1. No living organism lives in isolation. What evidence do you have that living things require each other? (Provide 3 examples) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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1. No living organism lives in isolation. What evidence do you have that living things require each other? (Provide 3 examples)

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Do Now 1. No living organism lives in isolation. What evidence do you have that living things require each other? (Provide 3 examples) 2. What area of biology studies ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 1. No living organism lives in isolation. What evidence do you have that living things require each other? (Provide 3 examples)


1
Do Now
  • 1. No living organism lives in isolation. What
    evidence do you have that living things require
    each other? (Provide 3 examples)
  • 2. What area of biology studies this?

2
Objectives
  • Explain what ecologists study.
  • Determine the difference between abiotic and
    biotic factors.
  • List and describe the different levels of
    organization.

3
ECOLOGYChapter 2
4
What is Ecology?
  • Ecology-
  • Study of relationships among living organisms and
    the interaction the organisms have with their
    environments

5
Abiotic vs. Biotic
  • Biotic Factors
  • Living factors in an organisms environment
  • Ex.
  • Abiotic Factors
  • Nonliving factors in an organisms environment
  • Ex.
  • Organisms adapt to survive in the abiotic
    factors present in their natural environment.

6
Think-Pair-Share
  • List all of the abiotic and biotic factors in
    this video.

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vlXjI2kuNkhE
7
Levels of Organization
  • Levels increase in complexity as the numbers and
    interactions between organisms increase.
  • Organism
  • Population
  • Community
  • Ecosystem
  • Biome
  • Biosphere

8
1. Organism
  • A single living thing

9
2. Population
  • several organisms of the same species sharing
    space at the same time
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vljqgyJxtdU0

10
3. Community
  • group of interacting organisms sharing space at
    the same time

11
4. Ecosystem
  • Biological Community and abiotic factors in it

12
5. Biome
  • Large group of ecosystems that share the same
    climate and similar types of communities

Tundra
Marine
Desert
Rainforest
Deciduous Forest
13
6. Biosphere
  • Part of Earth that supports life

14
Think-Pair-Share
  • Come up with an analogy starting with your
    favorite animal for each level of organization.

Ecosystem- include all abiotic factors
Biome- Science Wing
Population- Many Students
Biosphere- Montville High School!
Organism- Student (you!)
Community- You and me and the fish!
15
Think-Pair-Share
  • How do you think scientists study ecology?
  • Design an experiment for the following
  • A. Measure the effect of algae on a goldfish
    population in Lake Erie
  • B. Venus fly traps react to rising carbon dioxide
    emissions in the rainforest
  • C. Research what happens when a gap in the forest
    is formed.

16
Do Now
  • List the abiotic and biotic factors in this
    picture (3 of each!)

17
Objectives
  • SWBAT differentiate between habitat and niche
  • SWBAT provide examples of symbiotic, competition,
    and predation relationships.
  • SWBAT differentiate between commensalism,
    parasitism, and mutualism.

18
Lets Review
  • What are the levels of organization in ecology?
    Simplest to most complex

19
Ecosystem Interactions
  • A habitat is an area where an organism lives.
  • A niche is the role or position that an organism
    has in its environment.

20
Community Interactions
  • 1) Competition Occurs when more than one organism
    uses a resource at the same time (ex prey, soil,
    sunlight)
  • Intraspecific competition between organisms of
    the same species.
  • Interspecific competition between organisms of
    different species.

21
Examples of Competition
  • Interspecific- https//www.youtube.com/watch?v38n
    wQ0ydExs
  • Intraspecific-
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vJgSc-jtO5iEfeature
    related
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vVDhNutbXpFE

22
Community Interactions
  • 2) Predation An individual of one species,
    called the predator, eats all or part of an
    individual of another species called the prey.

23
Predation
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vHY1kaHz3OA0

24
Community Interactions
  • 3) Symbiotic Relationships when 2 or more
    organisms live together.
  • - Mutualism
  • - Commensalism
  • - Parasitism

25
Mutualism
  • Both organisms benefit

26
Commensalism
  • One species benefits, the other is unaffected

27
Parasitism
  • Host is harmed and the parasite benefits

28
Symbiosis
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vzSmL2F1t81Q

29
What type of symbiosis?
  • Humming birds feed on nectar from flowers.
    Flowers are pollinated.

30
What type of symbiosis?
  • Snapping shrimp have poor vision and depend on
    their goby fish roommate to give the danger
    signal when predators come.

Goby fish who dont have a place to hide are
quickly eaten. The find a snapping shrimp
roommate who digs a hole form them both to live.
31
What type of symbiosis?
  • Athletes foot fungus lives on the skin of humans
    and feeds on a protein called keratin. Humans
    have itchy, cracked skin which can become
    infected.

32
What type of symbiosis?
  • Snails die and leave behind their shells. Hermit
    crabs find shells left by snails..

33
Lets try some examples
What is the name for a group of interacting
populations that occupy the same area at the
same time? A. ecosystem B. habitat C.
biological community D. biotic collection
The act of one organism consuming another
organism for food is _______. A. predation B.
parasitism C. commensalism D. mutualism
Which are biotic factors in a forest
environment? A. plants and microscopic
organisms living in the soil B. pH and salt
concentration of the soil C. sunlight, soil
type and soil nutrients D. temperature, air
currents and rainfall
Which defines habitat? A. all of the biotic
factors in an ecosystem B. an area where an
organism lives C. an area in which various
species interact D. the role or position
that an organism has
34
Practice!
  • Get with a partner and work on a review of
    section 2.1
  • SAVE THIS WORKSHEET! WE WILL FINISH IT TOMORROW

35
(No Transcript)
36
Match the following types of relationships to
their examples
A. Commensalism 1. Hawks eat small snakes.
B .Mutualism 2. Leeches drain away your lifeblood and leave you with a scar.
C. Predation 3. Frog sits on a lilly pad to help it reach its prey. The lilly pad is not harmed.
D. Parasitism 4. The bacteria that live in tree roots create a source of usable nitrogen for the tree and a safe environment for the bacteria.
E. Competition 5. Several species of birds use the same trees to nest.
37
Do Now Lab
  • What is a food web?
  • What types of organisms are shown in a food web?
  • Draw a food web with 5 organisms in it (you dont
    have to draw the organisms just the arrows)

38
Objectives
  • To explain how organisms get their energy.
  • To define the different types of autotrophs and
    heterotrophs.
  • To construct a food web.

39
Organization of Matter and Energy
  • Autotrophs- make their own food (chemosynthesis
    and photosynthesis)
  • Ex.
  • Heterotrophs- consume other organisms for energy

40
Autotrophs are also known as Producers
41
Consumers
  • Herbivores- eat ONLY producers

42
Consumers
  • Carnivores- eat ONLY other consumers

43
Consumers
  • Omnivores- consume plants and animals

44
Consumers
  • Detritivores- feed on the garbage in the
    ecosystem
  • Scavengers
  • Decomposers

45
Scavengers
  • Feed on organisms that have recently died

46
Decomposers
  • Break down complex molecules
  • Make nutrients available to autotrophs
  • Recyclers

47
Organization of Matter and Energy
  • Food Chain models the energy flow through an
    ecosystem.
  • A food chain only follows just one path as
    animals find food.
  • Each step in a food chain or food web is called a
    trophic level.

48
Food Chain Flow of Energy
49
But as food is eaten, heat is released!
50
Food Web
  • A food web is interconnected food chains and
    pathways in which energy flows through a group of
    organisms.
  • A food web shows the many different paths plants
    and animals are connected.

51
(No Transcript)
52
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vbW7PlTaawfQ

53
Think-Pair-Share
  • 1. With the person sitting next to you.. Create a
    food chain with at least 4 different levels.
  • Must include Grass.
  • 2. SWITCH partners and combine your 3 food chains
    to form a food web.

54
Conclusion Activity
55
Lab!
  • Today we will each be constructing our own food
    webs! Follow the directions on the lab and be
    sure to answer the questions. You may choose your
    own lab partners today!

56
Do Now
  • Match the following types of relationships to
    their examples

A. Commensalism 1. Hawks eat small snakes.
B .Mutualism 2. Leeches drain away your lifeblood and leave you with a scar.
C. Predation 3. Frog sits on a lilly pad to help it reach its prey. The lilly pad is not harmed.
D. Parasitism 4. The bacteria that live in tree roots create a source of usable nitrogen for the tree and a safe environment for the bacteria.
E. Competition 5. Several species of birds use the same trees to nest.
57
Objectives
  • To explain what an ecological pyramid is and what
    information it can give us.
  • To understand the water cycle and its impact on
    life.
  • To determine how both carbon and nitrogen are
    used and cycled.

58
Ecological Pyramids
  • Diagram that can show the relative amounts of
  • energy
  • biomass
  • numbers of organisms
  • Biomass- Total mass of living matter at each
    trophic level

AT EACH TROPHIC LEVEL!
59
Ecological Pyramids
  • 90 of all energy is not transferred to the level
    above (energy is consumed at current level)
  • Bio mass and of organisms decrease at each
    level

60
Quiz yourself
61
Cycles
  • Biogeochemical cycle- exchange of matter through
    the biosphere.
  • Energy is transformed into usable forms
  • Cycling of nutrients in the biosphere involves
  • Matter in living organisms
  • Physical processes found in the environment
  • Ex. weathering

62
QUICK!
  • Why is it important to living organisms that
    nutrients cycle?
  • A Cycling makes nutrients available for other
    organisms to use.

63
Water cycle
  • Who remembers the water cycle from last year?
    What processes are involved?

64
Water cycle
65
Nitrogen Cycle
  • Nitrogen needed to make proteins
  • Conversion of nitrogen into a form that is
    useable by plants is called nitrogen fixation.

66
Nitrogen Fixation
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v4NKGS4bj7cc

67
(No Transcript)
68
Nitrogen Cycle
  • Nitrogen enters the food web when plants absorb
    nitrogen compounds from soil.
  • Consumers get nitrogen by eating plants or
    animals that contain nitrogen.
  • Nitrogen is returned to the soil in several ways
  • 1. Animals urinate.
  • 2. Organisms die.
  • 3. Organisms convert ammonia into nitrogen
    compounds. (Nitrogen Fixation)
  • 4. Denitrification take fixed nitrogen and
    convert it back to gas

69
Finish Worksheet!
  • Get with a partner to finish the back side of
    your worksheet from the other day.
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