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Title: Greece! Author: Administrator Last modified by: Kairu Wang Created Date: 9/28/2010 6:59:03 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Greece!

  • Minoan Crete (2800 BCE) -earliest civilization in
    the Aegean region emerged on Crete
  • Mycenaean civilization (1600-1100 BCE) -part of
    Indo-European family of people) 
  • Dark Age (1100-750 BCE)
  • The Greek City States (polis in Greek) (750-500
  • Classical Greece (500-338 BCE)

Greece was very mountainous peninsula and had a
small land area. Most of Greece was made up of
small planes and river valleys surrounded by
mountains which helped the societies in Greece
stay away from each other and time to develop
their own way of life.
Over time the societies were so attached to
independence they fought each other to gain
advantage. Their rivalry among them led to
warfare that devastated Greek society. Greece
had a long seacoast with bays which made
numerous harbors. Greeks inhabited many islands
to the west south and mainly east of central
Political Structure
  • Minoan Crete
  • Crete was ruled by a monarch from the central
    palace of Knossos. The monarchy, however, was far
    from a totalitarian regime.
  • Numerous administrative decisions were shared a
    priesthood and an immense network of bureaucrats
    and scribes.

  • The Greek City States (polis in Greek)
  • As a community, the polis consisted of citizens
    with political rights without political rights,
    and noncitizens. All citizens of a polis
    possessed fundamental rights, but these rights
    were coupled with responsibilities
  • The citizens not only belonged to themselves,
    they also belonged to the states.
  • This loyalty towards their city-states made each
    city-state distrusted one another.

  • Tyrants (7th to 6th centuries BCE)
  • Rulers who came to power in an unconstitutional
    way tyrant was not subject to the law.
  • Tyrants built new marketplaces, temples, and
    walls to enhanced their own popularity and
    glorified the city, they favours merchants and
  • Largely extinguished by the end of the 6th
    century BCE, Greek believed in the rule of law,
    and tyranny made a mockery of that ideal

  • Classical Greece
  • Confrontation between the Greek states and the
    mammoth Persian Empire
  • Greek states formed a defensive league under
    Spartan leadership, while the Athenians pursued a
    new military policy by the navy.
  • Athenians produced a fleet of about two hundred
  • Athens formed a defensive alliance against the
    Persians called the Delian League.

  • Age of Pericles
  • Policy of expanding democracy.
  • The sovereignty of the people was embodied in the
  • Lower class citizens were eligible for public
    offices formerly closed to them.
  • Board of ten officials known as generals, were
    elected by public vote.
  • The general could be re-elected, enabling
    individual leaders to play an important role
  • Pericles, was elected to the generalship thirty
    times between 461-429 BCE

Class system
  • It was broken up between free people and slaves.
    Some slaves were prisoners of war or bought from
    slave traders. Few were skilled in crafts and
    even fewer were paid.
  • Gender issues, the social system only applied to
    the men. Women's social and legal status was
    taken from their husband. Women were not
    permitted to take part in social life.

Greek Trade
  • In ancient Greece they traded refined goods such
    as olive oil, wine, jewelry, pottery, bronze,
    silver, gold and art work to Egypt, Palestine,
    Mesopotamia and Asia minor all the way to the
    Indus valley . They traded this for luxury items
    and exotic raw material that was worked by
  • Later craftsmen developed more techniques in
    stone work and ivory work. Also with emeralds and

Art and Architecture
  • Art
  • Concerned with expressing eternally true ideals
  • Based on the ideals of reason, moderation,
    symmetry, balance, and harmony in all things, was
    meant to civilize the emotions.

  • Architecture
  • The most important form of architecture was the
    temple dedicated to a god or goddess.
  • walled rooms that housed the statues of deities
    and treasures
  • open structures rather than closed ones
  • The column were originally made of wood but were
    changed to marble in the 5th century BCE
  • shape and size of the columns in combination with
    the features above and below the column.

Science and Technology
  • Highly developed compared to other places.
  • Contributed a lot in the field of mathematics.
    Geometry was used to measure land as described by
  • The strange property of amber was discovered by
    the Greeks.
  • Greek experiments revealed the fact that
    lodestone attracted small bits of iron.

  • The gods controlled their destiny and they were
    obsessed with knowing what the gods wanted.
    Religion was connected to every part of daily
    life it was social and practical. Public
    festivals were originated from religious
    practices like boys into warriors and girls in to
    mothers. Temples dedicated to the god or goddess
    were major Greek buildings in the cities. There
    were twelve chief gods.

  • In the myth of creation there was Chaos who
    created the mass of earth and the heavens. Father
    heaven and mother earth. Gaea who is mother earth
    and Uranus father Heaven gave birth to the
    Titans, Cyclopes and Giants the first creatures.
    The Cyclopes helped Zeus defeat his brother to
    become the father god, they did this my forging
    his lighting bolt.
  • The Greeks believed in an oracle they went to her
    for advice on everything and the oracle could see
    into the future. The Greeks gave offering to the
    oracle to see into the future. Like going to war,
    asking to get higher in the social ranks.

  • The gods said to live on top of mount Olympus,
    highest mountain in Greece. Zeus the father of
    the gods, Athena Goddess of wisdom and craft,
    Apollo the god of sun and poetry, Aphrodite
    goddess of love, and Poseidon brother of Zeus god
    of the sea and earthquakes.

  • Philosophy is a Greek word that originally
    meant love of wisdom
  • Early Greek philosophers were concerned with the
    development of critical or rational thought about
    the nature of the universe and the place of
    divine forces and soul in it

  • Sophists (5th century BCE)
  • argued that understanding the universe was beyond
    the reach of the human mind
  • stressed the importance of rhetoric (the art of
    persuasive oratory) in winning debates and
    swaying an audience
  • there was no absolute right or wrong, true wisdom
    consisted of being able to perceive and pursue
    one own good.

  • Plato (429-347 BCE)
  • Unlike his master Socrates, Plato wrote a great
  • Platos ideas of government were set out in his
    dialogue titled The Republic
  • He was fascinated with the question of reality.
  • A higher world of eternal, unchanging Ideas or
    Forms has always existed. To know these Form is
    to know truth.
  • These Forms can only be apprehended by a trained
    mind which is the goal of philosophy

  • Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
  • studied at the Academy at Athens for 20 years
  • became a tutor to Alexander the Great
  • wished for an effective form of government that
    would rationally direct human affairs
  • did not seek and ideal state based on the
    embodiment of an ideal Form of justice but tried
    to find the best form of government by a rational
    examination of existing government.

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  • World History Textbook