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Islam: Its Arrival and History

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Islam: Its Arrival and ... Say Fighting in it is wrong, but to bar from God s way, ... 634) Led prayers while the Prophet was sick; father-in-law and best friend – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Islam: Its Arrival and History


1
Islam Its Arrival and History
2
Stop and Think
  • What preconceived notions do you have about the
    religion on Islam?
  • How did you develop those preconceived notions?

3
Monotheism
  • As we have seen, the Middle East was subject to
    several monotheistic beliefs.
  • Traces religion back to Abraham and Ishmael
  • Important prophets Adam, Moses, Abraham, Jesus
  • Muhammad is the last of the prophets
  • Jews and Christians respected as People of the
    Book.

4
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5
Bedouins of Arabia
  • Nomadic tribes and clans moving from oases to
    oases (governed by shaykhs elders)
  • Use of the camel for long distance travel
  • Conducted raids on rival tribes and caravans
  • Governed by code of muruwwa bravery in battle,
    patience in misfortune, persistence in revenge,
    protection of the weak, defiance toward the
    strong, and hospitality toward the visitor
  • Love of poetry annual time of peace for poetry
    festivals important to the development of Arabic

6
John Singer Sargents Bedouins
7
Early Islam
  • As we have noted, at age 40 Mohammed receives the
    word of Allah from the Angel Gabriel on Mt. Hira.
  • This word will take several years to receive.
  • These divine revelations will become the
    Quran/Koran.
  • Once he receives that word, he will take to the
    city of Mecca to teach what he is told is the
    final word of Allah.
  • How is he treated by the Meccans?

8

                                                                                  Prophet and founder of Islam
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Early Converts to Islam
  • Khadija Muhammads wife (she passed away before
    he did) he would take as many as 10 other wives
    (widows of his soldiers to support them)
  • Ali Muhammads cousin (son of Abu-Talib)
  • Abu-Bakr close friend of Muhammad (Muhammad
    would marry Abu-Bakrs daughter Aisha, who was
    regarded as his favorite wife)
  • Umar an imposing figure from a weak clan
  • Uthman elegant but quiet youth of the Umayyad
    family (powerful)

11
Meccan Opposition
  • Mecca pilgrimage site, home of the Kaba
    large stone structure that houses 360 idols
  • Arabs were polytheists and visited Mecca annually
    (hajj pilgrimage) to pay respects to gods
  • Muhammads message of only one god did not match
    with previous religious beliefs would interfere
    with lucrative pilgrim/tourism industry
  • Muhammad shielded by uncle Abu-Talib
    (influential) of Hashimite Clan
  • After uncles death, rival clan and angry
    merchants plot to kill Muhammad

12
Kaaba
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14
Hijra Leaving for Medina
  • Muhammad, known for honesty, invited to Medina to
    mediate between its two pagan tribes
  • Muhammad and followers leave Mecca and relocate
    to Medina
  • Muhammads following grows in Medina eventually
    his original Meccan followers want to go back

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16
Review of Mohammed
  • Muhammad returns with an army to Mecca. The
    Meccans surrender without a fight.
  • Kaba purged of its idols

17
Principles of Islam
  • 5 Pillars What they are and who must complete
    them.

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19
Worshipping Only One God
  • Allah God same God of Jews and Christians
  • Must love Allah more than anything even family
  • Similar to Judaism and Christianity (Love the
    Lord your God with all your heart, soul, mind,
    and strength)

20
Witnessing/Profession of Faith (Shahadah)
  • This means, "I bear witness that there is no God
    other than Allah, and I bear witness that
    Mohammed is His messenger."
  • This profession of faith is part of the daily
    prayers.

21
Prayer
  • Is required 5 times per day
  •   1.Fajr-Before sunrise.    2.Zuhr-After the
    sun begins to decline from its zenith.   
    3.Asr-Mid-afternoon.    4.Magrib-Just after
    sunset.    5.Isha-night.

22
Charity- Almsgiving
  • Obligatory charity giving is an act of worship
    and spiritual investment
  • The recipients of charity are
  • - the poor, the needy, - the new Muslim
    converts, - the Muslim prisoners of war (to
    liberate them), - Muslims in debt, - employees
    appointed to collect Zakah, - Muslims in service
    of research or study or propagation of Islam, -
    wayfarers who are foreigners in need of help.

23
Almsgiving Similar to Judaism and Christianity
  • Psalms The Lord loves a cheerful giver
  • Jews were supposed to leave extra grain after the
    harvest for the poor and foreigners
  • Every seventh year was a Year of Jubilee in which
    Jews were supposed to forgive debtors
  • Jesus chastised the rich for ignoring the poor
    and gave parables about how the poor would see
    God and the rich that ignored them would burn in
    hell
  • Paul commanded Christian churches to provide for
    widows

24
Fasting
  • Fasting is abstaining completely from eating,
    drinking, and intimate sexual contacts from the
    break of dawn till sunset.
  • Obligatory fasting is done once a year for the
    period of the month of Ramadan.
  • The month when Muhammad began to receive visions

25
The Hajj
  • Each Muslim is required (if financially and
    physically able) to make a Hajj.
  • This is a journey to Mecca
  • It is to commemorate the Divine rituals observed
    by the Prophet Abraham and his son Ishmael, who
    were the first pilgrims to the house of Allah on
    earth the Ka'bah.
  • It is also to remember the great assembly of the
    Day of Judgement when people will stand equal
    before Allah.

26
Other Rules Ways of Pleasing God
  • No eating pork It is a filthy creature
  • No sexual immorality No sex outside of marriage
    (men and women worshipped separately at the
    mosque women kept hair covered and wore veils
    although this was common in pre-Islamic Arabia
    too)
  • No drinking intoxicating substances or using
    drugs
  • All similar to Judaism and Christianity

27
Day of Judgment
  • All living people will die all souls will be
    judged
  • Only the righteous will go to heaven meeting
    Allah, beautiful, good food and plenty to drink,
    beautiful maidens for the righteous men
    righteous women will be transformed to the age at
    which they were most beautiful
  • Hell scorching, torment by demons, boiling
    water to drink, noxious food separation from
    Allah
  • Heaven or hell for eternity

28
Christianity and Hell
  • Jesus is the only way to God the Father only
    way to heaven
  • All have sinned and fallen short of the glory of
    God, perfect and holy
  • Must accept that Jesus is Son of God, who died
    for sins and ask for forgiveness/repent
  • Anyone who does not do this cannot go to heaven
    therefore hell
  • Last Judgment separates the people who are
    forgiven (by following Jesus) from those who are
    not

29
Muslims Issues with Judaism and Christianity
  • Torah written over time made the Jews Gods
    Chosen People (Muslims disagree)
  • Gospels written some time after Jesus death
    made Jesus the Son of God (Muslims disagree
    Jesus was a great prophet and divinely inspired,
    but Allah has no children)
  • Jews and Christians are People of the Book but
    misguided
  • Quran was given to Muhammad directly final
    authority on God/Allah corrected mistakes (ex.
    Ishmael was the favored son of Abraham not Isaac
    as Jews and Christians believe)

30
Muhammads Visit to Jerusalem
  • Muhammad said that in vision one night it was if
    he was carried from the Kaba to Jerusalems
    Temple Mount
  • He ascended through seven levels of heaven
  • He met great biblical figures Moses, Aaron,
    Enoch, Jesus, John the Baptist, and Abraham and
    then entered the presence of God
  • Muhammad originally had Muslims face Jerusalem to
    do their prayers
  • Problems with Jews in Mecca and Medina
    conspiracies to challenge his power joining up
    with rival Arab armies Muhammad begins to take
    hard line against Jews
  • Mecca becomes new qibla

31
Dome of the Rock
32
Dome of the Rock, Temple Mount in Jerusalem
  • Dome is over the Foundation Stone, from which
    Muhammad ascended to heaven
  • The crevices are from the hand of Gabriel, who
    held down the rock from ascending with Muhammad
  • Built in 691 at the order of Arabian Umayyad
    caliph (head follower of Islam political leader)
    Abd al-Malik

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40
Dome of the Rock Exterior Wall
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44
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47
Islamic Spread
  • As you will notice from the previous slide, Islam
    will spread throughout Europe.
  • It will go as far as the the Western parts of
    Spain.
  • Islam was and is the fastest growing religion on
    the planet.
  • Currently estimated to have over 1 billion
    followers

48
Islam Spread
  • How did the religion grow into an empire of the
    Middle Ages?
  • Who led after Muhammad? How would this be
    decided?
  • What were these leaders called? How were they
    connected to the Prophet?

49
Battle of Badr Background
  • Muhammads forces had been raiding caravans
    travelling to Mecca
  • Early failures then success
  • Even attacked during holy month when pagan Arabs
    would visit Mecca, which was forbidden

50
Battle of Badr Background
  • How did Muhammand justify this?
  • Quranic revelation They will question you about
    the holy month and fighting in it, Say Fighting
    in it is wrong, but to bar from Gods way, and
    disbelief in Him, and the sacred Kaba, and to
    expel its people from it --- that is more wicked
    in Gods sight and persecution is more wicked
    than killing. (QURAN, 2213)

51
Battle of Badr
  • Muslims were preparing to raid a rich Umayyad
    caravan returning from Syria
  • Mecca sent an army of 1,000 against Muslims in
    mean time
  • Muhammads forces 86 emigrants, 238 ansars
    (citizen/helpers of the Prophet)
  • Battle at oasis called Badr
  • Muslim victory clever tactics, belief that God
    was behind them

52
Battles Between Mecca and Muslims
  • Meccans retaliated won Battle of Uhud 625
  • 627 - Meccans sent invasion force against Medina
    Muslims dug wide trench around city that horses
    and camels could not cross returned home
    demoralized
  • Arab tribes began severing ties with Mecca and
    establishing treaties with Muhammad

53
Muhammad, Islam, and Jews
  • Muhammads relations with Jews in Medina began to
    deteriorate (Jews did not accept totality of his
    visions)
  • Expelled a tribe of Jews for conspiring with
    Meccans at Battle of Badr
  • Expelled a tribe after the Muslims defeat at Uhud
  • Last tribe of Jews in Mecca accused of
    conspiring with Meccans when they tried to seize
    Medina
  • All men killed property confiscated women and
    children sold into slavery

54
Jews People of the Book?
  • Why did Muhammad treat the Jews this way?
  • They were armed they could have undermined
    Muhammads precarious control of Medina.
  • An advisor actually coveted Jewish property and
    put Muhammad against that last group (the one
    that was punished most harshly)
  • Muhammads prestige grew Arabs trusted him
    knew that he was not afraid to get revenge
    against betrayers

55
Death of the Prophet
  • Muhammad never planned for a successor he was
    the last Prophet.
  • His last speech O ye men, listen to my words
    and take them to heart Every Muslim is a brother
    to every other Muslim and you are now one
    brotherhood.
  • Appointed Abu-Bakr, father of Aisha and his best
    friend to lead prayers
  • Retired to Aishas room died June 8, 632

56
Caliphs Followers of the Prophet
  • Caliph title for the leaders who followed after
    Muhammad
  • The Four Righteous Caliphs
  • Abu-Bakr
  • Umar
  • Uthman
  • Ali

57
Abu-Bakr (632 634)
  • Led prayers while the Prophet was sick
    father-in-law and best friend an early believer
    Umar an outspoken follower pushed for Abu-Bakr
    to be chosen
  • Took the title khalifat rasul Allah (successor of
    the messenger of God) origins of the word
    caliph
  • Also known as amir al-muminin commander of the
    believers
  • Arabs tribes tried to break away ridda
    (apostasy) didnt want to pay zakat
  • Ridda Wars costly, but Muslims reconquered
    every rebel tribe and then forgave them

58
Umar (632-644)
  • Sends out the Arab tribes (uses their cultural
    combative energies and trend toward
    conquest/raiding) to conquer territories
  • Umar pronounces a jihad to expand the ummas
    (Muslim community) lands
  • Captures Romes (Byzantine Empire) Middle Eastern
    Possessions (Palestine Jerusalem, Syria, Egypt,
    and Cyrenaica part of modern-day Libya)

59
Umars Achievements
  • Expanded the territories of the umma
  • Enriched the umma
  • Held the umma together by utilizing the fighting
    spirit of the Arab tribes and enriching them
  • Established military bases with soldiers
    stationed throughout the Middle East
  • Created shura electoral committee to choose
    third caliph Islam democratic?

60
Umar
  • Slept on a bed of palm leaves
  • Wore the same wool shirt until it had holes and
    patches in it
  • Known to govern with a whip if people behaved
    impiously

61
Uthman (644-656)
  • From Umayyad clan of Mecca defied his clan and
    became one Muhammads (Muhammad was from the
    Hashimite clan) early followers recall that the
    powerful Umayyads did not want to convert right
    away because they would lose power over Mecca
  • Amassed estates worth over 100 million

62
Uthman
  • Built Islams first navy to conquer Cyprus
  • Established one definitive version of Quran
    order all variations burnt
  • Troubled caliphate garrison towns began to plot
    against him (not quite as forceful personality as
    Umar)
  • Appointed relatives to govern territories (some
    lusted after power, others lacked ability to
    rule)
  • Complex time in the empire (more money than
    Muhammad ever envisioned greed and vice with so
    many people)
  • Revolt in Kufa spread to Medina rebels from
    Egypt broke in and killed him and his wife as
    they recited prayers

63
Ali (656-661)
  • Muhammads cousin (son of Abu-Talib, Muhammads
    uncle in Mecca who protected him) first male
    convert
  • Husband of the Prophets daughter, Fatima
  • Father of Muhammads only grandsons, Hasan and
    Husayn
  • Went with the Prophet on early expeditions
    advised the caliphs
  • A rival who others proclaimed caliph Mu-awiya
  • Murdered by Kharjite (seceder)

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65
After the Surrender of Mecca
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Put a bow on the box
  • What about Islam have we learned?
  • What has made it the most rapidly growing
    religion in the history of the face of the earth?
  • Predict where Islam is heading..
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