States had own Constitution and could not agree
    on national policies
  • States made their own money

75
Constitutional Convention 1787
  • New Jersey Plan
  • Virginia Plan
  • Great Compromise
  • 3/5 Compromise
  • Secret Meeting
  • President of the
  • Constitutional
  • Convention George Washington

76
The United States Constitution
  • Written in 1787
  • The "supreme law of the land"
  • No law may be passed that contradicts its
    principles.
  • No person or government is exempt from following
    it.
  • The world's oldest written Constitution.
  • Describes the structure of the government and the
    rights of the American people

77
Principles of the u.s. Constitution
  • Popular Sovereignty
  • Limited government
  • Federalism
  • Separation of Powers
  • Legislative Branch
  • Executive Branch
  • Judicial Branch
  • Checks and Balances
  • Legislative Checks
  • Executive Checks
  • Judicial Checks

78
Popular Sovereignty
  • The people hold ultimate power
  • A representative democracy allows the people to
    elect representatives to make decisions for them
  • Evident in the PreambleWe the
  • People

79
Limited Government
  • Framers wanted to guard against tyranny
  • Government is limited to the power given to them
    in the Constitution
  • Constitution tells how leaders who overstep their
    powers can be removed

80
Federalism
  • The division of power between States and National
    governments
  • The National government has the supreme power
  • Some powers are shared.Concurrent
  • States have powersReserved
  • National government has powersDelegated

81
Reserved powers reserved to the states
82
Separation of Powers
  • No one holds too much power
  • Legislative branch makes the laws
  • Executive branch carries out the laws
  • Judicial branch interprets the laws

83
Checks and balances
  • Prevents the abuse of power in government
  • Each branch can check each other branch
  • Each branch is controlled by the other two in
    several ways.

84
(No Transcript)
85
Judicial Review
  • It is the power of a court to determine the
    constitutionality of a governmental action.
  • Is the power to declare unconstitutional (to
    declare illegal, null and void) a governmental
    action found to violate some provision of the
    U.S. Constitution
  • Was established in the Supreme Courts case of
    Marbury v. Madison in 1803.
  • Strengthened the power of the judicial branch

86
Skills Reinforcement
  • Structure
  • The Preamble - ______________________________
  • Seven Articles - ______________________________
  • Amendments - _______________________________
  • Major Principles
  • Popular Sovereignty - _________________________
  • Federalism - ________________________________
  • Separation of Powers - ________________________
  • Checks and Balances - ________________________
  • Judicial Review - _____________________________
  • Limited Government - _________________________

87
Post-Its
  1. This is the Introduction to the U.S.
    Constitution
  2. This is one of the seven main divisions of the
    body of the U.S. Constitution
  3. This is a change to the Constitution
  4. This means ruled by the people
  5. This is when power is divided between the
    national and state governments
  6. Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Branches
  7. This is when each branch exercises control over
    another
  8. This is a power of the Judicial Branch

88
Bell Ringer
  • Pick up the worksheet off of the projector box
    and a textbook off the floor.
  • Go to pages 8-10 in the text.
  • Complete the front side of the paper by writing
    the meaning of the goals of the U.S. Constitution.

89
EQ What were the main ideas in debate over the
ratification of the US Constitution?
  • Unit 1 Day 9

90
Anti-Federalist v Federalist
  • The Anti-Federalists did not want to ratify the
    Constitution.
  • Patrick Henry
  • Farmers and Laborers
  • Feared a strong national government
  • Criticized because it was written in secrecy
  • Argued it took important powers from the states
  • There was NO Bill of Rights.

91
Anti-Federalist v Federalist
  • The Federalists, on the other hand, had answers
    to all of the Anti-Federalist complaints.
  • Led by many of the Founding Fathers
  • Argued without a strong national government,
    anarchy or political disorder would triumph
  • Strong national government could protect the
    country from enemies and solve the countrys
    internal problems
  • Bill of Rights was NOT needed because it was in
    the states constitutions
  • They promised a Bill of Rights as the first order
    of business under the Constitution
  • Wrote the Federalist Papers

92
Preamble
  • Introduction to the Constitution
  • Lists the 6 goals of the Constitution
  • States why the Constitution was written

93
Preamble to the U.S. Constitution
  • We the people of the United States in order to
    form a more perfect union, establish justice,
    insure domestic tranquility, provide for the
    common defense, promote the general welfare, and
    secure the blessing of liberty to ourselves and
    posterity, do ordain and establish this
    Constitution for the United States of America.

94
Articles
  • There are 7 Articles
  • Each article covers a general topic.
  • Article I Legislative Branch
  • Article II Executive Branch
  • Article III Judicial Branch
  • Article IV Relations of the States
  • Article V Amendment Process
  • Article VI Supremacy Clause
  • Article VII Ratification and Declaration

95
Amendments
  • Changes to the Constitution
  • There are 27 Amendments
  • The first 10 are called the Bill of Rights

96
Review of Principles
  • Popular Sovereignty
  • Federalism
  • Separation of Powers
  • Checks and Balances
  • Judicial Review
  • Limited Government
  • Rule of Law

97
Word Bank for CWP
  • Federalist
  • Anti-Federalist
  • U.S. Constitution
  • Preamble
  • Articles
  • Popular Sovereignty
  • Limited Government
  • Rule of law
  • Separation of powers
  • checks and balances
  • judicial review
  • federalism
  • Articles of Confederation
  • Virginia Plan
  • New Jersey Plan
  • Great Compromise
  • Three Fifths Compromise
  • Delegate
  • Amendment

98
Unit 1 Day 10 EQ - How did John Marshall
establish the judicial branch as a co-equal
branch with the Marbury v. Madison case?
  • SSCG16b.

99
Adams appoints new judges
  • John Adams signs appointments on his last night
    in office.
  • Thomas Jefferson is to take over as President.
  • midnight judges- what these new judges were
    referred to as.
  • William Marbury was one of these midnight
    judges.

100
When does Madison come into play?
  • James Madison, TJs new Secretary of State, was
    supposed to officially present Marbury with his
    new position
  • But he didnt!
  • So Marbury sued and appealed to the Supreme
    Court to get Madison to award him the position

101
The Verdict.
  • Supreme Court (John Marshall was chief jutice)
    refuses to grant Marbury his position!!
  • Why?
  • A section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 (which set
    up the federal court system in the first place)
    was unconstitutional and void.

102
Video Clip Marbury v. Madison
103
Lasting Impact
  • This is the first time the Supreme Court
    overturns an act of Congress.
  • Checks balances in action!!!!!!
  • Judicial Review is established!!!!

104
Power of Judicial Review
  • Established by Chief Justice John Marshall
  • Supreme Court has the power to determine whether
    a law passed or a presidential action is
    constitutional or not
  • If law or action is declared unconstitutional, it
    is no longer in force
  • Makes the Supreme Court the final authority on
    the meaning of the Constitution

105
Video Clip Judicial Review
106
Unit 1 Day 11 EQ How does the Bill of Rights
protect our civil rights and civil liberties?
  • SSCG6a.

107
1st Amendment
  • The 1st Amendment guarantees freedom of religion,
    speech, the press, assembly, and petition.
  • This means that we all have the right to
  • practice any religion we want to
  • to speak freely
  • to assemble (meet)
  • to address the government (petition)
  • to publish newspapers, TV, radio, Internet
    (press)

108
2nd Amendment
  • The 2nd Amendment protects the right to bear
    arms, which means the right to own a gun.

109
3rd Amendment
  • The 3rd Amendment says No soldier shall, in time
    of peace be quartered in any house, without the
    consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in
    a manner to be prescribed by law.
  • This means that we cannot be forced to house or
    quarter soldiers.

110
4th Amendment
  • The 4th Amendment protects the people from
    unreasonable searches and seizures.
  • This means that the police must have a warrant to
    enter our homes. It also means the government
    cannot take our property, papers, or us, without
    a valid warrant based on probable cause (good
    reason).

111
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112
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113
5th Amendment
  • The 5th Amendment protects people from being held
    for committing a crime unless they are properly
    indicted, (accused)
  • You may not be tried twice for the same crime
    (double jeopardy)
  • You dont have to testify against yourself in
    court. (Self-incrimination)

114
6th Amendment
  • The 6th Amendment guarantees a speedy trial (you
    cant be kept in jail for over a year without a
    trial)
  • an impartial jury (doesnt already think you are
    guilty)
  • that the accused can confront witnesses against
    them
  • the accused must be allowed to have a lawyer

115
7th Amendment
  • The 7th Amendment guarantees the right to a
    speedy civil trial.
  • A civil trial differs from a criminal trial. A
    civil trial is when someone sues someone else. A
    criminal trial is when the state tries to convict
    someone of a crime.

116
8th Amendment
  • The 8th Amendment guarantees that punishments
    will be fair and not cruel, and that
    extraordinarily large fines will not be set.

117
9th Amendment
  • All rights not stated in the Constitution and not
    forbidden by the Constitution belong to the
    people.
  • This means that the states can do what they want
    if the Constitution does not forbid it.

118
10th Amendment
  • The 10th Amendment states that any power not
    granted to the federal government belongs to the
    states or to the people.

119
Bell Ringer
  • Pick up the The Guarantees of the First Amendment
    reading from the projector box.
  • Answer the two questions on the sheet from the
    reading.
  • Get out notes and be ready to write down your EQ!

120
  • Unit 1 Day 12
  • EQ Why is it so important that the 1st
    Amendment is included in the US Constitution?
  • SSCG6a.

121
Civil Rights v. Civil Liberties
  • Civil Rights has traditionally revolved around
    the basic right to be free from unequal treatment
    based on certain protected characteristics (race,
    gender, disability, etc.) in settings such as
    employment and housing.
  • Civil Liberties concern basic rights and
    freedoms that are guaranteed -- either explicitly
    identified in the Bill of Rights and the
    Constitution, or interpreted through the years by
    courts and lawmakers.

122
Civil Rights v. Civil Liberties (cont.)
  • One way to consider the difference between "civil
    rights" and "civil liberties" is to look at
  • 1) what right is affected?
  • 2) whose right is affected?
  • For example, as an employee, you do not have the
    legal right to a promotion, mainly because
    getting a promotion is not a guaranteed "civil
    liberty." But, as a female employee you do have
    the legal right to be free from discrimination in
    being considered for that promotion -- you cannot
    legally be denied the promotion based on your
    gender (or race, or disability, etc.). By
    choosing not to promote a female worker solely
    because of the employee's gender, the employer
    has committed a civil rights violation and has
    engaged in unlawful employment discrimination
    based on sex or gender.

123
1st Amendment
  • Five Freedoms Guaranteed to ALL Americans
  • Religion
  • Speech
  • Press
  • Assembly
  • Petition

124
1st Amendment - Religion
  • Freedom to practice any religion, or to practice
    no religion at all.
  • Congress cannot establish an official national
    religion, or favor one religion over another.
  • Separation of church and state the division
    between religion and government.

125
1st Amendment - Speech
  • The right to express ideas and opinions through
    speech and the right to listen to ideas and
    opinions of others.
  • We are guaranteed a freedom to speak freely to
    friends and neighbors or to deliver a speech in
    public to a group of people.
  • We have the right to express opinions about the
    government and to criticize the actions of
    governmental officials.
  • People DO NOT have the right to tell lies or to
    spread false rumors about others slander.
  • People DO NOT have the right of free speech that
    may cause physical harm to others. (Screaming
    FIRE in a crowded theater.)

126
1st Amendment - Press
  • The freedom to express ideas in writing.
  • Gives ALL Americans the right to express their
    thoughts freely in writing, provided they DO NOT
    state falsehoods that damage a persons
    reputation libel.
  • The courts have decided that freedom of the press
    applies to electronic media as well as to written
    works such as books. Thus, television and radio
    broadcasts are protected.

127
1st Amendment - Assembly
  • The freedom to hold meetings.
  • Americans are free to meet to discuss problems
    and plan actions.
  • People can gather to express their view about
    government decisions.
  • Meetings must be PEACEFUL!!

128
1st Amendment - Petition
  • The right to ask the government to do something
    or to stop doing something.
  • A petition is a formal request.
  • The right to petition helps the government
    officials learn what citizens want done.

129
Activity
  • Create an illustrated graphic organizer,
    illustrating the 5 freedoms in the 1st Amendment.

130
Word Bank
  • Declaration of Independence
  • Articles of Confederation
  • US Constitution
  • Preamble
  • Articles
  • Amendments
  • Bill of Rights
  • Federalism
  • Popular Sovereignty
  • Separation of Powers
  • Checks and Balances
  • Rule of Law
  • Limited Government
  • Federalists
  • Anti-Federalists
  • Hobbes
  • Locke
  • Montesquieu
  • Magna Carta
  • Petition of Rights
  • English Bill of Rights
  • Social Contract
  • Oligarchy
  • Autocracy
  • Democracy
  • Federal
  • Confederal
  • Unitary
  • Presidential
  • Parliamentary
  • Executive
  • Legislative
  • Judicial
  • Virginia Plan
  • New Jersey Plan
  • Great Compromise
  • Representative Democracy
  • Constitutions
  • bicameral

131
Bell Ringer
  • Word Search is located on PROJECTOR BOX!!

132
Unit 1 Review
  • Four Theories of the Origin of Government
  • Evolutionary head of family is in charge
  • Force one person or group took control of area
    by force
  • Divine Right power to rule came from god
  • Social Contract theory that by contract, the
    people surrender to the state the power needed to
    maintain order and the state, in turn, agrees to
    protect the people contains natural rights and
    consent of governed
  • Four Characteristics of a State
  • Population - people
  • Territory - land
  • Sovereignty supreme and absolute power of a
    state
  • Government political organization of a state

133
Unit 1 Review
  • Three Philosophers
  • Hobbes this man is known for his contribution
    to the Social Contract, he believed that people
    were born evil
  • Locke - this man is known for his contribution to
    the Social Contract, he believed that people were
    born good natural rights
  • Montesquieu This man believed in separation of
    powers and the analysis of checks and balances

134
Unit 1 Review
  • Three English Documents
  • Magna Carta 1215, this document won rights for
    the people of England, it guaranteed that free
    people could not be arrested, put in prison, or
    forced to leave a nation unless given a trial of
    their peers
  • Petition of Rights 1627, limited the power of
    the king
  • English Bill of Rights 1689, stated that
    Englishmen, as embodied by Parliament, possessed
    certain civil and political rights this is where
    the U.S. got there Bill of Rights from

135
Unit 1 Review
  • Types of Government
  • Unitary all key powers lies with one central
    govt
  • Confederal a loose association of states, gives
    some control to the central govt
  • Federal govt divides the power between the
    national and state govts
  • Autocracy one person is in control, people have
    little power, if any
  • Oligarchy few or small group is in control
  • Democracy the people are in control
  • Presidential executive and legislative is
    separate, president is head of executive branch
  • Parliamentary executive and legislative is
    together, executive leader is chosen by
    legislature

136
Unit 1 Review
  • Declaration of Independence
  • Thomas Jefferson, 1776
  • Major Points? Natural Rights, Limited Govt, and
    Popular Soveriegnty
  • Significance declared independence from G.B.,
    list criticism against the King and Parliament
  • Natural Rights
  • John Locke Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of
    Property
  • Thomas Jefferson Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of
    Happiness

137
Unit 1 Review
  • Constitutional Convention
  • New Jersey Plan Unicameral Legislature based on
    equal representation
  • Virginia Plan Bicameral Legislature based on
    population wanted 3 branches of Govt
  • Great Compromise (AKA Conn. Compromise)
    Bicameral Legislature Upper House was based on
    population, Lower House was equal representation
  • Federalists supported ratification of
    Constitution
  • Anti-Federalists opposed the ratification of
    Constitution, wanted a Bill of Rights added

138
Unit 1 Review
  • Three Branches of Government
  • Legislative Branch Makes Laws
  • Executive Branch Enforces or Carries Out Laws
  • Judicial Branch Interprets Laws and Punishes
    Lawbreakers

139
Unit 1 Review
  • Structure of Constitution
  • Preamble Introduction to Constitution, list the
    6 goals of the Constitution
  • Articles explains the structure of the
    government and how it is to be ruled
  • Amendments change to the Constitution 1-10 are
    called the Bill of Rights

140
Unit 1 Review
  • Six Principles of the U.S. Constitution
  • Federalism divided the power of the government
    between the national and state governments
  • Checks and Balances allows one branch to check
    the other, keeps the branches balanced and equal
  • Limited Government limits the power of the
    government
  • Separation of Powers the 3 branches of govt
  • Popular Sovereignty power belongs to the
    people seen in the Preamble as We the People
  • Rule of Law no one is above the law, not even
    govt officials

141
Unit 1 Review
  • Marbury v. Madison
  • Judicial Review power of the Supreme Court to
    declare an action unconstitutional this elevated
    the power of the judicial branch
  • Supremacy Clause the U.S. Constitution is the
    supreme law of the land

142
Journal Entry
  • What can you do to improve your grade in my
    class? Are you happy with the grade that you
    have? Do you think you deserve that grade or
    what grade do you think you have earned??

143
Bell Ringer
  • Study QUIETLY for 10 minutes, for your test
    today!!

144
Word Bank for Crossword Puzzle
  • Parallel
  • Plain
  • Political
  • River
  • Scale
  • Symbol
  • Topographic
  • West
  • Cancer
  • Capricorn
  • Continents
  • Dateline
  • Degrees
  • Directions
  • Distance
  • Equator
  • Globe
  • Greenwich
  • Hemispheres
  • Key
  • Lake
  • Latitude
  • Legend
  • Location
  • Longitude
  • Map
  • Meridian
  • North
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