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Environmental Science Chapter 4: The Organization of Life

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Environmental Science Chapter 4: The Organization of Life – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental Science Chapter 4: The Organization of Life


1
Environmental ScienceChapter 4The Organization
of Life
2
The Organization of Life Big Ideas
  • In an ecosystem, the biotic and abiotic
    components interact to form an interconnected
    system.
  • Species adapt to their environment through the
    process of evolution by natural selection.
  • Humans classify the diversity of life on Earth in
    order to better understand their relationships.

3
Section 1 Ecosystems
  • GOALS
  • Distinguish between biotic and abiotic factors in
    an ecosystem
  • Describe how a population differs from a species
  • Explain the importance of habitats

4
What is Ecology?
  • The study of interactions among organisms and
    between organisms and their environment.

5
What is an ecosystem?
6
Defining an ecosystem
  • Ecosystem all the organisms living in an area
    together with their physical environment
  • Forest Ecosystem
  • Pond Ecosystem
  • Vacant Lot Ecosystem
  • Desert Ecosystem

7
All Ecosystems are connected
How does your ecosystem impact the Atlantic Ocean?
8
Parts of an ecosystem
9
Parts of an ecosystem
  • In order for an ecosystem to survive it needs
    five basic components
  • Energy
  • Mineral Nutrients
  • Water
  • Oxygen
  • Living Organisms

10
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11
What are some parts of this ecosystem?
12
If your are conducting a study of the
interactions of vegetation, animals, mineral
composition of the soil, and water levels in a
saltmarsh. You are studying the saltmarsh ___.
ECOSYSTEM
13
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
  • Biotic living once living parts of an
    ecosystem
  • Plants, animals, bacteria, dead organisms, wastes
  • Abiotic nonliving parts of an ecosystem
  • Air, water, soil, sunlight, temperature

14
What are some biotic AND abiotic parts of this
ecosystem?
15
Pair and Share Activity
With a partner of your choice, create a table
that lists the abiotic and biotic things in this
classroom.
Abiotic Biotic

16
Organizing Biotic Parts
17
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18
Smallest Unit
  • Organism an individual living thing like you, a
    tree, a fox, a rose
  • Species groups of closely related organisms that
    can mate produce fertile offspring like red
    foxes or black widow spiders, or grizzly bears

19
Species
  • Species groups of organisms that resemble each
    other in appearance, behavior, chemistry and
    genetic makeupable to reproduce
  • 3.6 to 100 million species (1.4 identified)
  • Mostly insects/micro
  • Tropical forests

20
Insects751,000

Known species1,412,000
Plants248,400
21
Population
  • Population all the members of the same species
    that live in the same place at the same time
  • Field mice living in a corn field, grizzly bears
    of Yellowstone Park
  • Members breed with one another, rather than with
    other populations

22
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23
Community
  • Community a group of various species that live
    in the same place and interact with each other
  • Pond Community
  • Pineland Forest Community

24
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25
Giraffes, lions, zebras, hyenas, and all the
other living things of the Serengeti make up a(n)
___
COMMUNITY
26
Habitat
  • Habitat the place where an organism lives
  • Organisms are well suited for their habitat

27
Habitat
  • Habitats provide an organism with
    resourcesanything an organism needs to survive
    and reproduce, including food, shelter, and mates

28
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29
Biosphere
  • All parts of the Earth where life is found

30
Section 1 Review
  • Biotic are living factors in an ecosystem
  • Abiotic are non-living factors in an ecosystem
  • Biosphere is composed of ecosystems, ecosystems
    are composed of communities, community is made up
    of populations, populations are composed of
    species, species are composed of individuals
  • Habitats provide organisms with the resources
    they need to survive

31
Section 2 Evolution
  • GOALS
  • Explain the process of evolution by natural
    selection
  • Explain the concept of adaptation
  • Describe the process of resistance

32
How have you changed (not just physically) since
you were a child?
33
Change is one thing that is certain in
life. Change occurs in many ways -cultures
change -individuals change -species change
34
Essential Question Youve read about the
diversity of living organisms on Earth (plants,
animals, protists, fungi, bacteria) How did
they get here?
35
What is Evolution?
Change in the genetic characteristics of a
population over time!
36
- biologists say that the environment exerts a
strong influence over which individuals survive
to produce offspring - the best suited (most fit)
organisms survive and reproduce - individuals
with certain traits are more likely to survive
and reproduce
37
Natural Selection aka Survival of the
Fittest - the unequal survival and reproduction
that results from the presence or absence of
particular traits
38
Evolution by Natural Selection 1-Organisms
produce more offspring than can survive 2-The
environment is hostile and contains limited
resources 3-Organisms differ in the traits they
have 4-Some inherited traits provide organisms
with an advantage (ADAPTATION) 5-Each generation
contains proportionately more organisms with
advantageous traits
39
Natural Selection
Hammer Orchid
40
Coevolution Process of 2 species evolving in
response to long term interactions with each
other
41
Question
If natural selection concludes that all dogs are
closely related through a common ancestor, then
how come this Chihuahua and this Great Dane are
so different?
42
Artificial Selection
Artificial selection refers to the process where
humans select organisms with certain traits to
breed.
43
Resistance
Resistance occurs when humans expose organisms to
certain conditions/chemicals, and those organisms
become tolerant or immune to the conditions
over time.
  • Examples
  • Insects can become resistant to pesticides
  • B. Bacteria can become resistance to antibiotics

44
Section 2 Review
  • Evolution by natural selection is the unequal
    survival and reproduction that results from the
    presence or absence of particular traits
  • Adaptation increase an organisms chance of
    survival and reproduction in a certain
    environment
  • Resistance is the ability of an organism to
    tolerate a particular chemical or condition
    designed to kill it

45
Question What is your favorite organism(s) of
all time? Why?
This cats favorite organism is a frog.
46
Section 3 The Diversity of Living Things
  • GOALS
  • Name the five kingdoms of organization and
    identify characteristics of each
  • Explain why bacteria and fungi are important
  • Describe the importance of protists in the ocean
    environment
  • Describe the interdependence of angiosperms and
    animals
  • Explain why insect animals are so successful

47
Bacteria
  • -single-cell, no nucleus
  • -cell wall
  • -reproduce by division
  • -two types
  • Archaebacteria (extremophiles)
  • Eubacteria
  • -most diverse common
  • organisms on Earth
  • -many important roles
  • decomposers, recyclers, assist in digestion
  • Examples?
  • - E. coli, cyanobacteria

48
Video Bacteria - The Good and The Bad
Link to video
49
Video How Bacteria Talk
Link to video
50
Airborne Bacteria Lab
-Bacteria are so important, that humans (and
many other organisms) would be extinct without
them. -The point of this lab is to review the
scientific method, and gain an appreciation for
how much bacteria we are surrounds by.
51
Fungi
  • -single cell, nucleus, cell wall, no chlorophyll
  • -absorb food from around them
  • decomposers feed on dead organisms
  • Examples?

(Athletes foot, cheese, yeast)
52
Protists
-many single-celled -very diverse, most live in
water -important role (algae/phytoplankton)? Exa
mples?
Diatoms, dinoflagellates, amoeba, paramecium,
amoeba, kelp
53
Plants
-many cells, cell wall -photosynthesize -most
land dwellers -supply oxygen and food to much of
the world -gymnosperms (conifers) -woody
plants -seeds not enclosed in
fruits -angiosperms (flowers/fruits) -flowering
plants -produce seeds in fruit -important role?
Most land animals depend on flowering plants for
food
54
Animals
-many cells -no cell wall -must take in
food -live on land or water
55
Animal Types
-Invertebrates -no backbone
-Vertebrates -have backbone
56
Insect Success
-waterproof external skeleton -move
quickly -reproduce quickly -most can fly -small
size -little food needed -hide
-insects plants coevolved -pollination
-eat plant pests
57
Section 3 Review
  • The five kingdoms are bacteria, fungi, protists,
    plants, animals
  • Bacteria and fungi are decomposers, recyclers and
    help release nutrients
  • Protists in the ocean are the primary source of
    food
  • Most animals rely on angiosperms for food
  • Insect animals are so successful because of their
    exoskeleton, size, agility, capacity to fly and
    hide

58
The Organization of Life Big Ideas
  • In an ecosystem, the biotic and abiotic
    components interact to form an interconnected
    system.
  • Species adapt to their environment through the
    process of evolution by natural selection.
  • Humans classify the diversity of life on Earth in
    order to better understand their relationships.
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