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Coal

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Coal Crude Oil Naturel Bitumen Natural Gas Oil Shale Peat Nuclear Hydropower Peat Biomass Solar Energy Geothermal Energy Wind Energy Tidal Energy Wave Energy – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 9 January 2019
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Title: Coal


1
  • Coal
  • Crude Oil
  • Naturel Bitumen
  • Natural Gas
  • Oil Shale
  • Peat
  • Nuclear
  • Hydropower
  • Peat
  • Biomass
  • Solar Energy
  • Geothermal Energy
  • Wind Energy
  • Tidal Energy
  • Wave Energy
  • Ocean Thermal
  • Marine Current Energy
  • Hydrogen
  • Coal gasification

2
Deniz Cinalioglu 10-U
  • Renewable is the term used for forms of energy
    that can be regenerated, or renewed, in a
    relatively short amount of time. The regeneration
    process may be continuous and immediate, as in
    the case of direct solar radiation, or it may
    take some hours, months or years. This is the
    case of wind energy (generated by the uneven
    heating of air masses), hydro energy (related to
    the sun-powered cycle of water evaporation and
    rain), biomass energy (stored in plants through
    photosynthesis), and the energy contained in
    marine currents. The energy contained in fossil
    fuels coal, oil and natural gas likewise
    comes also from the sun's energy, but it was
    stored in plants millions of years ago, and once
    used, it cannot be regenerated on a human time
    scale. They are examples of non renewable energy
    sources. The earth's remaining fossil fuel
    reserves can probably provide us with energy for
    another 100 to 500 years, but this is an
    insignificant amount of time in terms of the
    whole past history of human civilisation and of
    its future.

3
Deniz Cinalioglu 10-U
  • Coal (non renewable) It is a fossil fuel, and
    was formed from the remains of plants that were
    buried and subjected to high presure and heat. It
    is largely or almost entirely composed of carbon
    with varying amounts of mineral matter. After the
    plants die and buried, the chemical changes
    gradually lower the oxygen and hydrogen content
    of the cellulose molecules, CH2O. Coal matures
    through four stages lignite, subituminous,
    bituminous and anthracite. Each stage has a
    higher Carbon-to- Oxygen and Carbon-to-Hydrogen
    ratio. The energy available from the combustion
    of a given mass of coal increases as the Carbon
    content increases.
  • Crude Oil (non renewable) A thick, flammable,
    yellow-to-black mixture of gaseous, liquid, and
    solid hydrocarbons that occurs naturally beneath
    the earth's surface, can be separated into items
    including natural gas, gasoline, naphtha,
    kerosene, fuel and lubricating oils, paraffin
    wax, and asphalt. It is used as raw material for
    a wide variety of products.

4
Deniz Cinalioglu 10-U
5
Deniz Cinalioglu 10-U
  • Naturel Bitumen (non renewable) Natural bitumen
    and extra-heavy oil are closely related types of
    petroleum, but differ from the petroleum. They
    have small amounts of the paraffins, and relative
    enriched heavy molecules, leading to increased
    density and viscosity. Of these molecules, the
    asphaltenes are very large and has such
    non-hydrocarbons as nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen,
    and metals, in particular nickel and vanadium.
  • The result of the this composition creates
    problems more than the problems of conventional
    petroleum with respect to exploitation,
    transportation, storage, and refining. This is
    the reason for the increased cost of extraction
    and processing and the physical limitations on
    production capacity.

6
Deniz Cinalioglu 10-U
  • Natural Gas (non renewable) Natural gas liquids
    (NGLs) are hydrocarbons that exist in the
    reservoir as constituents of natural gas. These
    are recovered as liquids in separators, field
    facilities or gas-processing plants. Natural gas
    liquids include (but are not limited to) ethane,
    propane, butanes, pentanes, natural gasoline and
    condensate they may include small quantities of
    non-hydrocarbons.
  • Oil shale (non renewable) It does not contain
    oil nor is it commonly shale. The organic
    material is mainly kerogen, and the "shale" is
    usually a relatively hard rock, called marl.
    Properly processed, kerogen can be converted into
    a substance somewhat similar to petroleum.
    However, to be changed into an oil-like
    substance, it must be heated to a high
    temperature. By this process the organic material
    is converted into a liquid. This liquid must be
    further processed to produce an oil which is said
    to be better than the lowest grade of oil
    produced from conventional oil deposits, but of
    lower quality than the upper grades of
    conventional oil.
  • Peat (non renewable) Peat is soil material
    consisting of partially decomposed organic
    matter found in swamps and bogs in various parts
    of the temperate zone. It is formed by the slow
    decay of successive layers of aquatic and
    semiaquatic plants, e.g., sedges, reeds, rushes,
    and mosses. Peatland is defined as follows for
    land to be identified as peatland, the depth of
    the peat layer, excluding the thickness of the
    plant layer, must be at least 20 cm on drained,
    and 30 cm on undrained land.

7
Deniz Cinalioglu 10-U
  • NuclearEnergy
  • (renewable)

8
Deniz Cinalioglu 10-U
  • Hydropower (renewable) Obtained by storing the
    water in reservoirs (dams) and utilizing the
    potential energy or channelizing the water flow
    for energy generation.

9
Deniz Cinalioglu 10-U
  • Biomass(renewable) Residues, forestry,
    industrial, woody, agricultural, aquatic crops,
    animal and plant wastes are currently the main
    sources of bio-energy . A variety of fuels can be
    made from biomass resources, including the liquid
    fuels ethanol, methanol, biodiesel,
    Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and gaseous fuels such as
    hydrogen and methane. It is an important form of
    stored energy.
  • Methods for Getting Energy from Biomass
  • Wood burning
  • Gassification
  • This process, usually using would produce a
    flammable gas mixture of hydrogen, carbon
    monoxide, methane and other non flammable by
    products. This is done by partially burning and
    partially cooking the biomass (using the heat
    from the limited burning) in the presence of
    charcoal (a natural by-product of burning
    biomass). The gas can be used instead of petrol
    and reduces the power output of the car by 40.
    It is also possible that in the future this fuel
    could be a major source of energy for power
    stations.

10
Deniz Cinalioglu 10-U
  • Anaerobic Digestion/Gasification
  • If a specially formulated mixture of bacteria is
    added to biomass and water in a sealed container
    (so that no oxygen can enter it) the contents
    soon ferment. The product of this fermentation is
    mainly methane (a flamable gas which is the same
    as the gas you burn at home) which is an
    excellent fuel. This process removes biomass from
    dirty water and may be used in a water treatment
    plant.
  • Fermentation
  • If the biomass used is (or can be converted
    into) mostly sugar, then yeast can be added. The
    fermentation that follows produces alcohol which
    is a very high energy fuel that makes it very
    practicle for use in cars. This has been tried
    succesfully in Brazil.

11
Deniz Cinalioglu 10-U
  • Solar Energy (renewable) With the exception of
    nuclear, geothermal and tidal energy, all forms
    of energy used on earth originate from the suns
    energy. Although sunshine can be collected by
    solar arrays and used to heat a home or supply
    its hot-water needs, the unconcentrated rays are
    not strong enough for efficient power generation.
  • The amount of solar radiation available at the
    Earth's surface is about 1kW thermal energy per
    square metre.
  • The idea of using large numbers of reflective
    panels called heliostats or multi-faced mirrors
    to concentrate solar radiation has an ancient
    history dating as far back as 212BC when
    Archimedes in ancient Syracuse is said to have
    used polished shields to focus light onto the
    sails of the Roman ships to burn them.
    Theoretically, by using mirrors and lenses, the
    temperature of the sun's surface can be reached.
  • While photovoltaic cells produce electricity
    directly, solar thermal technologies produce hot
    air, water and steam for industry. They can also
    provide energy to photolytically process fuels
    and chemicals and destroy dangerous materials.

12
Deniz Cinalioglu 10-U
  • In new housing areas, use of solar systems can
    cut the demand for fossil fuel by as much as 70.

13
  • Geothermal Energy (renewable) Geothermal energy
    is the natural heat of the earth stored deep
    below the earth's surface. When the earth was
    formed 5 billion years ago from a cloud of hot
    gas, it was very hot indeed. Ever since then the
    earth has been cooling down, loosing it's heat to
    the cold reaches of space. However a lot of this
    heat still remains and can be used as a source of
    energy for the ever increasing demands of
    civilisation. The energy is found near areas
    where volcanic activity has taken place, either
    recently or many years ago. It can be in the form
    of steam, hot liquid, or hot dry rock. There are
    many ways of getting the energy to the surface in
    a usefuk form. Wells drilled deep into the ground
    bring steam and hot water to the surface
  • There is enough energy for us to consume as much
    energy as we do now for the next 35 billion
    years. The only problem is getting to all this
    energy and converting it efficiently. It is
    estimated that at present we can only reach
    enough energy to supply the world's energy needs
    for one year. This is because of the limits of
    current geothermal technology and the disperse
    nature of the energy we can reach. Geothermal
    energy is currently cheaper than nuclear power
    and comparable to some conventional energy
    generation methods, geothermal power is ecenomic
    enough to warrant it's continued use and
    developement.

14
  • Wind Energy (renewable) The power contained in
    the wind represents a vast source of energy.
    There are approximately 20,000 wind turbines
    connected to the electricity network in operation
    worldwide. Only a very small amount of wind
    energy can be used because of technological and
    also social limitations. The wind turbine vanes
    use the flowing movement of the air to rotate an
    electrical generator similar to that in a
    hydropower station. The actual power being
    generated is directly linked to the windspeed
    such that if the windspeed dropped by 10 percent,
    there will be a 30 percent decrease in available
    energy. The numerous factors that influence the
    windspeed include local geographical effects such
    as ground roughness and the height of the
    airflow.

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16
  • Marine current energy (renewable) The global
    marine current energy resource is mostly driven
    by the tides and to a lesser extent by thermal
    and density effects. The tides cause water to
    flow inwards twice each day (flood tide) and
    seawards twice each day (ebb tide) with a period
    of approximately 12 hours and 24 minutes (a
    semi-diurnal tide), or once both inwards and
    seawards in approximately 24 hours and 48 minutes
    (a diurnal tide). In most locations the tides are
    a combination of the semi-diurnal and diurnal
    effects, with the tide being named after the most
    dominant type. The strength of the currents vary,
    depending on the proximity of the moon and sun
    relative to Earth. Generally the marine current
    resource follows a sinusoidal curve with the
    largest currents generated during the mid-tide.
    The strength of the marine currents generated by
    the tide vary, depending on the position of a
    site on the earth, the shape of the coastline and
    the bathymetry (shape of the sea bed). Along
    straight coastlines and in the middle of deep
    oceans, the tidal range and marine currents are
    typically low. Generally, but not always, the
    strength of the currents is directly related to
    the tidal height of the location. However, in
    land-locked seas such as the Mediterranean, where
    the tidal range is small, some variable marine
    currents exist.

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  • Ocean Thermal (renewable) It is common since
    that if the oceans have sunlight shining on them
    for up to fifteen hours a day, they are going to
    be warmed up by this process. In a way this
    thermal energy (the energy of heat) is solar
    energy. The oceans make excellent traps for this
    energy. One of the main advantages is that the
    oceans do not cool very quickly and therefore,
    energy can be extracted from them during the
    night. This is obviously not the case with
    traditional solar energy technologies. To work
    effectively, energy conversion from fluids (water
    in this case) needs a supply of hot and cold
    water. In the tropical and subtropical regions of
    the world there is a big difference in
    temperature between the temperature of the ocean
    at the surface and at depth. Basically, hot water
    is pumped in to the plant from the surface of the
    ocean and cold water is pumped in from the ocean
    depths. This source of hot and cold fluid drives
    a heat engine (an engine that runs on energy flow
    from hot to cold). Below is a basic diagram
    showing what goes on.

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20
  • Wave Energy (renewable) Waves supply many
    sportsmen and women with a great deal of
    entertainment and excitement, but out at sea
    their awesome power can smash ships apart or flip
    them on their backs. Waves tens of meters high
    with wavelengths of more than one hundred meters
    are common in the atlantic and pacific oceans.
    This energy will exist as long as there are large
    expanses of water on earth and could supply huge
    amounts of energy but as yet there are no large
    scale commercial organizations to exploit them.

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  • Tidal energy (renewable) Most countries have
    concentrated on the use of capturing structures
    to create artificial reservoirs that can be used
    to control the natural tidal flow. It was
    concluded that building a permeable barrage
    across an estuary(arm of the sea which extends to
    the opening of the river) minimizes the cost of
    civil structures for the quantity of energy that
    can be produced. Complete closure of estuaries
    would be achieved by placing a series of
    prefabricated sections, or caissons, made from
    concrete or steel which could be floated and then
    sunk into position. Tidal barrages would consist
    of gates and turbine generators. During the ebb
    tide water is allowed to flow through the gates.
    When water level becomes high the gates are
    closed. Storage of water allows a head of water
    (i.e. difference in vertical height of water
    levels) to be created as the flood tide
    progresses seaward of the barrage. Once a
    sufficient head has been created, water is
    allowed to flow back through the turbines to
    generate electricity. In this respect a tidal
    energy barrage is no different to a low-head
    hydro-electric dam.

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29
  • Hydrogen Hydrogen has a potential as a fuel. It
    has an advantage over fossil fuels in that the
    only product of hydrogen hydrogen combustion is
    water, fossil fuels produce carbon dioxide in
    addition to water. H2(g)1/2o2(g)H2O(l)
    Currently, hydrogen is maintained from the
    treatment of natural gas with steam CH4(g)
    H2O(g)3H2(g) CO(g) but this is not
    economical. Therefore new ways to maintain
    hydrogen are being searched. Production of
    hydrogen from water is possible by electrolysis
    of water,thermal decomposition of water,
    thermochemical decomposition of water and
    biological decomposition of water. This energy
    source is not a very common one as it is quite
    new.
  • Coal Gassification It is the most economical way
    of converting dirty coal into clean burning
    gaseous fuel. It involves four steps.
  • -hydrogasification (high temperature and
    pressure)
  • C(coal)H2O(g)CO(g)H2(g)
  • -catalytic increase of H2
  • CO(g) H2O(g)CO2(g)H2(g)
  • -removal of CO2, H2
  • desulfurisation (removal of impurities,
    H2S)
  • -catalytic methanation
  • 3H2(g)CO(g)CH4(g)H2O(g)
  • H2O(g) is removed and CH4(g) is called
    synthetc natural gas. Advantages of coal
    gassification include the prevention of pollution
    by sulfur dioxide, but the process requires 30
    of the energy content of coal for conversion!
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