TSDM-33 U.S. Southern Command A Collision of Ideas and People Actors, Trends and Perspectives - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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TSDM-33 U.S. Southern Command A Collision of Ideas and People Actors, Trends and Perspectives

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Title: TSDM-33 U.S. Southern Command A Collision of Ideas and People Actors, Trends and Perspectives


1
TSDM-33 U.S. Southern Command A Collision of
Ideas and People Actors, Trends and Perspectives
2
  • The region is different
  • No major state-on-state conflicts or friction
  • Significant US baggage clouds foreign policy
  • Direct impact of region on US (drug cartels,
    anti-US, economic political independence,
    limited US leverage -- so what?)

3
  • US SOUTHCOM, like the U.S. government, has to
    create a strategic vision and set of engagement
    policies and activities that both resonate in an
    important area of the world growing increasingly
    cynical of U.S. foreign policy and compete with
    other global actors in a region of the world that
    relies less and less on U.S. engagement for
    security and economic growth.

4
Introduction to Latin America and the Caribbean



5
U.S. Southern Command
  • Located in Miami, FL
  • Responsible for providing contingency planning,
    operations, and security cooperation for Central
    and South America, the Caribbean (except U.S.
    commonwealths, territories, and possessions),
    Cuba and the Bahamas, and their territorial
    waters
  • 1,200 Military and civilian personnel deployed
    throughout the region

6
What Makes Latin America Unique?
  • With the exception of Cuba, all countries have an
    elected government
  • All colonies of European powers
  • Predominantly Christian and Western
  • The region sits in the mid ranks of income among
    developing countries, but has tremendous
    diversity
  • The distribution of income within countries is
    the worst of any region

7
What Makes Latin America Unique? (Contd)
  • Our Next-Door Neighbors
  • Closely connected to the U.S.
  • Shared political traditions
  • Strong cultural connections
  • Concentrated trade and investment relations
  • But suspicion of U.S. dominance is strong

8
Latin America The People
  • Mestizo Venezuela, Colombia
  • European Uruguay, Chile, Argentina
  • Indian Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Paraguay
  • African Brazil, Cuba, Haiti
  • Race, Bloodline, Culture Traditions
    Matter

9
The Economies
  • Mercantilism (17th 18th century)
  • Feudal (19th century)
  • State Capitalism Import Substitution (20th
    century)
  • Free Market Capitalism (late 20th and 21st
    century)

10
The Political Culture
  • Elitist
  • Authoritarian
  • Corporatism (church, military, land owners, trade
    unions)
  • Patronage (Brazil, Venezuela)
  • Socialist/Marxist (Chavez, Castro, Morales)
  • The Third Way (Brazil, Peru, Colombia)

11
Interests Groups The Power of Corporatism
  • The Armed Forces
  • The Roman Catholic Church
  • Large Landowners
  • The Middle Sector / Class
  • Labor Unions (Colombia/Brazil)
  • The Peasants (Indians)

12
U.S. Policy in the Americas
  • Promotion of Democracy
  • Encouragement of Responsible Government
  • Strengthening of Security
  • Stimulation of Economic Development

13
Headwinds for Uncle Sam
14
Keep The U.S. (and Canada) Out..
February, 2010 Leaders of the Community of
Latin America and Caribbean States Since its
inception in 1948, the OAS has been subjugated to
Washington's interests. The formation of the
Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
concludes a long cycle of seeking autonomy from
the imperial center. La Jornada, February,
2010
15
The Monroe Doctrine
  • The Monroe Doctrine was articulated in
    President James Monroe's seventh annual message
    to Congress on December 2, 1823. The European
    powers, according to Monroe, were obligated to
    respect the Western Hemisphere as the United
    States' sphere of interest.

16
Manifest Destiny-American Exceptionalism
  • The far-reaching, the boundless future will be
    the era of American greatness. In its magnificent
    domain of space and time, the nation of many
    nations is destined to manifest to mankind the
    excellence of divine principles to establish on
    earth the noblest temple ever dedicated to the
    worship of the Most High -- the Sacred and the
    True. John L. O'Sullivan on Manifest Destiny,
    1839
  • Manifest Destiny was a phrase which invoked
    the idea of divine sanction for the territorial
    expansion of the United States.

17
The Roosevelt Corollary
  • The Roosevelt Corollary was an extension of
    the Monroe Doctrine by United States President
    Theodore Roosevelt in 1904. Roosevelt's extension
    of the Monroe Doctrine asserted a right of the
    United States to intervene to "stabilize" the
    economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean
    and Central America if they were unable to pay
    their international debts.

18
The Good Neighbor Policy
  • In President Roosevelts address on March 4,
    1933, he stated "In the field of world policy I
    would dedicate this nation to the policy of the
    good neighbor the neighbor who resolutely
    respects himself and, because he does so,
    respects the rights of others."

1940 - President Trujillo of
the Dominican Republic and Cordell Hull, U.S.
Secretary of State sign treaty transferring power
from the United States to the Dominican
government
19
The History Yankee Go Home
  • 1836 - The Alamo Battle of San Jacinto
  • 1848 - US-Mexican War
  • 1898 - Spanish American War
  • 1903 - U.S. supports coup to separate Panama from
    Colombia
  • 1912 - US Marines to Nicaragua (until 1933)
  • 1914 - US Military seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico
  • 1915 - US Marines to Haiti
  • 1916 - US Marines to Dominican Republic (until
    1924)
  • 1917 - US Marines to Cuba
  • 1917 - US Marines to Costa Rica
  • 1954 - US Military to Guatemala (CIA support)
  • 1961 - Bay of Pigs (Cuba) (CIA Support)
  • 1962 - Cuban Missile crises
  • 1965 - US Military to Dominican Republic

20
Yankees Go Home cont
  • 1965 - US Military to Dominican Republic
  • 1967 - CIA Linked to assassination of Che Guevara
    in Bolivia
  • 1973 - CIA Linked to Salvador Allende's Death in
    Chile
  • 1980 - U.S. Support to Central American Rebels
    Begins
  • 1983 - Invasion of Grenada
  • 1985 - LtCol North Supports "Contras" fighting in
    Nicaragua
  • 1989 - Invasion of Panama
  • 2000 - U.S. Plan Colombia' Implemented
  • 2009 - U.S. Colombia Basing Agreement Angers
    Latin America

21
  • The only reason there has never been a coup in
    the United States is because there is no US
    Embassy in Washington DC

22
But is it This?
23
Or.This?
24
  • Free Trade Area of the Americas
  • Economic
  • Reform
  • Investment
  • Trade Assistance
  • Governance
  • Investment in Human Capital
  • Effective Sovereignty Drugs

Bolivarian Revolution Cubas Future The
Drift To The Left Transnational Crime Gangs
Insurgencies China Influence Anti-Americanism
25
Perspectives Matter
  • Illegal Narcotics.Problem of Supply or
    Demand?
  • Economic GrowthImperialism or Development?
  • Immigration......Opportunity or Threat?
  • Relevance to the U.S.Too Much or Too Little
    Attention?
  • Environment ....Ours or Theirs?
  • Democracy ..Ours or Theirs?
  • Free Trade .Liberal or Realist?
  • Regionalization.UNASUR or OAS?

26
The Politics
Left? Right? ..Or Something Else?
27
The Left
  • Venezuela Bolivia Ecuador

Evo Morales
Hugo Chavez ( Ahmadinijad)
Rafael Correa
Nicaragua
Cuba
Paraguay
Daniel Ortega
Fidel Raul
Fernando Lugo
28
The Right
Guatemala
Colombia
Chile
Perez Molina
Sebastian Pinera
Juan Manuel Santos
29
The Third Way
Brazil
Uruguay
Jose Mujica
Dilma Roussef
Argentina
Peru
Ollanta Humala
Cristina Kirchner
30
Latin Americas Left Turn -- So What?
  • Is A Turn to The Left So Bad?
  • What Are the Possible Benefits to Latin America?
  • What Are the Potential Pitfalls?

31
The Economics
32
In This Corner..
VS
Adam Smith and the Invisible Hand
Karl Marx and the Peoples Hand
How to Fix This?
33
Organizations Matter
Union of South America UNASUR
Organization of American States OAS
The Caribbean Community CARICOM
Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas ALBA
34
China in the Americas
35
Chinas Emerging Role
  • Still, as economic ties with China proliferate,
    it must be asked whether China is good for the
    Americas beyond the short-term economic gain it
    provides, no matter how beneficial this has been
    and will continue to be for the foreseeable
    future.
  • Eric Farnsworth
  • The
    New Mercantilism

36
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37
Central America and Beyond..
The Maras Expanding, Maturing, Collaborating,
Killing
38
Brazil
39
Some of the security issues we face in Latin
America
  • 52 of our oil comes from Latin America
  • 34 of the region lives in poverty (less than 2
    per day)
  • Latin America has the potential to become a
    future terrorist base (narco-terrorism)
  • Criminal activity continues to increase
  • Concern over increased investments in the region
    by China, Iran and Russia
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