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Bellwork 1)The planet Jupiter is over 300 times as massive as the planet Venus. Yet you and I can see Venus with the naked eye, and definitely with a pair of binoculars. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bellwork

  • 1)The planet Jupiter is over 300 times as massive
    as the planet Venus. Yet you and I can see Venus
    with the naked eye, and definitely with a pair of
    binoculars. But for us to see Jupiter, even
    though it is very large, we would need a strong
    telescope. This is because   A) Jupiter is on the
    opposite side of the Sun   B) of our position on
    the surface of the Earth.   C) most of Jupiter's
    mass is gas and we cannot see gas.   D) Jupiter
    is so far from Earth and Venus is much closer.
  • 2) Stars appear as small points of light in the
    sky because   A) they are so much dimmer than the
    sun.   B) they are so much smaller than the
    sun.   C) their light is lessened by our
    atmosphere.   D) they are so much further away
    than the sun.

1) Which planets would you MOST LIKELY be able to
see in the night sky without a telescope?   A)
Venus and Saturn   B) Uranus and Jupiter   C)
Neptune and Saturn   D) Mercury and Neptune 2)
The luminosity of a star, as viewed from earth,
is connected to the _________ of the star.   A)
age   B) color   C) distance   D) mass
  • 1) On a clear night, Karl was looking at the moon
    through his telescope. Which statement BEST
    describes why Karl cannot see the full moon every
    day?   A) In order to see the moon, light must
    reflect off of its surface and reach Earth.   B)
    The full moon breaks apart and reforms only at
    certain times throughout the month.   C) The
    light produced by the moon is absorbed by Earth's
    atmosphere in various amounts during the
    month.   D) The moon can produce its own light,
    but this can only occur on a small part of the
    moon's surface at any given time.
  • 2) Star light, star bright how bright a star
    appears to us on Earth depends MAINLY on   A) the
    age of the star.   B) your position on
    Earth.   C) the composition of the star.   D) the
    star's distance from Earth.

  • 1)The part of Earth that experiences summer is
    the part   A) facing the Sun.   B) turning toward
    the Sun.   C) facing away from the Sun. 2. Which
    position represents spring in the   D) turning
    away from the Sun. northern hemisphere?
    A,B,C, or D

  • During which season do the rays of the sun hit
    the Earth at the MOST indirect angle?   A)
    fall   B) spring   C) summer   D) winter
  • 2) If the earth were not tilted on its axis, what
    would be the result?   A) Day length would be
    less than 24 hours.   B) Both sides of the moon
    would be visible.   C) Temperatures would be
    constant year round.   D) The length of the year
    would be more than 365 days.

  • 1.Seasonal variation on Earth is due to the   A)
    rotation of Earth on its axis.   B) elliptical
    path Earth takes around the Sun.   C) inclination
    (or 23.5 tilt) of the Earth as it revolves
    around the sun.   D) distance of Earth from the
    sun at any given time.

  • 1) What is primarily responsible for the creation
    of seasons on the earth?   A) the tilt of the
    sun   B) the distance from the sun   C) the axial
    tilt of the earth   D) the reflection of the
    sun's rays from the earth
  • 2) During which season do the rays of the sun hit
    the Earth at the MOST indirect angle?   A)
    fall   B) spring   C) summer   D) winter
  • 3) The Northern Hemisphere is warmer in spring
    than in winter, because in spring   A) the days
    are shorter.   B) it gets more direct
    sunlight.   C) the Earth is closer to the
    Sun.   D) it is tilted away from the Sun.
  • 4)Which position represents spring in the
    southern hemisphere?   A)   B)   C)   D)

  • 1) A ____________ is equal to the length of time
    it takes Earth to orbit the Sun.   A) day   B)
    year   C) season   D) lunar cycle
  • 2) The dark side of the moon (the side never seen
    from the earth)   A) never receives
    sunlight.   B) is heavier than the near
    side.   C) always faces away from the earth.   D)
    is significantly less cratered than the side we
  • 3) Only one side of the Moon faces Earth during a
    single twenty-seven-day lunar revolution. This
    suggests that the Moon rotates   A) once a
    day.   B) once a decade.   C) once every lunar
    cycle.   D) twice every lunar cycle.

  • During a new moon, the moon is   A) in between
    Earth and the sun.   B) in front of the sun, in
    back of Earth.   C) in front of Earth, in front
    of the sun.   D) alongside Earth and in front of
    the sun.
  • 2) This is a ___________ gibbous moon.   A)
    crescent   B) new   C) waning   D) waxing

  • 1) In the image (not to scale), which phase of
    the moon would you observe from the earth?   A)
    crescent   B) full   C) half   D) new
  • 2) This is an illustration of the _________
    moon.   A) new   B) full   C) crescent   D) first
  • 3) What is the phase of the moon when the moon is
    positioned between the sun and the earth?   A)
    new moon   B) full moon   C) half moon   D)
    waxing crescent

1) What causes the phases of the moon as observed
from the Earth?   A) Filtering of the light from
the moon due to the Earth's atmosphere.   B) The
tidal forces of the Earth's oceans change the
appearance of the moon.   C) Change in distance
of the moon from the Earth as it orbits in an
elliptical orbit.   D) The angle of light from
the sun as it reflects off the moon and viewed
from the Earth's surface.
  • 2) This is a ___________ crescent moon.   A)
    new   B) old   C) quarter   D) waxing
  • 3) On any given night, provided that the sky is
    clear, all of the planets which can be seen with
    the naked eye will not be visible at the same
    time. This is because they all have
    different   A) moons   B) orbits   C) shapes   D)

1. During a full moon, ____________ of the moon
is facing Earth.   A) none   B) a quarter   C)
the dark side   D) the bright side
  • 1) This is an illustration of the _________
    moon.   A) new   B) full   C) crescent   D) first
  • 2) Which lunar phase would be observed from the
    Earth, if the moon were at a 90 angle with the
    earth and sun?   A) New   B) Waxing Crescent   C)
    1st Quarter   D) Full

  • This diagram shows a lunar eclipse. During a
    lunar eclipse, the Earth is   A) behind the Sun
    and the Moon.   B) in between the Sun and the
    Moon.   C) in front of the Sun and the Moon.   D)
    next to the Sun but not the Moon.
  • 2. The viewing of a solar eclipse involves a
    specific relationship between the earth, the sun,
    and the moon. Which of these represents the order
    you would find these celestial bodies during a
    solar eclipse?   A) earth - sun - moon   B) sun -
    earth - moon   C) earth - moon - sun   D) moon -
    sun - earth

  • 1. You can tell from this diagram that a complete
    lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon is   A) closer
    to the Sun than the Earth.   B) in any place
    during its lunar orbit.   C) in the umbra, the
    darker part of the Earths shadow.   D) in the
    penumbra, the lighter part of the Earths shadow.

  • When the Sun is completely blocked out by the
    Moon a ________________ occurs.   A) total solar
    eclipse   B) total lunar eclipse   C) partial
    solar eclipse   D) partial lunar eclipse
  • 5) Which is the correct alignment for a lunar
    eclipse?   A) sun - moon - Earth   B) moon - sun
    - Earth   C) Earth - sun - moon   D)

Bellwork -tides
  • Neap tides, relatively weak tides,
  • occur at point A when the Moon
  • is in position   A) A.   B) B.   C) A and C.   D)
    B and D.
  • 2. Whenever the Moon, Earth and Sun are
    aligned, the gravitational pull of the sun _____
    to that of the moon causing _____ tides.   A)
    adds neap   B) adds spring   C) interferes
    neap   D) interferes neap

Bellwork -tides
  • 1) Large tides, called spring tides, are
    experienced in the Earth's oceans when the moon
    is in position   A) A.   B) B.   C) A and C.   D)
    B and D.
  • 2) Tides are caused by   A) gravity.   B)
    heat.   C) waves.   D) winds.

Bellwork- tides
  • 1. Low tides, called neap tides, are experienced
    in the Earth's oceans when the moon is in
    position   A) A.   B) B.   C) A and C.   D) B and
  • 2. What causes the Moon to orbit around the
    Earth?   A) the moon's mass   B) Earth's
    gravity   C) the Sun's gravity   D) the vacuum of

Bellwork- tides
  • The moon and the sun both affect the tides on
    Earth. This evidence BEST supports the hypothesis
    that   A) the sun's and moons gravitational
    attraction to water is unique.   B) every object
    exerts gravitational force on every other
    object.   C) gravity is both an attractive force
    and a repelling force.   D) spinning objects are
    attracted to liquids.
  • 2) As shown in the diagram, Earth has two tidal
    bulges, one caused directly by the Moons gravity
    and the other caused by   A) Earths
    gravity.   B) the Suns gravity.   C) the ocean
    currents.   D) the oceans inertia.

Tell the name and the length of time for A and B.
Pop Quiz -1
  • How old is the Universe?
  • How old is our Solar System?
  • What is largera universe or a galaxy?
  • What is smallera galaxy or a solar system?
  • What does every solar system have or contain in
    order to be considered a solar system?

Pop Quiz-2
  • 1. What is the name of our galaxy?
  • Scientists believe the universe began with a
    large explosion called the _____ ______.
  • We have ___ planets in our solar system.
  • The first 4 planets are referred to as the ______
  • The outer planets are referred to as the ____
  • _______ is a huge explosion resulting in a stars

  1. Name the hottest planet.
  2. Name one dwarf planet.
  3. Which equals 24 hours a rotation or a
  4. The Earth is always at a _____ degree tilt.

Pop Quiz 3
  • Which position shows winter in the southern
  • Which position shows fall in the northern
  • What position is December 22?
  • Which positions show the suns direct rays
    hitting the equator?
  • Which position are we closest to-right now-
    February, 2011?
  • What are the 2 reasons why we have seasons on
  • What separates the inner planets from the outer
  • How long is Earths rotation?
  • What are the 4 inner planets called?
  • How long does it take our moon to complete one
    revolution? (trip around the Earth)
  • How long is Earths revolution?
  • What is the name of the path an object takes as
    it travels around a larger body in space?
  • What is the name of Earths natural satellite?
  • What are the 4 outer planets called?
  • What is the tilt of the Earth? (Dont forget the
    degree symbol!)

The Universe
I) What is the Universe?
  • Everything that exists
  • Constantly expanding
  • Contains around 100 billion galaxies
  • Scientists believe the universe began about 15
    billion years ago with The Big Bang (explosion)

The Big Bang
Stage 1 After the big bang, the fireball spread
out and the universe started to expand. Stage 2
Thick clouds of gases collected into vast
clumps of dense matter. Stage 3 Stars and
galaxies began to form. The universe became
transparent as light was now able to travel
through it. Step 4 Almost 10,000 million years
after the big bang, the Solar System formed.
  • Enormous group of stars
  • Formed from spinning clouds of gas
  • 4 types elliptical, spiral, barred-spiral, and

II) What is a Galaxy?
  • The MILKY WAY is the name of our galaxy
  • Some astronomers believe the Milky Way galaxy is
    a barred-spiral galaxy

  • -Tiny part of the Milky Way Galaxy
  • -Consists of the Sun, planets, dwarf planets,
    over 60 moons, asteroids, meteors and comets
  • -Formed about 4.6 billion years ago from a cloud
    of gas and dust (nebula)

III) What is a Solar System?
IV) What is a star?
  • -Enormous spinning ball of dense hot, luminous
    gas (hydrogen helium)
  • -Stars are classified by how hot they are, we see
    temperature differences as colors
  • -Our star the sun, is yellow in color and its
    surface temperature is 5000 Cthats 9000F!

  • - Our star, the sun, is halfway through its life.
    In about 5 billion years, it will expand to
    become a red giant.
  • - Supernova huge explosion resulting in a stars
  • - Black hole large core of a supernova collapses
    into a gravity pit (invisible and gravity is so
    great that it sucks in light)

V) The Planets
  • Inner planets are solid, with minerals similar to
    those on Earth. They are referred to as the
    terrestrial planets.

Terrestrial Planets
  • A) Mercury
  • -smallest planet and closest to the sun
  • -little or no atmosphere, resulting in extreme
  • -heavily cratered surface

  • B) Venus
  • -second-closest to the sun
  • -heavy cloud layer
  • -clouds trap solar energy (greenhouse effect)
    making the planet extremely hot-about 470C

  • C) Earth
  • -third planet from the sun
  • -atmosphere allows life to flourish
  • D) Mars
  • -fourth planet from the sun
  • -has seasons and polar ice caps
  • -may have water shaping its surface
  • The asteroid belt separates the inner and outer

Gas Giants
  • Most outer planets are
  • huge balls of gas.

  • A) Jupiter
  • -fifth planet from the sun and largest
  • -has over 16 moons
  • -has Great Red Spot (giant storm on the planets
  • surface)
  • B) Saturn
  • -sixth planet from the sun
  • -has over 18 moons
  • -known for its broad rings of ice and dust

  • C) Uranus
  • -seventh planet from the sun
  • -axis makes the planet spin nearly sideways
  • -has rings and at least 18 moons
  • D) Neptune
  • -eighth planet from the sun
  • -a gas planet with rings and 8 moons
  • -methane and helium in its atmosphere give planet
    a blue color

Dwarf Planets
  • made of rock and ice
  • have little or no atmosphere
  • theyre just large asteroids or comets too small
    to be planets or with an irregular orbit
  • Ceres located between Mars and Jupiter
  • Pluto past Neptune
  • Eris (Xena) past Neptune

Earth 23.5 tilt
24 hours or 1 day
365¼ days or 1 year
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  • A) The Earth rotates on its axis at a 23.5
    tilt. 1 rotation 24 hours (1 day)
  • B) The side of the Earth facing the sun is
    experiencing day (light)
  • C) The side of the Earth facing away from the sun
    is experiencing night (dark).
  • D) A revolution is the motion of the Earth as it
    travels in an orbit around the sun.
  • 1 revolution 365 ¼ ( 1 year)

  • E) The orbit is the name of the path around the
  • F) The amount of time it takes for a single trip
    around the sun is called a period of revolution.
  • G) The Earths period of revolution is 365 1/4
    days or 365 days and 6 hours.
  • H) Every 4 years the four 6 hour periods add up
    to make an extra day which results in a leap
    year. (February 29th)

VII) Solstice vs. Equinox
  • A) Solstices occur two times per year when the
    suns rays are FARTHEST away from the equator
  • Summer Solstice June 21st - Longest Day
  • Winter Solstice December 21st - Shortest Day
  • B) Equinoxes occur two times per year when the
    suns strongest rays are directly hitting the
  • Vernal (Spring) Equinox March 21st equal
  • Autumnal (Fall) Equinox September 21st equal

VIII) Seasons
  • A) Seasons are periods in a year that bring
    changes in weather and temperature.
  • B) Earth has seasons because its axis is tilted
    23.5 as it revolves around the sun.
  • C) When the Earth is on one side of the sun, and
    the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the sun,
    it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere and
    winter in the Southern Hemisphere.

  • D) As the Earth moves a quarter way around the
    sun, the Northern Hemisphere tilts slightly away.
    This brings autumn (fall) weather to the
    Northern Hemisphere and spring to the Southern

  • E) Another quarter passes
  • Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the sun
  • Southern Hemisphere is tilted toward the sun
  • F) Another quarter passes
  • Northern Hemisphere spring
  • Southern hemisphere autumn (fall)

(No Transcript)
  • Pop Quiz
  • List the seasons in order beginning with winter.
  • One rotation for Earth is equal to ______.
  • One revolution for Earth is equal to _____.
  • Seasons bring changes in ______ and _______.
  • Tell me two reasons as to why Earth has seasons.
  • If today is Wednesday and I have a meeting in 2
    rotations, what day is my meeting?

  • When the Northern Hemisphere is experiencing fall
    what season is occurring in the Southern
  • The summer solstice is________ (date) and the
    fall equinox is _______(date).
  • Using the drawing on the board in the back of the
    room, answer the following questions.
  • What season is occurring at A?
  • What season is occurring at H?

IX) LUNA - Earths moon
  • A) revolves around Earth every 29 days
  • (its revolution equals its rotation)
  • B) shines because its light colored surface
    reflects sunlight
  • C) its changing shapes are known as phases
  • D) its phases are caused by the position of the
    Earth, moon, and sun

  • E) Theory of Moons formation
  • -large body collided with Earth
  • -clumps began to revolve around Earth
  • -clumps began to join together
  • PROOF???? Lunar rocks brought back from Apollo
    missions were found to be about 4.6 billion years
    old (age of Earth). The composition is similar
    to the Earths Mantle.

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Phases of the moon for a month
Phases of moon
The New Moon occurs when the moon is between the
Earth and the Sun and when the lit-up part is
facing away from us. The full moon occurs when
the moon is on the opposite side of the earth
from the Sun. The moon is at a 5.2 tilt making
the near side light-up.
  • Pop Quiz
  • I went to the doctor 6 rotations ago. What day
    was my appointment on?
  • Approximately how long does it take the moon to
    revolve around the Earth? (I want it in days)
  • What will be the date in 1 revolution and 1
  • What happens to the ¼ day at the end of each
  • What is in the center of our solar system?

X) What keeps the planets and moon from flying
off into space?
  • Gravityis the force that keeps them in their
    current position..while inertia keeps them in
    continual motion in their orbit.

Gravity Inertia
  • A) Gravity - what makes you stick to the Earth.
    (It's like a giant hand that reaches up from the
    ground, grabs your ankle and holds you down)
  • B) Inertia- Newtons First Law of Motion!
  • An object in motion or at rest will continue to
    stay in motion or at rest unless acted upon by an
    outside force.

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XI) Small Objects
  • A) What are comets?
  • -dirty snowball composed of snow dust
  • -tail develops as the comet nears the Sun (it
    gets heated, the snow turns to gas and forms a
    long bright tail)
  • -famous comet Halleys comet which returns
    every 76 years (2061)

  • B) What are meteors?
  • -billions of tiny lumps of rocky material that
    hurtle around the solar system
  • -burn up in mesosphere (layer of our
    atmosphere) before reaching Earth
  • -sometimes called shooting stars because of
    the streak of light it produces while burning up
    (there is no such thing as a shooting
    star!!!---its a meteor!!!)

  • C) What are meteorites?
  • -fragments of space material that land on Earths
  • -pieces may be iron, rocky or both

Barringer Crater in Arizona over a ½ mile across
660 ft deep.
  • D) What are Asteroids?
  • - Chunks of rocks that orbit the Sun
  • Most are found in asteroid belt between Mars

Cosmic Collisions 29 min
Pop quiz
  • 1-8. Draw and label the 8 phases of the moon in
    order starting with a new moon.
  • How long is the moons rotation?
  • How many Earth revolutions until March 4th, 2012?
  • What two things keep the planets, moons, and
    other objects in their orbit and not flying off
    into space?

XII) What are eclipses? -two kinds lunar eclipse
solar eclipse
  • A) Lunar eclipse
  • - when the Earth comes between the sun and moon
    causing the moon to disappear
  • - can last 1-4 hours

(No Transcript)
  • B) Solar Eclipse
  • -when the moon comes between the Earth and sun
    causing the sun to disappear
  • -lasts several minutes (longest was 7 minutes)

(No Transcript)
Eclipse Movie 3 min
  • Draw a solar and lunar eclipse. Label all 3
    objects as well as the umbra and penumbra.
  • What is an asteroid made out of?
  • How long does a solar eclipse last?
  • How long does it take our moon to complete all 8

  • A) How are tides connected to the moon?
  • -a tide is a daily movement of ocean water that
    changes the oceans surface level due to the
    moons gravitational pull on the Earth
  • - two kinds of tides Spring tides Neap tides

(No Transcript)
B) Spring Tide (high tide)
  • -occur every 14 days
  • -sun, moon, and Earth are in a direct (straight)
  • -Two big bulges of water form on the Earth
  • one directly under the moon
  • another on the exact opposite side
  • -occur during new full moons
  • -gravitational pull is the highest

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C) Neap Tide(low tide)
  • -occur when the sun, moon and Earth are at right
    angles (90 )
  • -occur during first third quarter moon phases
  • -gravitational forces are working against each

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Tides video - 3 min