The End of Public Welfare: Eroding the rights of women and children or encouraging self-sufficiency? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The End of Public Welfare: Eroding the rights of women and children or encouraging self-sufficiency?

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The End of Public Welfare: Eroding the rights of women and children or encouraging self-sufficiency? Dan Meyer Research: Joint with Maria Cancian – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The End of Public Welfare: Eroding the rights of women and children or encouraging self-sufficiency?


1
The End of Public WelfareEroding the rights of
women and children or encouraging
self-sufficiency?
  • Dan Meyer
  • Research Joint with Maria Cancian
  • November 2003

2
Overview
  • Brief history of policy changes affecting women
    and children with low incomes
  • 1996 welfare reform
  • Wisconsins response
  • How are TANF recipients in Wisconsin faring?
  • Broader context
  • Issues for the future

3
Brief History
  • 1935 Social Security Act establishes Aid to
    Dependent Children (ADC), federal-state
    partnership in providing cash to single-parent
    families that have low incomes, primarily widows,
    so that mothers dont have to work
  • Disenchantment throughout. Major reforms in
    early 1980s, late 1980s, early 1990s, 1996

4
National Welfare Reform
  • Sense that old policy wasnt working
  • Some chose welfare over work
  • Long-term recipients
  • Inflexible program
  • Based on rights rather than mutual social
    contract
  • Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities
    Reconciliation Act (1996)
  • Replaced AFDC with TANF
  • Work requirements
  • Time limits
  • State discretion (block grant)
  • No entitlement

5
1996 Welfare Reform Other Features
  • Limitations on assistance to immigrants
  • Limitations on food stamps to working age single
    adults without a disability
  • Changes in the definitions of disability for
    children in eligibility for SSI
  • Child support reforms

6
Wisconsins Response W-2
  • Philosophy Parents without a disability should
    work and face conditions faced by other working
    poor
  • First check should follow work
  • Payments should not vary by family size
  • Participants should receive all child support
    paid on behalf of their children
  • Self-Sufficiency Ladder
  • Unsubsidized Employment
  • Trial Jobs
  • Community Service Jobs, 673/month
  • W-2 Transitions, 628/month
  • Caretaker of Newborn, 673/month, 12 week limit

7
How are W-2 Recipients Faring?
  • Improved employment and earnings
  • mean wages for workers 7.30/hr in 98, 8.10 in
    99
  • mean earnings overall 4350 in 98, 6000 in 99
  • Moving off benefits quite quickly
  • Family income increasing
  • But

8
Benefits Decreasing
9
Family Income of Wisconsin TANF Participants
Increasing
10
But
  • Improvements in income and poverty, but levels
    still very high
  • In 1999, 67 with family incomes below poverty
  • Economic hardship levels high

11
High Levels of Economic Hardship
12
Consumer Perspective
  • W-2 participants report limited satisfaction
  • 68 of mothers disagree with the statement W-2
    helped me get a job or get a better job
  • 46 disagree with I think Ive been treated
    fairly on the W-2 program.

13
Broader Context
  • TANF only a small part of welfare system
  • Welfare only a small part of governmental support
    for families with children

14
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15
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16
To think about
  • TANF reauthorization this year
  • Marriage promotion work requirements funding
    levels child care
  • Results achieved in best economy on record
    recent downturn has affected recipiency but
    outcomes not clear
  • Employment not only goal economic well-being,
    broader measures of well-being
  • For more information
  • http//www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp/csde/phase1-tocs.htm
  • http//www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp/focus/foc213.pdf
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