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Ecology

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Title: Ecology


1
Ecology
  • Everything Is Connected To Everything Else

2
What is Ecology?
  • Ecology is the study of the relationships and
    interactions of living things with one another
    and with their environment.

3
What is the Environment?
  • The environment includes all living and nonliving
    things that surround an organism.

4
Biotic vs Abiotic
  • Biotic includes all living things in the
    environment.
  • Examples plants, animals, insects, protists,
    fungi, bacteria, etc.
  • Abiotic includes all nonliving things in the
    environment.
  • Examples light, temperature, wind, rocks, soil.

5
Is Water Biotic or Abiotic?
  • Water itself is abiotic.
  • Water contains many life forms
  • Water is the one thing required by all living
    things.

6
What is an Ecosystem?
  • Scientists divide the world into separate
    ecosystems.
  • Example a forest ecosystem
  • An ecosystem is an area in which living things
    and nonliving things interact, exchanging energy
    and materials.

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9
What is a Community?
  • A community is the living part of any ecosystem -
    all the different organisms that live together in
    that area.

10
All the living things in an area form a community
11
What is a Population?
  • Each kind of living thing makes up a population
    in the community.
  • A population is a group of organisms of the same
    species living together in the same area.

12
Sea anemone population
13
Gopher mounds
14
What is a Habitat?
  • A habitat is the specific place in which an
    organism lives.
  • A habitat provides food, shelter, and the other
    resources an organism needs to survive.
  • Different organisms live in different habitats
    because they have different needs.

15
Ant population in its habitat
16
Egret population in its habitat with its community
17
Limiting factors
18
Energy Roles in the Environment
  • Organisms can be producers, consumers or
    decomposers.
  • These roles indicate how an organism gets its
    energy and how it interacts with other living
    things in the community.

19
Energy Roles in the Environment
20
What is a Producer?
  • A producer is the source of all the food in an
    ecosystem.
  • Producers are able to take a source of energy,
    (such as sunlight), to turn raw materials, (such
    as water and carbon dioxide), into energy.
  • Examples are green plants and certain
    microorganisms.

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What is a Consumer?
  • A consumer is an organism that feeds directly or
    indirectly on producers.
  • There are many kinds of consumers
  • Herbivores
  • Carnivores
  • Omnivores
  • Scavengers

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25
Herbivores
  • Herbivores are consumers that feed on plants.
  • Examples are grasshoppers and rabbits

26
Herbivores
27
Herbivores
28
Carnivores
  • Carnivores are consumers that feed on other
    animals.
  • Examples are spiders, snakes, wolves.

29
Carnivores
30
Carnivorous Plants
31
Omnivores
  • Omnivores are consumers that feed on both plants
    and other animals.
  • Examples are humans, crows, bears.

32
Omnivores
33
Scavengers
  • Scavengers are animals that feed on the bodies of
    dead animals.
  • Examples are vultures, jackals, hyenas.

34
More Scavengers
35
What is a Decomposer?
  • Decomposers are organisms that break down dead
    organisms into simpler substances.
  • Examples are mold, mushrooms, bacteria.

36
Food Chains and Food Webs
  • The food and energy links among producers and
    consumers in an ecosystem are represented by food
    chains and food webs.

37
Food Chain
  • A food chain represents a series of events in
    which food and energy are transferred from one
    organism in an ecosystem to another.
  • The first link in a food chain is always a
    producer.
  • The second link is a herbivore.
  • The third link, and all the links after that, are
    almost always carnivores.
  • The end of a food chain is always connected to
    the beginning by decomposers.

38
Food Web
  • Since there are many organisms in an ecosystem,
    and few that eat only one kind of food, there
    must be more than one food chain in an ecosystem.
  • A food web consists of many overlapping food
    chains.
  • Food webs give the whole picture of the food and
    energy relationships in an ecosystem.

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What is a Niche?
  • Every organism has a niche in life.
  • A niche is the role an organism has in an
    ecosystem.
  • Niche is what the organism does
  • An organisms niche includes the place it lives
    the food it eats the organisms that feed on it,
    interact with it the amount of light, humidity
    and other physical conditions it needs to survive.

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Interaction Among Living Things
  • Ecosystems involve many interactions between
    organisms.
  • Each organism in a community has its own unique
    role to play. This role, or niche, is more than
    just the organisms place in the food web.

43
Competition is Interaction
44
Competition vs Interaction
  • Because the resources (food, water, shelter,
    light etc.) of an ecosystem are limited, it can
    not satisfy the needs of all the organisms living
    in it.
  • Competition is the interaction, or struggle, of
    organisms against each other to get the things
    they need to survive.

45
Plant Competition
46
Animal Competition
47
Predation is Interaction
  • Predators are living things that catch, kill, and
    eat other living things.
  • Examples cats, hawks, snakes.
  • Prey are the organisms that are eaten by
    predators.
  • Examples mice,
  • Predation plays an important role in shaping the
    structure of a community.

48
Some Predators
49
Symbiosis is Interaction
  • Symbiosis is the close relationship between two
    organisms in which at least one organism
    benefits.
  • In symbiosis one organism lives near, on, or even
    inside, another organism.

50
3 Categories of Symbiotic Relationships
  • Symbioses are placed into three categories
  • Commensalism
  • Mutualism
  • Parasitism

51
Commensalism
  • In commensalism, one of the organisms benefits
    and the other is not harmed by the relationship.
  • Example Sparrows and wrens set up their nests
    below an osprey nest for protection from enemies.

52
Examples of Commensalism
53
Mutualism
  • In mutualism, both organisms benefit from the
    relationship.
  • Example Ants herd aphids. Aphids get fresh
    leaves for food and the ants get the sugary
    secretion from the aphids.
  • Example Shrimp and gobi fish. Blind shrimp gets
    eyes, gobi gets a home.
  • Example Microorganisms get a home and help
    partner in some way (digestion).

54
Mutualism
  • In mutualism, both organisms benefit from the
    relationship.
  • Example Ants herd aphids. Aphids get fresh
    leaves for food and the ants get the sugary
    secretion from the aphids.

55
Examples of Mutualsim
  • Example Shrimp and gobi fish. Blind shrimp gets
    eyes, gobi gets a home.
  • Example Microorganisms get a home and help
    partner in some way (digestion).

56
Mutualism at Work
57
Parasitism
  • In parasitism, one organism benefits and the
    other organism is harmed.
  • Example ticks, fleas, mosquitos, leeches all
    feed on another organism, a host, that
    experiences some harm.
  • Example Disease-causing worms, bacteria and
    viruses are internal parasites.

58
Some Parasites
59
Parasite and Effects
60
Parasite vs Host
  • In parasitism, a parasite usually lives on or in
    a much larger organism and feeds on it while it
    is still alive.
  • The parasites unlucky partner is called the host.
  • Parasites do not usually kill their host, but
    many do weaken it greatly.

61
Parasite and Host
62
Cycles in Nature - Time
  • Cycles in nature often occur in a regular rhythm,
    or time pattern.

63
What is Rhythm?
  • A rhythm is any pattern that occurs over and over
    again.
  • Many biological rhythms are often in harmony with
    natural cycles.
  • Daily rhythms
  • Lunar rhythms
  • Annual rhythms

64
Daily Rhythms
  • Diurnal organisms are those that are active
    during the day.
  • Nocturnal organisms are those that are active
    during the night.

65
Lunar Rhythms
  • Lunar rhythms are rhythms that are controlled by
    the moon, such as the rise and fall of the tides.

66
What are Biological Clocks?
  • Biological clocks are internal timers that may be
    responsible for keeping track of many different
    cycles of time.

67
Why Have Biological Clocks?
  • Biological clocks help organisms survive.
  • Biological clocks help living things stay in step
    with rhythmic cycles of change in their
    environment.
  • When the time is right, biological clocks tell
    organisms to change their appearance, behavior,
    or body functions in some way.

68
Cycles in Nature Annual Rhythms
  • Many natural rhythms are closely associated with
    the seasons of the year.
  • Annual rhythms are events that occur once a year.
  • There are many examples of annual rhythms such as
    migration, hibernation and estivation.

69
Cycles in Nature - Migration
  • Migrations are annual rhythms in which organisms
    travel from the place where they breed to the
    place where they feed.

70
Why Migrate?
  • Organisms migrate to find more beneficial
    environments as seasonal changes make their old
    environment less habitable.
  • Examples Geese, turtles, whales, salmon

71
Migration Patterns
72
Cycles in Nature - Hibernation
  • Some organisms avoid unfavorable seasonal changes
    by sleeping through the bad periods of the
    year.
  • During this sleep the body functions of the
    animal slows down.
  • This enables animals to wait out the bad periods
    of the year in a sheltered hiding place.

73
What is Hibernation?
  • Hibernation is the winter resting, sleeping,
    state for organisms avoiding the cold, harsh
    winter months.
  • Examples bears, toads.

74
Hibernating Boar
75
What is Estivation
  • Estivation is the summer resting, sleeping
    state for organisms avoiding the hot, dry, harsh
    summer months.
  • Example African lungfish buries itself in the
    mud at the bottom of the lake before it dries
    out. These fish can survive for years in their
    shell of dried mud.

76
Estivation
77
Cycles of Matter
  • Matter can not be created or destroyed.
  • Matter, in the form of chemicals, flows in cycles
    from the nonliving part of the environment to
    living things and back again.

78
4 Important Matter Cycles
  • Hydrologic (Water) Cycle
  • Oxygen Cycle
  • Carbon Cycle
  • Nitrogen Cycle

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The Water Cycle
81
Water Cycle Terms
  • Radiation is the suns energy (heating water).
  • Evaporation is water (liquid) changing to water
    vapor (gas). Evaporation requires energy.
  • Condensation is water vapor (gas) changing to
    water (liquid). Condensation releases energy.
  • Precipitation is any form of water falling from
    the sky.
  • Infiltration/Percolation is water filtering into
    the ground.
  • Runoff is water that flows on top of the ground.
  • Perspiration is water that comes out of animals
    in the form of sweat. Respiration is from
    breathing.
  • Transpiration is water that comes out of plants.

82
The Oxygen and Carbon Cycles
  • Carbon dioxide is used by producers such as green
    plants.
  • Oxygen is released by producers such as green
    plants.
  • Oxygen is used by air-breathing organisms.
  • Carbon dioxide is released by air-breathing
    organisms.

83
Two Carbon Cycles
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The Nitrogen Cycle
  • All living things need nitrogen but most
    organisms can not get enough from the air.
  • Nitrogen fixation by bacteria use free nitrogen
    in the air to make nitrogen compounds called
    nitrates.
  • Plants use the nitrates to make compounds called
    proteins.
  • Other organisms that can not use nitrates
    directly use the proteins containing nitrogen.
  • Decomposers, such as bacteria, break down the
    complex nitrogen compounds in dead organisms and
    animal waste, returning simple nitrogen to the
    soil.
  • Nitrogen can go back and forth between plants and
    soil many times.
  • Eventually bacteria break down the nitrogen
    compounds into free nitrogen which is released
    into the air.

86
Nitrogen Cycle
87
Cycles of Change
  • Ecological succession is the process in which the
    community in a particular location is gradually
    replaced by another community.
  • Succession usually takes a long time.

88
Primary and Secondary Succession
  • Primary succession is the establishment and
    development of communities in newly formed areas.
  • Such as cooled lava, rocky surfaces, and sandy
    areas.
  • Secondary succession is succession that occurs in
    disturbed areas.
  • Such as abandoned farmland, vacant lots, and
    cleared areas.

89
Stages of Ecological Succession
90
Ecological Succession
91
When Does Succession End?
  • Left alone, over time, a community may consist of
    a group of species that are not replaced by new
    species.
  • This stable collection of plants, animals and
    other organisms is known as a climax community.
  • Examples are redwood trees in Northern
    California, black pines in the pine barrens, oak
    and hickory trees in the North Eastern U.S.

92
Climax Communities
93
Biogeography
  • Biogeography is the study of where plants and
    animals live throughout the world.

94
Dispersal is the movement of living things from
one place to another.
95
Barriers to Dispersal
  • Natural barriers such as water, deep valleys or
    mountains can prevent dispersal.
  • Ecological barriers such as habitats that do not
    meet the organisms needs also prevent dispersal.
  • Example is the opossums move north.
  • Objects built by man can also be barriers to
    dispersal.
  • Examples are dams blocking salmon, highways,
    fences.

96
Natural Barriers
97
Man-made Barrier
98
Biomes of the World
  • Areas of the world are characterized by their
    climate and the organisms living there.
  • Biomes are environments that are grouped by
    similarities in climate and ecological
    communities.

99
6 Major Land Biomes
  • Scientists have identified 6 major land biomes of
    the world
  • Tundras
  • Coniferous forests
  • Deciduous forests
  • Tropical rain forests
  • Grasslands
  • Deserts

100
Tundra Biomes
  • The climate of a tundra is very cold and dry.
    (Like a cold desert)
  • Temperatures rarely go above freezing.
  • Rainfall is less than 25 cm. per year
  • The soil there that is permanently frozen is
    called permafrost.
  • Life forms are lichens, dwarf willows, caribou,
    musk oxen, lemmings.

101
Tundras
102
Coniferous Forest Biomes
  • The climate here is cold but the soil thaws
    completely in spring forming swampy areas.
  • Coniferous forests are made up of trees called
    conifers that survive well in the poor soil of
    these areas.
  • Conifers, also known as evergreens, produce their
    seeds in cones.
  • Animals include moose, birds, beavers, lynx,
    weasels, and squirrels.

103
Coniferous Forests
104
Deciduous Forest Biomes
  • The climate here is warmer and there is at least
    75 cm of rain per year.
  • Deciduous trees, such as oaks, maples, hickories
    and beeches, shed their leaves in autumn making
    the soil richer.
  • Animal life includes insects, spiders, worms,
    snails, frogs, raccoons, deer, birds, grouse,
    snakes, salamanders.

105
Deciduous Forests
106
Tropical Rain Forest Biomes
  • The climate here is like summer all year round
    and it rains almost every day (at least 200 cm.
    of rain per year).
  • Plant life is more varied than any other biome
    due to good soil, lots of water, and year-round
    growing conditions.
  • A canopy, or green roof where tops of trees meet,
    keeps the ground cool and dimly lit.
  • Animal life is also varied (insects, birds,
    snakes, monkeys, wild cats) due to abundant food
    supplies.

107
Tropical Rain Forest Biomes
  • Most of the undiscovered species of plants,
    animals and insects, exist in tropical rain
    forest biomes.

108
Rain Forests
109
Grassland Biomes
  • The climate here is warm with low rainfall
    (between 25 and 75 cm. yearly).
  • Africa has the largest grasslands in the world.
  • Grasses are the main group of plants accompanied
    by few, thorny trees called acacias. Wildfires
    often prevent tree growth.
  • Animal life is largely herbivores such as zebra,
    antelope, mice, rats, also snakes, lions,
    cheetahs, elephants, hawks, eagles.

110
Grasslands
111
Desert Biomes
  • A desert biome is very dry (receives less than 25
    cm. of rain per year) but can be either hot or
    cold.
  • Sahara Desert is hot Gobi desert is cold.
  • Plant life, cactus, aloe, palm trees, survive on
    little water.
  • Animal life, such as lizards, rodents, camels,
    must survive on little water.

112
Deserts
113
Water Biomes
  • The two major water biomes are
  • Marine biomes
  • Freshwater biomes

114
Marine Biomes
  • The marine biome, or ocean biome, covers about
    70 of the earth.
  • Oceans are divided into different zones based on
    sunlight, temperature, pressure, and currents
    with different organisms in each.
  • Organisms living here have adapted to be able to
    survive in salt water.
  • Phytoplankton are microscopic plants that live
    near the surface. Almost all animals in the
    oceans depend directly or indirectly on these
    plants.

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Freshwater Biomes
  • The freshwater biome includes both still water
    (ponds and lakes) and running water (rivers and
    streams).
  • There are factors that affect the life in
    freshwater biomes
  • Temperature
  • Sunlight
  • Amount of oxygen
  • Food available
  • Speed of movement

117
Fresh Water Biome
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Estuaries
  • An estuary is a boundary between a freshwater
    biome and a marine biome.
  • Estuaries are extremely fertile areas.
  • Since estuaries are shallow, sunlight reaches all
    levels so marsh grasses, algae and other plants
    live there and provide food for a variety of
    fishes, crabs, oysters and shrimp.
  • Estuaries are important as nurseries for many
    different types of young fishes.

120
Wildlife Conservation
121
Earths Natural Resources
122
Energy Resources
123
Earths Nonliving Resources
124
Pollution
125
Conserving Earths Resources
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