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Introduction to Environmental Science

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Introduction to Environmental Science Chapter 1 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Environmental Science


1
Introduction to Environmental Science
  • Chapter 1

2
Environmental Science
  • Interdisciplinary science ecology, geology,
    chemistry,
  • environmental studies focuses on politics,
    engineering, economics, and ethics
  • Connections and interactions between humans and
    the rest of nature
  • Validity of data questioned many variables
    (hard to perform controlled experiments)

3
Environmental Science
  • environment everything around us including the
    living and non-living things with which we
    interact
  • Goals of environmental science
  • learn how nature works
  • understand how we interact with the environment
  • find ways to deal with environmental problems and
    live more sustainably

4
Environmental Issues
  • Population growth
  • Increasing resource use
  • Destruction and degradation of habitat
  • Premature extinction (loss of biodiversity)
  • Poverty
  • Pollution
  • Our top three Climate Change/Global warming
    Radioactive wastes and increase in human
    population

5
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6
Tragedy of the Commons- Garrett Hardin
  • Over use of common property (exploiting common
    resources)
  • if I dont use this resource someone else will
  • I dont take enough to matter
  • the amount I pollute is not enough to cause a
    problem
  • its a renewable resource...it will come back
  • Clean air, open ocean and its fish, wildlife
    species, publicly owned land, gases of lower
    atmosphere, space
  • How do we manage these resources on a global
    level? Who is responsible for enforcing
    compliance?

7
Sustainability
  • Ability of a specified system to survive and
    function over a period of time
  • Sustainable living Meeting present needs without
    preventing future generations from meeting theirs

8
Sustainability
  • Three principles of sustainability..how can we
    live more wisely and understand how the earth has
    sustained itself?
  • Reliance on solar energy
  • drives energy cycling in ecosystems
    (photosynthesis and cell respiration)
  • Biodiversity
  • ability to adapt to changes and provide natural
    services
  • Chemical (nutrient cycling)
  • movement and renewal of chemicals in an ecosystem

9
Ecosystem Services
  • Ecosystems provide services that arent easy to
    quantify
  • reasons for protecting and preserving our natural
    resources
  • purifying air and water, pollination, providing
    oxygen, providing food

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11
Sustainability
  • Components of Sustainability
  • natural capital, natural resources and natural
    services work together in ecosystems to provide
    us with the resources we need to survive
  • being sustainable and managing our resources
    allow us to ensure these services for future
    generations and indefinitely
  • Sustainable yield how much we can take without
    depleting the resource for the future

12
Ecological footprint or environmental impact
  • Amount of land needed to produce the resources
    needed by an average person in a country

13
Ecological Footprint
  • The area of land and ocean required to support
    your consumption of food, goods, services,
    housing, and energy and assimilate your wastes.
  • Your ecological footprint is expressed in "global
    hectares" (gha) or "global acres" (ga), which are
    standardized units that take into account the
    differences in biological productivity of various
    ecosystems impacted by your consumption
    activities.
  • Your footprint is broken down into four
    consumption categories carbon (home energy use
    and transportation), food, housing, and goods and
    services.
  • Your footprint is also broken down into four
    ecosystem types or biomes cropland, pastureland,
    forestland, and marine fisheries.
  • www.myfootprint.org

14
Global AveragesEcological Footprint
There are only 15.71 acres available per person
(renewable basis). We are overshooting the
biological capacity by almost 50!!
15
  • myfootprint.org
  • Click on Go
  • Dont enter email address.
  • When finished..let me know and well print
    results.
  • Complete Pledge Card (see example)

16
Living in the environment
17
Cultural changes
  • Hunter gatherers 12,000 years ago
  • Agricultural revolution 10,000-12,000-
  • Industrial revolution-275 years ago
  • Technological revolution 50 years ago

18
Advanced Industrial societies (1914 --- Present)
  • increase in agricultural products
  • lower infant mortality
  • improved health
  • increase in longevity
  • net population increase
  • Environmental impacts globalize

19
Countries Differ in Levels of Unsustainability
  • Economic growth increase in output of a nations
    goods and services
  • Gross domestic product (GDP) annual market value
    of all goods and services produced by all
    businesses, foreign and domestic, operating
    within a country
  • Per capita GDP one measure of economic
    development (GDP divided by population at
    midyear)
  • Economic development using economic growth to
    raise living standards

20
Countries Differ in Levels of Unsustainability
  • More-developed countries North America,
    Australia, New Zealand, Japan, most of Europe
  • High income. 19 of the worlds population (1.2
    billion people). Use 88 of the worlds resources
    and produce 75 of the worlds pollution and
    waste.
  • Less-developed countries most countries in
    Africa, Asia, Latin America
  • Lower income. 81 of the worlds population. 15
    of the worlds wealth, use 12 of the worlds
    resources.
  • Divided into moderately developing (China, India,
    Brazil, Turkey) and least-developed (Congo,
    Haiti, Nicaragua, Nigeria)

21
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22
Measuring Our Impact
  • Ecological Footprints the amount of biologically
    productive land and water needed to provide the
    people in a particular country or area with an
    indefinite supply of renewable resources and to
    absorb and recycle the wastes and pollution
    produced by such resource use.
  • IPAT model shows how population size (P) ,
    Resource consumption per person (A) and the
    beneficial and harmful environmental effects of
    technologies (T) help to determine the
    environmental impact (I)) of human activities.
  • I P x A x T
  • Impact Population x Resource Use x Technology
  • Reducing one of these areas reduces overall
    impact. Or implementing technologies that reduce
    environmental impact (pollution control and
    prevention, wind turbines, solar cells,
    fuel-efficient cars)

23
Less-Developed Countries
Consumption per person (affluence, A)
Technological impact per unit of consumption (T)
Environmental impact of population (I)
Population (P)
More-Developed Countries
Fig. 1-14, p. 17
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25
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26
Why do we have environmental problems?
  • Population growth
  • Wasteful and unsustainable resource use
    (affluence)
  • Poverty
  • Failure to include the harmful environmental
    costs of goods and services in market prices
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