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What a Wonderful World of Diversity: Issues and Implications

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Accommodations in State Policies What a Wonderful World of Diversity: Issues and Implications Martha L. Thurlow National Center on Educational Outcomes – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 19 August 2019
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Title: What a Wonderful World of Diversity: Issues and Implications


1
Accommodations in State Policies
  • What a Wonderful World of Diversity Issues and
    Implications
  • Martha L. Thurlow
  • National Center on Educational Outcomes

2
Topics
  • Frequency of use of assessment accommodations
  • What policies/guidelines tell us
  • Issues and implications

3
Frequency of Use?
  • Tracking use of accommodations was difficult in
    the past
  • Thurlow (2002) documented percentages using
    accommodations from 8 to 84 per state at a
    given school level.

4
States Capable of Reporting on Accommodations Use
(2005)
  • 46 regular states
  • 2 unique states
  • (26 regular and 2 unique can report on specific
    accommodations used)

5
State Policies and Guidelines
  • Determine who may receive accommodations during
    testing
  • Drive what is supposed to happen in state testing
  • May or may not be related to what happens after
    K-12 education

6
Study of 2005 Accommodations Policy and Guidelines
  • Searched Web sites of the 50 states (policies
    collected through January 15, 2005)
  • Completed tables for all states and all
    accommodations (with notations)
  • Sent data to state for verification (June 2005)
  • Made changes only with written documentation

7
Who Receives Accommodations (besides IEP
students)?
  • 504 students (41 states)
  • ELLs with IEPs (25 states)
  • All students, with qualifications (6 states)
  • All students (no qualifications) (2 states)
  • Other (11 states)

8
Criteria Used to Guide Decisions
9
Criteria Not Used to Guide Decisions
10
What Happens When Needed Accommodations Are Not
Listed?
Number of States
11
Key to Current Policy Summaries
A Allowed A Allowed, but considered a
non-standard accommodation (no implications for
scoring or aggregation) AI Allowed with
implications for scoring and/or aggregation AC
Allowed in certain circumstances P Prohibited
12
Presentation Accommodations
A A AC AI AC/AI P
Large Print 48 0 0 0 0 0
Braille 45 0 1 0 2 0
Sign Directions 43 0 1 0 1 0
Read Aloud Direct. 41 1 1 0 0 0
Repeat Directions 39 0 0 0 1 0
Visual Cues 25 0 1 0 2 0
Familiar Examiner 21 0 1 0 0 0
Admin. by Others 17 0 1 0 0 0
Sign Questions 8 0 19 0 12 0
Addtl. Examples 8 0 0 0 1 0
Read Aloud Quest. 2 6 26 0 11 0
13
Response Accommodations
A AC AI AC/AI P
Proctor/Scribe 35 6 0 7 0
Write in Test Booklet 35 4 1 0 0
Brailler 34 2 1 1 0
Tape Recorder 33 5 0 0 0
Computer/Mach. 27 15 0 2 0
Sign Responses 26 2 0 2 0
Comm. Device 24 3 0 1 0
Pointing 18 2 0 1 0
Speech/Text Dev. 15 3 0 1 0
Spell Checker 13 6 2 8 2
14
Scheduling/Timing Accommodations
A AC AI AC/AI P
With Breaks 41 1 1 0 0
Extended Time 41 3 0 1 0
Time Beneficial to Student 37 0 0 0 0
Multiple Sessions 23 5 0 0 0
Over Multiple Days 17 3 1 0 1
15
Setting Accommodations
A AC AI AC/AI P
Individual 45 0 0 0 0
Small Group 45 0 0 0 0
Carrel 35 1 0 0 0
Seat Location 33 1 0 0 0
Separate Room 31 1 0 0 0
Minimize Dist. 19 0 0 0 0
Students Home 17 6 1 0 0
Special Ed. Classroom 13 1 0 0 0
16
States with Access Assistant Guidelines
20
26
33
10
17
Access Assistants differences in what is
included (e.g., scribe)
  • Is assistant familiar to student or certified
    person?
  • Can test be viewed before administration?
  • Can scribe spell and punctuate first, then
    student fixes?

18
Issue Research-based Practice
  • Accommodations research is notorious for
    providing different outcomes. There are many
    reasons for this related to the complications of
    conducting the research.

19
Issue Decision-making Challenges
  • Despite criteria to be used to make decisions and
    not to be used to make decisions about
    accommodations, it is still difficult for
    educators to determine what accommodations
    students need.

20
Issue What Happens When Non-Allowed
Accommodations are Used?
  • In the past, this has been a hidden issue. Some
    states quietly gave students scores of zero when
    they used an accommodation that the state said
    was not allowed or was a modification. Other
    states did nothing.

21
Now, State Policies Do Interact with Federal
Policies
  • December 15, 2005 NPRM indicated that reports on
    assessment must include only the number of
    children provided accommodations that did not
    invalidate the score Title I regulations would
    only consider a student to be a participant for
    AYP purposes if his or her assessment results in
    a valid score.

22
Issue K-12 Versus Post-Secondary Policies
  • There is little evidence that K-12 policies have
    been influenced by post-secondary policies. In
    fact, there seems to be quite a disconnect.

23
Issue Designing Assessments to Alleviate
Accommodation Issues
  • The notions of universal design or more
    accessible assessments have been held up as the
    solution to many of our accommodations issues
    is there any evidence that this is going to work?

24
Implications More Work
  • New research approaches (by item)
  • Professional development needed (for improved
    decision making)
  • Auditing and follow necessary (for better
    implementation)
  • Continued improvement of assessments essential
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