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From SPF to SNF (Sunscreen Nano Facts)

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From SPF to SNF (Sunscreen Nano Facts) Cathleen Burke Karen Trickett MathScience Innovation Center Nanotechnology Fellows http://all-free-download.com/images ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: From SPF to SNF (Sunscreen Nano Facts)


1
From SPF to SNF (Sunscreen Nano Facts)
Cathleen Burke Karen Trickett MathScience
Innovation Center Nanotechnology Fellows
http//all-free-download.com/images/graphiclarge/d
ecorative_sun_clip_art_23259.jpg
2
Part 1
The Energy of Light
3
The Sun
www.dreamstime.com
The suns electromagnetic spectrum consists of
seven types of radiation with different
quantities of energy and differing wavelengths
including
Radiowaves
Microwaves
Infrared waves
Visible light
Ultraviolet rays
X-rays
Gamma rays
4
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
www.dnr.sc.gov
5
Ultraviolet Light
www.abstract.desktopnexus.com
  • Includes wavelengths between 380 and 10 nm
  • Can not be visualized by the human eye
  • Can be absorbed by skin cells and the energy
    from them can damage DNA in the cells which
    absorb them

6
Types of UV light
  • UVC light
  • Filtered out by the atmosphere
  • UVB light
  • Absorbed by the upper epidermis
  • UVA light
  • Absorbed into the lower layers of the epidermis
    as well as the dermis

www.ewg.org
7
Is all UV light Bad??
No!
Small amounts of UV light are needed for strong
bones and good health!
www.homeschooling.gomilpitas.com/explore/skeleton.
htm
8
So what is the problem with UV light?
Increasing amounts of UVA and UVB light are
reaching the surface of the Earth due to the
destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer
Absorbed UVB light causes sunburns
www.yaflamingalah.wordpress.com
9
Absorbed UVA light penetrates deep into the
epidermis where cells called melanocytes are
found. This triggers the melanocytes to produce
the pigment melanin which results in a tan.
www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au
10
Many people think suntans give you a healthy
appearance
but those tanning rays are actually causing
damage to skin, leading to
  • Premature wrinkles
  • cataracts

www.teslaowner.wordpress.com
http//newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/45710000/jpg
/_45710149__42953099_wrinkles_cred203-1.jpg
http//www.bluevsunglasses.com/cataract2.jpg
www.sheknows.com
  • Changes to DNA that can lead to skin cancer

11
Types of Skin Cancers
Malignant melanoma - the most serious type of
skin cancer. Results from deeper penetrating UVA
rays which damage melanocytes.
Basal cell carcinoma - appears on the upper
layers of the skin due to overexposure to UVB
rays
Squamous cell carcinoma - also appears on the
upper layers of skin due to overexposure to UVB
rays
http//www.trihealth.com/ser/cancer/images/scc01_l
g.jpg
www.teslaowner.wordpress.com
http//www.laserdermatologynyc.com/images/text/ski
n-cancer/basal-cell-carcinoma.jpg
12
Sun Protection
Sunblocks and sunscreens are used to protect
against the suns damaging rays.
The active ingredients in sunscreens either
absorb, block or scatter UV rays
www.shutterstock.com
13
Sunscreens
www.bychancewordpress.com
www.bychancewordpress.com
  • 17 active ingredients are currently approved for
    use in sunscreens in the U.S
  • 2 categories of active ingredients
  • inorganic minerals zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium
    dioxide (TiO2)
  • Organic chemicals are padimate O, oxybenzone,
    and methoxycinnamate

14
In the past, most available sunscreens have
protected against UVB (burning) rays with
mixtures of up to 3 chemicals that block various
UVB wavelengths
Recently, broad spectrum sunscreens have become
available which add UVA protection by adding
Oxybenzone or avobenzone
http//blogs.nature.com/nm/spoonful/sunscreen.jpg
15
Sun Protection Factor (SPF)
Measures the length of time skin is protected
against exposure to UVB light.
Higher SPFs protect against burning longer.
www.shutterstock.com
SPFs vary from as low as 2 to over 100.
16
Sunblocks with ZnO and TiO2 protect against the
entire range of UV wavelengths without the use of
chemicals.
So, why dont more people use them?
http//images.travelpod.com/users/ejdonohu/1.12460
05663.sunscreen-happy.jpg
17
The solution
Nanotechnology!!
http//www.enviroblog.org/nanotechnology-softech.g
if
Nanotechnology is a relatively new science which
involves the creation of products that contain
nano-sized materials in the range of 1 100
nanometers.
At these tiny sizes, many particles often exhibit
unique chemical, physical and biological
properties that are different from larger
particles of the same type.
18
How small is a nanometer?
A nanometer (nm) is a billionth of a meter
Compare this to some objects you may be familiar
with
  • Thickness of a sheet of paper 100,000 nm
  • A red blood cell 6,000 nm wide
  • Width of a single DNA molecule or a cell
  • membrane 3 nm

www.apfmalte.com
19
To change the usual opaque white color of
sunblocks with zinc and titanium oxides, the
particle size of these 2 minerals has been
reduced to nanosize 5 to 20 nm!
As nanoparticles, both zinc oxide and titanium
dioxide are transparent.
http//i.ehow.com/images/a04/l7/tj/apply-sunscreen
-face-200X200.jpg
20
Sunscreen manufacturers have been using nanosized
TiO2 since 1990 and nanosized ZnO since 1999.
Today over 300 sunscreens on the market contain
nanosized mineral particles
www.action.foe.org
21
Part 2
Risks vs. Benefits
22
Controversy Concerning Nano Sunscreens
Some concerns about sunscreens containing
nanoparticles include
1) Safety concerns regarding nanosized particles
2) Lack of labeling requirements which inform
consumers that the product they are using
contains nanoparticles.
Microsoft clipart
23
Safety Concerns
Nanosized ZnO and TiO2 particles may be small
enough to be absorbed into the lower layers of
living skin cells where they may be activated by
light to react in a way which is unsafe for
living tissue.
24
Nano-sized particles, due to their small size,
are more reactive than their full-sized
counterparts.

www.stu.westga.edu
These nanoparticles, upon absorbing UV light,
have been shown to emit free radicals which can
cause damage to biomolecules such as DNA inside
cells.
25
While only a small amount of data is available on
the safety of nanoparticles in sunscreen, the
weight of current data seems to suggest that
these particles do NOT get absorbed into healthy
skin when applied in lotion form.
http//farm3.static.flickr.com/2474/3772444566_550
409bcb1.jpg
More research needs to be done to definitively
address this safety concern.
26
Additional Safety Concerns
Nanoparticles may wash off sunbathers skin and
enter the environment
http//www.skaneatelessuites.com/wp-content/upload
s/2008/07/lake_swimming.jpg
27
Both zinc and titanium are known to have strong
antibacterial properties
www.scottcamazine.com
A study published in Scientific American (March
2009)concluded that nanosized TiO2 particles
substantially affect the cell wall of E. coli
bacteria in very small quantities(10 100 mg/L)
after less than 24 hours of exposure.
28
www.sciencecodex.com/titanium_dioxide
_nanoparticles
This micrograph displays visually the results of
this study.
29
In another study conducted at Utah State
University and the University of Utah, beneficial
soil bacteria were shown to be damaged by Silver,
Copper Oxide and Zinc Oxide particles even at low
levels of exposure.
www.reuserinc.com/images/nitroDust.jpg
30
Since concerns about these sunscreens havent
been fully addressed, many feel that labeling
of sunscreens that contain nanoparticles should
be mandatory.
http//
www.sxc.hu/pic/m/r/re/resignent/1023097_warning_ic
on_26.jpg
31
What do you think??
http//media.rd.com/rd/images/rdc/slideshows/healt
hy-changes-for-new-year/healthy-changes-sunscreen-
03-ss.jpg
32
References
Tanning http//kidshealthorg/teen/safety/safebasi
cs/tanning.html
TGA Fact Sheet Sunscreens http//www.tga.gov.au
/npmeds/sunscreen-zotd.htm
Sunscreens/Sunblocks. American Academy of
Dermatology http//www.aad.org/public/publication
s/pamphlets/sun_sunscreens.html
Nanoparticles in Sunscreen Damage Microbes.
Cimitile, Matthew. Scientific American.
March 24,2009.
Tanning Is it Safe? www.csulb.edu/divisions/stu
dents/nrc/health_topics/TanningIsitSafe.htm
Sunscreen www.skincancer.org/sunscreensExplained.
html
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