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Bergenfield Public Schools New Teacher Academy April 11, 2011 Formative Assessment: The Five Key Areas

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Title: Bergenfield Public Schools New Teacher Academy April 11, 2011 Formative Assessment: The Five Key Areas


1
Bergenfield Public Schools New Teacher
Academy April 11, 2011 Formative Assessment The
Five Key Areas
2
Formative Assessment has the power to produce
unprecedented improvements in student achievement
in our schools. Dylan Wiliam
3
Learning Intentions for Today
  • Gain an understanding of formative assessment and
    summative assessment
  • Learn the 5 key areas of formative assessment and
    how formative assessment moves learning forward
  • Experience formative assessment techniques

4
Enter Card
  • What do you know about formative assessment?
  • What would you like to come away with from this
    presentation?
  • Think, Jot, Pair, Share

5
Assessment Memory Classroom Practices
6
Formative Assessment Is A process of
accumulating information about a students
progress to help make instructional decisions
that will improve his/her understanding and
achievement levels.
  • Depicts students life as a learner
  • Used to make instructional adjustments
  • Alerts the teacher about student early warning
    signs
  • Allows students to build on previous experiences
  • Provides regular feedback
  • Provides evidence of progress
  • Aligns with instructional/curricular outcomes

7
5 Key Areas
  • Importance of stating learning intentions
    modeling criteria for success
  • Questioning for understanding
  • Eliciting feedback to monitor and adjust
    instruction
  • Developing the self-directed learner
  • Common assessments

8
Learning Intentions
  • Learning Targets
  • Goals
  • Objectives
  • Essential Learning
  • Content Standards
  • Benchmarks

9
If we dont begin with clear statements of the
intended learning, we wont end with sound
assessments. Stiggins, Arter, J.Chappuis, S.
Chappuis 2006
10
Learning Intentions
  • Focus on student learning rather than
    product/activity
  • Stated at the beginning of the lesson
  • Used to refocus during the lesson
  • Used to assess at the end of the lesson
  • Plan for future lessons

11
Characteristics of High Quality Learning
Intentions
  • Focus on what will be learned rather than what
    will be done
  • Focus on active learning rather than imparting
    knowledge
  • Are lesson sized
  • Stated in an age-appropriate and student friendly
    language
  • SMART Goals- small, measurable, achievable,
    realistic, and time-limited

12
Transform this learning target into a student
friendly version
  • Students will compare and contrast elements of
    text.
  • Age 9 years old/4th grade

13
It may sound like this
  • I can identify and describe similarities and
    differences between the characters, setting,
    problems and solutions of the stories.

14
Teaching 7th graders how to make good inferences
  • Define the word inference.
  • Student friendly language I am learning to
    make good inferences. This means I can use
    information from what I read to draw a reasonable
    conclusion.
  • Stiggins, Arter, J.Chappuis, S.
    Chappuis-Classroom Assessment for Student
    Learning, 2006

15
How might the same learning intention be stated
for 2nd graders?
  • I can make good inferences. This means I can
    make a guess that is based on clues.

16
Benefits
  • Teachers
  • Identify what to assess
  • Intentional teaching
  • Curriculum alignment
  • Streamline content
  • Clear and well defined learning targets foster
    assessments that measure exactly what is being
    learned
  • Students
  • Must know where they are going in their learning
  • Need clear and well defined targets in oder to
    get a bulls eye
  • Understand expectations
  • Know how to progress toward learning target

17
When students understand the intended learning,
they are set up for productive self-assessment
and goal setting. Stiggins, Arter, J Chappuis,
S. Chappuis
18
Success Criteria which helps identify
expectations for students
  • Clear verbal statements
  • Visual supports/examples
  • Modeling of both weak and strong work
  • Modeling the process with students as guided
    practice
  • Built in time for discussion and clarification

19
Sample Learning Intentions Activity
20
We learn
  • 10 of what we read,
  • 20 of what we hear,
  • 30 of what we see,
  • 50 of what we hear and see,
  • 70 of what is discussed with others,
  • 80 of what we experience personally, and
  • 95 of what we teach to someone else.
  • William Glasser

21
Promoting Student Learning through Quality
Questioning
  • Quality Questions are seldom by Chance!

22
Introducing DALTON
23
Research on Teacher Questioning Behavior
24
What do we know about teacher questioning
behavior?
  • Teachers estimated that they ask 15 questions in
    every 30 minutes.
  • When observed, the data showed that teachers
    asked 50.6 questions.

25
How many questions do your students ask?
  • Teachers reported that students in their classes
    were asking about 10 questions in 30 minutes.
  • Observers found that students only posed 1.8
    questions in 30 minutes.

26
What questions will hook students interests
about content and skills?
27
What are the characteristics of effective
questions?
  • Questions are purposeful.
  • One common context for classroom questions is
    recitation.
  • Usually low level questions
  • Students are rarely engaged in deep thinking
    about a topic.
  • Purpose of recitation questions is to

28
  • Review for a test
  • Comprehension of a passage
  • Homework completion
  • Cueing students on important content
  • Get students to talk
  • Opportunities for drill and practice
  • Modeling good questioning
  • Recall of information

29
Another classroom context for questioning is
discussion
  • Practice to think out loud
  • Respect diverse points of view
  • Improve listening skills
  • Provide opportunities to support students ideas
  • Students make connections that will move
    information to long term memory

30
2. Quality Questions have a clear content focus.
  • When constructing questions that have a clear
    content focus just remember
  • Whats worth teaching

31
4. Quality Questions are Clear and Concise
  • Do students know what the teacher is asking?
  • Is the question grammatically correct?
  • Does the question have a single focus?

32
3. Quality Questions Engage Students at Varied
and Appropriate Cognitive Levels.
  • Blooms Taxonomy
  • Level 3-Create
  • Level 2- Use
  • Level 1-Recall

33
Johnny the Bagger activity
34
Crossroad Questions
  • Can I go on with the lesson?

35
Questioning Example In which of the following
diagrams is one quarter of the area shaded?
A B
C D
Professor Dylan Wiliam, ETS EUROPE July
2006
36
If every student responded A,B and D, the teacher
can move on with the lesson. There is evidence
that the students have an understanding of the
concept.
37
4Gs Geometry Lesson
38
How can teachers respond when students respond
incorrectly?
39
Why is Wait Time so important?
  • Thinking takes time
  • Opens up the possibility of multiple answers
  • Fosters greater participation
  • Answers often involve a 5 step process listen to
    question, understand what is being asked, answer
    to self, answer out loud, rethink or revise
    question.

40
  • WAIT TIME 1-
  • The amount of time elapsed from posing the
    question and the student response
  • WAIT TIME 2-
  • The amount of time elapsed from the student
    response and the next spoken word (Teacher or
    Student)

41
Engaging All Students
  • All student response techniques
  • ABCD and True/False Cards
  • No Hands Up
  • Popsicle Sticks
  • Whiteboards/ communicators
  • Think, Pair, Share/Turn Talk

42
Testing Miss Malarkey By Judy Finchler
43
ABC Activity- Recap
44
Feedback Skits
45
To be formative, assessment must include a
recipe for future action. Dylan Wiliam
46
Research Study- Israel
  • 264 low and high ability grade 6 students in 12
    classes in 4 schools analysis of 132 students at
    the top and bottom of each class
  • Same teaching, same aims, same teachers, same
    class work
  • Three kinds of feedback scores, comments, scores
    comments
  • Butler(1988) BR.J. Educ. Psychol.,58 1-14

47
Research Study
  • Which group demonstrated gains?
  • A. Grade only
  • B. Comments only
  • C. Grade and comments

48
B. Comments only is the correct answer.
49
Formative Feedback
  • Identifies where the student is now
  • Identifies where the student needs to go
  • Compares the two levels and provides information
    about the gap
  • Provides a mechanism to close the gap

50
Feedback Strategies
  • Timing- Hear it and use it
  • Mode-Oral, written, demonstration
  • Audience- Know your audience and talk with
    him/her or them.
  • Amount- The Goldilocks Principle

51
How to Give Effective Feedback
  • Focus feedback on task, process, self-regulation.
  • For example I saw you go back and rewrite that
    sentence. After you changed it, it reads better,
    doesnt it? Why did you revise?

52
  • Focus feedback on lesson objective
  • Use self-referenced feedback
  • Did you notice your wrote a complete paragraph?
    You had trouble with this in the last assignment.

53
Continuation of Effective Feedback
  • Descriptive, non judgmental
  • Positive, not negative
  • Select 1 or 2 points and suggest small steps for
    improvement.
  • For example-Next time you write a paragraph, try
    to make the last sentence a closing of the
    previous sentences.

54
  • Check for understanding of feedback
  • Can you tell me the steps to take when solving a
    math word problem?

55
Feedback Techniques
  • Dots on assignments
  • Red, yellow, green markers for homework
  • Focused grading based on students needs and
    teachers priorities
  • Two stars and a wish
  • Comment only marking
  • , -,

56
Assessments to Share
57
Developing the Self-Directed Learner
  • Student-led conferences
  • Problem-based learning tasks
  • Rubrics
  • Debriefing for learning
  • Self-reflection learning logs, exit passes,
    1-2-3 cards

58
As the Geese Fly
  • Facts and Lessons for
  • Collaboration

59
Student-Led Conferences
60
Student-led conference Role-play
61
Fashion Designer for a Day
62
Teacher Testimonials I am currently using
white-boards EVERYDAY in math. I love it and the
kids want to do it for hours! Marissa- 2nd
Grade Teacher I use colored dots on their
writing assignments so that I can monitor who
needs help in the small group setting without
having them ask in front of a group. Nicole- 5th
Grade Teacher I use the technique where kids put
their heads down and raise their hands when their
answer is called out. It always give me a quick
snapshot of who understands what we are doing.
Ellinor- 4th Grade Teacher
63
Ive moved down to Kindergarten, but I am still
using many of the techniques for feedback such as
white-boards, exit cards, and popsicle sticks. I
think once you are used to it, it just becomes
part of what you do. Now, I really need to have
this information to move on. Linda - Primary
Teacher
64
Formative assessment practices definitely inform
my decision making when I am both planning and
teaching lessons. For example, based upon
childrens responses when doing heads down hands
up, I know if the class is ready to move on or
needs further reinforcement. If only a few kids
consistently have wrong answers, then I know I
need to provide extra help for them. Melissa-
3rd Grade Teacher
65
Formative Assessment refines what we are already
doing (learning intentions, questions, and
feedback) in the interest of student learning.
66
Summary Recap
  • On-going Assessment
  • A Diagnostic Continuum

67
Whats Next?
  • Creating an Action Plan

68
Mr. DeVores Do-Over by David Puckett
69
COACH WOODEN ON SUCCESS
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