Community Ecology Chapter 56 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Community Ecology Chapter 56


1
Community EcologyChapter 56
2
Biological Communities
  • Community all the organisms that live together
    in a specific place
  • Evolve together
  • Forage together
  • Compete
  • Cooperate

3
Biological Communities
  • Individualistic concept a community is a group
    of species that happen to occur together at one
    place
  • species respond independently to changing
    environmental conditions
  • The composition of a Community can change

4
Ecological Niche
  • Niche An Organisms way of life
  • Habitat
  • Food
  • Temp. range
  • Reproduction

5
Ecological Niche
  • Fundamental niche the entire niche that a
    species is capable of using.
  • Realized niche actual niche in which the
    species can establish a stable population

6
Ecological Niche
  • study of barnacles

7
Ecological Niche
  • causes of niche restriction
  • Competition
  • Predators
  • Absence of pollinators
  • Presence of herbivores

8
Ecological Niche
  • Principle of competitive exclusion no two
    species can occupy the same niche when resources
    are limited
  • Species may divide up the resources, (resource
    partitioning)
  • natural selection can then lead to adaptive
    radiation

9
  • Resource partitioning among sympatric lizard
    species

10
Ecological Niche
  • Character displacement in Darwins finches

11
Predator-Prey
  • Predation and coevolution
  • Predation provides strong selective pressure on
    the prey population
  • Features that decrease the probability of capture
    are strongly favored
  • Predator populations counteradapt to continue
    eating the prey
  • ?Coevolution race

12
  • Examples of prey adaptations
  • Chemical defenses
  • Camouflage
  • Warning coloration
  • mimicry

13
Species Interactions
  • Symbiosis two or more kinds of organisms
    interact in more-or-less permanent relationships
  • All symbiotic relationships carry the potential
    for coevolution
  • Three major types of symbiosis
  • Commensalism
  • Mutualism
  • Parasitism

14
Species Interactions
  • Commensalism benefits one species and is neutral
    to the other
  • Spanish moss an epiphyte hangs from trees

15
Shark and Pilot Fish
16
Barnacles and Whales
17
Species Interactions
  • Mutualism benefits both species
  • Coevolution flowering plants and insects
  • Ants and acacias
  • Acacias provide hollow thorns and food
  • Ants provide protection from herbivores

18
Human Intestine and E.Coli
19
Zebra and Oxpecker Bird
20
Species Interactions
  • Parasitism benefits one species at the expense of
    another
  • Can be external or internal parasites

21
Species Interactions
  • External parasite the yellow vines are the
    flowering plant dodder, it is a parasite that
    obtains its food from the host plant it grows on

22
Heartworm and Dogs
23
Mistletoe and Mesquite Tree
24
Species Interactions
  • Ecological processes can interact
  • Predation reduces competition
  • Superior competitors become more numerous and
    attract predators
  • This allows other species to survive when they
    could have been out competed

25
Species Interactions
Starfish eat barnacles, allowing other species to
thrive instead of being crowded out by the
explosive population of barnacles
26
Species Interactions
  • Keystone species species whose effects are
    greater than expected
  • Examples
  • Sea star predation on barnacles
  • Beaver ponds
  • Top predators

27
Species Interactions
  • Beavers construct dams and transform flowing
    streams into ponds, creating new habitats for
    many plants and animals
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Community Ecology Chapter 56

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Title: Community Ecology Chapter 56


1
Community EcologyChapter 56
2
Biological Communities
  • Community all the organisms that live together
    in a specific place
  • Evolve together
  • Forage together
  • Compete
  • Cooperate

3
Biological Communities
  • Individualistic concept a community is a group
    of species that happen to occur together at one
    place
  • species respond independently to changing
    environmental conditions
  • The composition of a Community can change

4
Ecological Niche
  • Niche An Organisms way of life
  • Habitat
  • Food
  • Temp. range
  • Reproduction

5
Ecological Niche
  • Fundamental niche the entire niche that a
    species is capable of using.
  • Realized niche actual niche in which the
    species can establish a stable population

6
Ecological Niche
  • study of barnacles

7
Ecological Niche
  • causes of niche restriction
  • Competition
  • Predators
  • Absence of pollinators
  • Presence of herbivores

8
Ecological Niche
  • Principle of competitive exclusion no two
    species can occupy the same niche when resources
    are limited
  • Species may divide up the resources, (resource
    partitioning)
  • natural selection can then lead to adaptive
    radiation

9
  • Resource partitioning among sympatric lizard
    species

10
Ecological Niche
  • Character displacement in Darwins finches

11
Predator-Prey
  • Predation and coevolution
  • Predation provides strong selective pressure on
    the prey population
  • Features that decrease the probability of capture
    are strongly favored
  • Predator populations counteradapt to continue
    eating the prey
  • ?Coevolution race

12
  • Examples of prey adaptations
  • Chemical defenses
  • Camouflage
  • Warning coloration
  • mimicry

13
Species Interactions
  • Symbiosis two or more kinds of organisms
    interact in more-or-less permanent relationships
  • All symbiotic relationships carry the potential
    for coevolution
  • Three major types of symbiosis
  • Commensalism
  • Mutualism
  • Parasitism

14
Species Interactions
  • Commensalism benefits one species and is neutral
    to the other
  • Spanish moss an epiphyte hangs from trees

15
Shark and Pilot Fish
16
Barnacles and Whales
17
Species Interactions
  • Mutualism benefits both species
  • Coevolution flowering plants and insects
  • Ants and acacias
  • Acacias provide hollow thorns and food
  • Ants provide protection from herbivores

18
Human Intestine and E.Coli
19
Zebra and Oxpecker Bird
20
Species Interactions
  • Parasitism benefits one species at the expense of
    another
  • Can be external or internal parasites

21
Species Interactions
  • External parasite the yellow vines are the
    flowering plant dodder, it is a parasite that
    obtains its food from the host plant it grows on

22
Heartworm and Dogs
23
Mistletoe and Mesquite Tree
24
Species Interactions
  • Ecological processes can interact
  • Predation reduces competition
  • Superior competitors become more numerous and
    attract predators
  • This allows other species to survive when they
    could have been out competed

25
Species Interactions
Starfish eat barnacles, allowing other species to
thrive instead of being crowded out by the
explosive population of barnacles
26
Species Interactions
  • Keystone species species whose effects are
    greater than expected
  • Examples
  • Sea star predation on barnacles
  • Beaver ponds
  • Top predators

27
Species Interactions
  • Beavers construct dams and transform flowing
    streams into ponds, creating new habitats for
    many plants and animals
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