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English Matters Course for MSc students at IDI

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Title: English Matters Course for MSc students at IDI


1
English Matters Course for MSc students at IDI
  • Stewart Clark
  • Rectors Office
  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • stewart.clark_at_ntnu.no
  • tel. 47 73 59 52 45

2
Four themes
  • 1. What is academic writing? 1
  • 2. Readability 5
  • 3. Thesis structure and style 9
  • 4. Web resources 23

3
Theme 1Some characteristics of academic writing
4
  • Academic Language (from an MIT course)
  • Important ideas to remember, see p. 29

5
Use appropriate language
  • Use formal register
  • The government needs to get rid of the deficit.
    (no)
  • The government needs to eliminate the deficit.
    (yes)
  • Avoid phrasal verbs, use the defining word
    instead

6
Use formal English"Formal" words of classical
origin "Informal" native wordsarrange
dinner lay on dinnerby coincidence by
chancecalculate work outcollect
someone pick upcommence work start
workconsider weigh upconstruct
builddonation a giftwe will
endeavour we will tryenquire askfinalize a
contract tie up a contractdetermine the
results fix the resultsinspect look
overmake a reservation book a theatre
ticketposition jobreview the problems look
at the problemssettle matters sort out
matterssettle the account pay the bill
7
Formal and informal English phrasal verbs
  • two or more words added to a verb such as
  • stick around stick by
  • Phrasal verbs The single word
  • are often informal equivalent is
  • usually more formal
  • (see defining sentences)
  • stick around wait
  • stick by loyal
  • stick out protrude
  • sting someone borrow

8
Phrasal verbs in the Oxford
  • Phrasal verbs are two or more words added to a
    verb such as
  • These are often informal A single word
    equivalent is
  • usually more formal
  • stick around wait
  • stick by loyal
  • stick out protrude
  • sting someone borrow
  • s comare common in informal English these
    words/expressions so that the most formal one is
    1, the next most formal is 2 and so on
  • 1. big, large, substantial, huge, enormous,
    considerable
  • 2. short of money, skint, hard up, in
    difficulties, insolvent, cleaned out
  • 3. red-letter day, vital concern, big deal, no
    joke, a matter of life and death, important
    matter
  • 4. skill, expertise, mastery, ace, gifted,
    wizardry, competence
  • 5. intellectual, smart ass, egg head, highbrow,
    guru, boffin

9
Use academic vocabulary
  • Useful nouns
  • Notion, concept, theory, idea, hypothesis,
    principle, rationale
  • Useful verbs
  • Indicate, illustrate, point out, present, embody,
    state, establish, formulate, accept, reject,
    support
  • Avoid thing, tell, say
  • Study Academic Word List (see Theme 4
    in the compendium)

10
Tentative language
  • If you lack absolute proof, or are unsure of a
    direct causal relationship between phenomena, use
    tentative language
  • Examples tends to, appears to, suggests that,
    would seem to, indicates that
  • This tends to occur whenever there is a decrease
    in pressure.
  • Other examples may, possible, unlikely, probably
  • This may be the result of the sampling method,
    but with new technology this is unlikely to be a
    future problem.
  • However if something always happens and you are
    confident it will happen the same way in the
    future, do not be tentative.
  • This occurs whenever there is a decrease in
    pressure.

11
No contractions ("I'm...won't...") informal
style
Contractions (also called short forms) are to be
avoided in serious mails/letters, reports and
scientific writing. Typical contractions aren't,
can't, don't, I'm, isn't, it's are used in
informal, conversational writing and speech In
formal English, the expected forms are are not,
cannot (usually one word), do not, I am, is not,
it is. Using contractions in the wrong context
looks sloppy and leads to mistakes such as it's
(it is) when you mean its ("the cat hurt its
tail").
12
Contractions cause confusion
  • Contractions are typical of informal speech and
    are only correctly used in academic writing to
    report speech.
  • Soundalikes that are often confused
  • contraction it's possessive its
  • contraction they're possessive their, adv.
    there
  • contraction you're possessive your
  • contraction who's possessive whose

13
(No Transcript)
14
  • ! exclamation mark
  • for emergencies only, not otherwise.
  • Fire!, he screamed
  • All style guides in English agree that
    exclamation marks should be avoided in formal and
    academic English. "These should not be used in
    scholarly writing" (Modern Humanities Research
    Association Style Book, 1995).
  • It signals a forceful utterance that gives a
    warning, indicates astonishment and surprise
    absurdity, command, contempt, disgust, emotion,
    enthusiasm, pain, sorrow, a wish (Oxford
    Dictionary for Writers and Editors)

15
(No Transcript)
16
What is said about !! Do you wear underpants on
your head?
  • The exclamation mark is the punk in the school
    of punctuation. Favoured by advertisers, immature
    writers and writers of ransom notes
  • In Guardian Style (2007), editor David Marsh
    exclaims simply, "do not use!"
  • About multiple exclamation marks, novelist Terry
    Pratchett calls them a "sure sign of someone who
    wears his underpants on his head.
  • If you still find them being used Google the
    phrase avoid the exclamation mark

17
Avoiding etc.
  • a. Indirectly, they also include the impact of
    industry, business strategy, market, and the
    economic environment etc.
  • b. The proposed model considers only risks, while
    in real life, managers make decisions regarding
    other important aspects, such as strategy, cost
    reduction, and service quality etc.
  • c. Measures in hedging risks may be to keep
    management in house and use spot contracts when
    contracting carriers etc.

18
Politeness - Acknowledgements
  • Be formal
  • - I wish to thank my supervisor Professor Arne
    Olsen at the Department of Computer Science,
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology
    for his invaluable assistance.
  • - I would also like to thank
  • - I appreciate the assistance from
  • - Special mention is given to to
  • - Gratitude is also given to
  • - I am grateful for the help from Anne Olsen,
    research technician and other departmental staff.

19
Theme 2 What makes texts readable?
  • Online readability tools
  • Link words
  • Word order
  • Nominalization

20
Using the Lix readability index
  • "LIX" is a measure of how hard a text is to read.
    It is defined as the percentage of words longer
    than six letters plus the average number of words
    per sentence.
  • Enter the text in the box and analyse it.
  • LIX lt 20 Very easy reading
  • LIX lt 30 - 40 Popular reading
  • LIX lt 40 - 50 Normal for newspapers
  • LIX lt 50 - 60 Normal for academic texts
  • LIX lt 60 and higher Heavy to read, should be
    revised
  • Scroll down and note the list of sentences on the
    left (variation)
  • The word frequency count is given on the right.
  • What features do you find interesting about Lix?

21
Sentence length
  • Version 1 Even though pervasive gaming is a
    fairly new field, and there are just a few
    pervasive games developed, it is already possible
    to identify several unique types of pervasive
    games such as smart toys, affective games,
    augmented tabletop games, augmented reality games
    and location-aware games (ref).
  • (Over 40 words). The Lix readability score is 76.
  • Score very heavy language
  • What can be done to make this more readable?

22
Sentence length
  • Version 2 Even though pervasive gaming is a
    fairly new field and only a few such games have
    been developed, it is already possible to
    identify several types of games. These include
    smart toys, affective games, augmented tabletop
    games, augmented reality games and location-aware
    games (ref).
  • (Two sentences). The Lix readability score is 52.
  • (Normal for official texts)

23
Sentence length
  • Version 2 Even though pervasive gaming is a
    fairly new field, and only there are just a few
    such pervasive games have been developed, it is
    already possible to identify several unique types
    of pervasive games. These include such as smart
    toys, affective games, augmented tabletop games,
    augmented reality games and location-aware games
    (ref).
  • What are the changes?
  • Red deleted text
  • Underlined inserted text

24
Check how many sentences start with the
  • The last 20 years has seen overall growth. The
    international business community was shaken by
    the financial crisis in 2008. The banking sector
    was in trouble. The calls for better regulation
    resulted in
  • (Four sentences). The Lix readability score is
    36.
  • (Popularized text, easy reading)

25
Check how many sentences start with the
revised version
  • Although the last 20 years has seen overall
    growth, the international business community was
    shaken by the financial crisis in 2008. In
    particular, the banking sector was in trouble and
    consequently the calls for better regulation
    resulted in
  • (Two sentences). The Lix readability score is 51.
  • (Normal for official texts)

26
Nonlinear Analysis of an Absolute Value Type of
an Early-Late Gate Bit Synchronizer Simon, M.
California Inst. of Technol., Pasadena, CA, USA
Abstract The steady-state phase noise
performance of an absolute value type of
early-late gate bit synchronizer is developed
using the Fokker-Planck method. The results are
compared with the performance of two other
commonly used bit synchronizer circuit topologies
on the basis of either 1) equal equivalent signal
to noise in the loop bandwidth in the linear
region, or 2) equal loop bandwidth at each input
signal-to-noise ratio Rs. These comparisons are
made as a function of Rs. In both cases, the
absolute value type of early-late gate yields the
best performance (in the sense of minimum phase
noise) at every value of Rs. Index TermsAdditive
noise , Circuit topology , Integrated circuit
noise , Performance analysis , Phase locked loops
, Phase noise , Signal analysis , Signal to noise
ratio , Steady-state , Voltage-controlled
oscillators
27
Readability - exercise
  • Exercise find a text of about 100 words on your
    laptop and enter it in Lix
  • http//www.lix.se/index.php
  • Exercise find a text of about 100 words on your
    laptop and enter it in Lix
  • Results over 60 need revision, aim at 50.

28
Other readability indexes
  • Most other readability indexes are computed using
    5 steps
  • Count the number of words in the document.
  • Count the number of syllables in the document.
  • Count the number of sentences in the document.
  • Compute the index formula given
  • The result is the number of years of formal
    education needed to understand the text
  • Examples
  • http//www.online-utility.org/english/readability_
    test_and_improve.jsp
  • http//www.standards-schmandards.com/exhibits/rix/
  • About the readability isssue
  • http//ezinearticles.com/?Readability-Metrics-Are
    -They-Getting-Your-Message?id351293

29
Link words 1
  • Link words to provide a structure of sentences
  • link words the subconscious structure in a
    text
  • link words are like
  • signposts by the road
  • links in a process
  • links to orientate the reader

30
Link words 2
  • 1. Linear
  • First,... Second,... Third,...
  • Next,... Then,... Finally,...
  • When you have you the word 'first,' make sure
    there is a 'second', a 'third', and a 'finally'.
  • Example
  • First, the experiments considered the effect of
    heating. Second, variations in the temperature
    were compared at three different pressure
    readings
  • (1 atm, 2 atm, and 3 atm). Third, the effect
    of pressure was studied as an. Finally, the
  • NOTFirst, the effect of heating is studied. The
    temperature was varied and the pressure studied
    as an independent variable. Then,

31
Link words 3
  • 2. Loop
  • having completed ..., the next stage/step is
  • 3. Flashback
  • previously .....
  • earlier .....
  • 4. Simultaneously
  • during this stage ....
  • while ....
  • at the same time ....
  • 5. Conclusion
  • finally,
  • in the last stage,
  • the process concludes/finishes with ...
  • the last step is ... make sure that this
    is finally

32
Link words 4
  • Time and sequence link words
  • to begin with, at first, in the first place,
    first (second, third, etc.),
  • then, after, afterwards, next, later, previously,
    soon, subsequently,
  • meanwhile, at the same time, currently,
    simultaneously, for the time being, immediately,
    instantly, in the meantime, in time, in turn,
    presently,
  • at last, finally, in conclusion,
  • (See Words A Users Guide p. 431)

33
Dont throw the baby out with the bathwater
  • On the one hand, fibres from
  • different wood species have
  • properties that vary. On the
  • other hand, each tree has a
  • unique distribution of fibre
  • dimensions due to variation
  • in growth factors and genetics.
  • Consequently, it is important
  • to have a good quality control
  • of the timber. However, only a few pulp mills
  • can utilize these opportunities.

34
Theme 3
  • Thesis structure
  • Editing your work
  • Style
  • British or American English?

35
Format - Acknowledgements
  • Be formal
  • - I wish to thank my supervisor Professor Arne
    Olsen at the Department of XZY, Norwegian
    University of Science and Technology for his
    invaluable assistance.
  • - I would also like to thank
  • - I appreciate the assistance from
  • - Special thanks are given to
  • - Gratitude is also given to
  • - I am grateful for the help from Anne Olsen,
    research technician and other department staff in
    preparing the FEM analysis
  • - Finally, I acknowledge the generous financial
    support from the Research Council of Norway

36
Structure
  • Short report or paper
  • Section used for all levels.
  • Numbered as 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.1
  • Thesis/dissertation or book
  • Chapter is normally level 1.
  • Use section for levels 2, 3 and 4
  • Avoid "subchapters" and "subsections". A
    paragraph is several lines.
  • Part could be level 1 in a thesis with an
    overview and publications. Then Chapter for level
    2 and Section levels 3 4
  • Part I Introduction and Overview
  • Part II Publications
  • Part III Appendices

37
IMRAD structure
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • (problems to be solved)
  • Methods
  • Results and Discussion
  • (analysis of findings)
  • Conclusions and
  • Recommendations for Further
  • Research (logical results)
  • Appendix Details

38
Title
  • Label not a sentence, no final stop (period)
  • Lower case for articles, conjunctions
  • (and, but, for, or, nor), and most short
    prepositions
  • Avoid articles and fuzzy words (some, certain)
  • as the first word
  • Use
  • Boolean Functions, Transforms, and Recursions
  • Not
  • Some Boolean Functions, Transforms, and
    Recursions

39
IEEE style
  • For spelling, IEEE uses Websters College
    Dictionary, 4th Edition.
  • For guidance on grammar and usage, consult The
    Chicago Manual of Style
  • Write good continuous prose
  • Abstracts are stand alone texts
  • By nature, Abstracts shall not contain numbered
    mathematical equations or numbered references
    (IEEE Editorial Style Manual) http//www.ieee.org/
    documents/stylemanual.pdf

40
Abstract - format
  • (For scientific reports and theses)
  • Summary of the information in the report
  • brief statement of why the work was undertaken
    (objectives)
  • brief statement of methods (methods)
  • clear statement of the significant
    facts/findings/ideas in the text
    (results-recommendations)
  • An abstract should be as long as is necessary to
    sum up the essential information (250 to 500
    words as a rule of thumb)

41
Abstract - format
  • Index Terms
  • After the final paragraph of the Abstract
  • Written in bold as in the Abstract
  • In alphabetical order
  • Acronyms are defined in Index Terms if defined in
    the paper.

42
Abstract for comment
  • Consider the following
  • 'Certain problems (specify them) concerning
    dynamic Boolean systems (without saying which) in
    some high performance associative memory systems
    (unspecified) have been studied. Conclusions have
    been drawn and recommendations for analytical
    approaches are made.'

43
Two abstracts exercise (see page 31 in
compendium)
  • Which of these is the most readable why?
  • Do they both contain all the elements one should
    include in an abstract?

44
Contents layout example
  • Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
  • Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . ii
  • Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
  • List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . . . . v
  • List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . . .vi
  • Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . .vii
  • 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
  • 1.1 Thesis Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . .1

45
Avoid hanging paragraphs
Source 2009 IEEE Standards Style Manual
46
Other front material in theses
  • Nomenclature
  • Nomenclature lists the symbols and their
    definitions
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Some theses have an alphabetical list of
    abbreviations and acronyms
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • Check that the captions correspond to those in
    the text

47
Content Introduction
  • - Introduction (all items addressed in about
  • 10 lines).- Brief context background (10
    lines). - What is the problem? backed by
    references. - What is the current state-of
    art/research frontier in addressing the problem?
    backed by references. - Objectives of the paper.
    What is new in this paper related to the two
    items above. - Short preview of approach/method
    used. - Outline of the paper.
  • Source Bjarne Helvik, Vice Dean, IME, NTNU

48
Context Problem Response
  • Presentation of the scope of the subject
  • Review of previous work and theoretical
    considerations
  • Presentation of the problem and your objectives
    and strategy in writing the report
  • State what is new, the response approach/method
    in your response
  • Should NOT contain information you know as a
    result of having completed the work you are about
    to report

49
Introduction stating objectives
  • - Ideas to catch the reviewers interest
  • The destabilizing condition
  • It is generally accepted that these chemicals
    cause the build up of greenhouse gases in the
    atmosphere ( ref.). But recently the processes
    that thin the ozone layer have been studied more
    closely and it was found that ( ref.)
  • That powerful word However
  • It is generally accepted that these chemicals
    cause the build up of greenhouse gases in the
    atmosphere ( ref.). However, recent simulations
    indicate that ( ref.)
  • Recently, however, the theory that

50
Introduction previewing the approach/method used
  • - The promise of a solution
  • ozone layer has been studied more closely and
    it was found that ( ref.). In this paper we
    present an innovative analysis of chemical
    bonding that
  • This paper provides an alternative approach to
    wind farm design that promises to a promising
    approach, a more cost-effective approach
  • - State what you are comparing your work to
  • - Avoid subjective words like better approach
  • or superior solution

E mc2
E mc2
51
Outline section Introduction
  • Explains how the thesis is organized at level 1
  • For a paper, use Section for levels 1, 2 3
  • Chapter 2 considers
  • Then, Chapter 3 turns to the issue of
  • After this, Chapter 4 demonstrates
  • This is followed by Chapter 5 which presents the
    conclusions and applications of this work for the
    fish farming industry. Finally, Chapter 6
    outlines the implications and potential for
    further research in this field.
  • (Avoid overusing show)

52
Format Body
  • Methods
  • - The defence of your results and their
    reliability
  • Results and Discussion
  • - Presentation of principles, relationships and
    generalizations
  • Exceptions/unsettled points
  • Applications/implications
  • Conclusions and Recommendations for Further Work

53
Format End matter
  • References
  • This has no section number in front
  • Appendix/Appendices
  • Presentation of important experiments, data and
    computations.
  • Label Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C...
  • See Figure A.12 and Table C.11 for

54
Order of writing
  • B gtCgt Igt Agt T
  • gtBody
  • methods (details to appendices)
  • results (details to appendices)
  • gt Conclusions
  • recommendations for further
  • work
  • gt Introduction
  • gt Abstract/exec. summary
  • gt Title

55
Editing your work 1
  • Formal editing
  • Do the section titles in the report match the
    contents list?
  • Are tables and figures in chronological order?
  • Are words like table, figure, equation, section
    correctly capitalized?
  • Are terms like figure, equation, section
    consistent? (Figure 3/Fig. 4. Equation 6/Eq. 4)
  • Use of brackets. Are sections and
  • equations easy to pick out? What is (3.3)?
  • Check the cited references for consistency.
  • Use (Olsen 1997) or (Olsen, 1997), not both.

56
Editing your work 2
  • Stylistic editing
  • Check the recommended style in "Instructions to
    Authors" from the journal you are submitting to?
  • The Harvard reference system, preferred in this
    journal, uses the name of the author, the date of
    publication and, following quoted material, the
    page reference, as a key to the full
    bibliographic details set out in the list of
    references.
  • Examples in the text
  • This has been questioned by several authors
    (Smith 1990, Jones and Cook 1998, Dobbs et al.
    1991).
  • (N.B. et al. is used in the text when
  • there are three or more authors.)
  • Swanwick (1988, p. 56) has attempted to

57
Editing your work 3
  • Reference list
  • Where there are two or more works by one author
    in the same year, use 1997a, 1997b, etc.
  • The reference list must include every work cited
    in the text. Ensure that dates, spelling and
    titles used in the text are consistent with those
    listed in the reference list.
  • All co-authors are to be cited. Do not use et al.
    here.
  • Check the correct use of italics and
  • punctuation in the reference list.

58
Editing your work 4
  • Reference list
  • Check the reference list for consistency
  • - institution names,
  • - names of journals,
  • Avoid Norwegian and English terms for
  • the same institution.
  • (Use Google to check on the home page.
  • Be careful a PhD degree from NTNU in 1995
  • is impossible in two ways).

59
Editing your work 5
  • Use of page references in the reference list
  • Number system for papers (1999, 33-44)
  • Use the p./ pp. system for printed works
  • (1999, p. 3 and pp. 33-44)
  • Place p. after the title to give the total number
  • of pages Word for Word, 242 p.

60
IEEE Style ManualDecide reference format
  • NOTE Editing of references may entail careful
    renumbering of references, as well as the
    citations in text. (From IEEE Style Manual)
  • My suggestion use the Harvard system (name and
    year) as a working tool, then convert to IEEE
    style when finished.

61
IEEE Style ManualReference format
  • References in Text In square brackets, inside
    the punctuation. e.g.,
  • as shown by Brown 4, 5 as mentioned earlier
    2,
  • or as nouns
  • as demonstrated in 3 according to 4 and
    69.

62
IEEE Style Manual Reference format
  • Reference list Basic Format
  • 1 J. K. Author, Name of paper, Abbrev.
    Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx,
    Abbrev. Month, year.
  • Example
  • 1 R. E. Kalman, New results in linear
    filtering and prediction theory, J. Basic Eng.,
    ser. D, vol. 83, pp. 95-108, Mar. 1961.
  • NOTE IEEE style use pp. for both printed works
    and papers
  • See IEEE Editorial Style Manual, pp. 7-13
  • http//www.ieee.org/documents/stylemanual.pdf

63
IEEE Style Manual Caption format
  • Suggest consecutive numbering in each chapter
    with stops
  • Fig. 3.1. Example of linear filtering.
  • Fig. 3.1. Example of linear filtering
  • See Figs. 3.1 3.4
  • Alternative
  • Figure 3.1. Comparing traditional data mining
    (top) and information visualization (bottom)
    processes.

64
Some currencies and their three-character ISO
4217 currency code ISO home page
(http//www.iso.ch/) refers to sources of
complete, updated versions of this list.
  • AUD Australian dollar BRL Brazilian real
  • CAD Canadian dollar CHF Swiss franc
  • CNY Chinese yuan DKK Danish krone
  • DZD Algerian dinar EUR euro
  • GBP British pound IDR Indonesian rupiah
  • INR Indian rupee IQD Iraqi dinar
  • IRR Iranian rial JPY Japanese yen
  • KRW Korea won KWD Kuwaiti dinar
  • MXP Mexican peso NGN Nigerian naira
  • NOK Norwegian krone NZD New Zealand dollar
  • PHP Philippine peso PKR Pakistan rupee
  • RUB Russian rouble USD American dollar

65
Currency codes
  • Use ISO currency codes (EUR, NOK, GBP, USD etc.)
    - not "krone" or "dollar", which type?
  • The currency code is written first, but read last
  • Written English Spoken English EUR
    15.50 Fifteen euro fifty (cents)
  • NOK 2 million Two million Norwegian kroner USD
    25.50 Twenty-five US dollars fifty
    GBP 3.20 Three pounds twenty

66
Confusions with amounts of money
  • Consider
  • Wages "The salary is NOK 387.859 per annum"
  • (this means about NOK 388)
  • Prices "The price is NOK 1,675 a unit
  • (this means about NOK 1675)
  • k for kilo (1000) as in kNOK 35 may confuse.
  • (write NOK 35 000)
  • Avoid MEUR 25. Write EUR 25 m or EUR 25 million
  • "Crowns" for monarchs, use (Norwegian) krone"

67
Writing amounts of money
  • Decimal point in English 34.956
  • (Other languages - comma 34,956)
  • Thousand/million/billion markers
  • - use spaces above 9999 (ISO) 34 956
  • Do not use a comma here in English
  • Note nothing is written after an amount
  • Not 34 956,- Use 34 956

68
Writing exact amounts
  • NOK 1 000 000 million Abbr. (m)
  • avoid MNOK 1
  • NOK 1 000 000 000 billion Abbr. (bn)
  • (Norw. milliard)
  • NOK 1 000 000 000 000 trillion Abbr.
  • trillion
  • (Norw. billion)

69
Digital dates There are three main formats in use
for writing dates in digital form European
(day-month-year) American (month-day-year) Milit
ary (year-month-day) This can cause problems
in contracts, agreements, emails and letters
70
Never write a date like this in English Payment
is to be made by 11/01/14 (or 11.01.14) In
Britain, this will be understood as 11 January
2014, whereas AE users may understand this as
November 1, 2014. The only internationally
accepted digital format (ISO 8601) Model
2014-01-11(CCYY-MM-DD) Read as on the 11th of
January 2014(BE) on January 11th
2014(AE) twenty-fourteen has become the
English standard
71
The date of the Twin Towers attack - 9/11
  • For all-digit dates use ISO 8601 format
  • The model is 2001-09-11 (CCYY-MM-DD)
  • Otherwise, 11 September 2001 - normal BE format
    (Read as the 11th of September 2001)
  • September 11, 2001 - normal AE format
  • (Read as September the 11th, 2001)
  • Note no ordinal numbers in modern written dates
    in English (not 1st, 2nd, 3rd)

72
Spacing
  • Keep 2000 oC as one unit.
  • Use a space before symbols like cm, m, km, , oC,
    as in 25 , 300 oC
  • In a range, use a space on each side of a dash
    30 - 40 mm. Note that between and from should be
    followed by and or to, as in "between 1995 and
    1997" or "from 55 oC to 85 oC.

73
Punctuation 1
  • colon used before a list
  • semi-colon
  • separates main items in a list Separates the
    main items in a list Olsen, 2005 Smith and
    James, 2002 Black et al., 2004
  • stop/full stop (BE)/period (AE)
  • one idea per sentence
  • ellipsis
  • three dots mark a word/words omitted.
  • Normal punctuation follows Did she? said John .
  • See Words A Users Guide pp. 405 - 413

74
Punctuation 2
  • semi-colon
  • separates main items in a list Separates the
    main items in a list Olsen, 2005 Smith and
    James, 2002 Black et al., 2004
  • ellipsis
  • three dots mark a word/words omitted.
  • Normal punctuation follows Did she? said John .
  • See Words A Users Guide pp. 405 - 413

75
Comma use
  • Comma before and Harvard comma / Oxford comma
    / serial comma adds more precision. Compare
  • - This unit can print, scan, fax and log usage
  • This unit can prints, scan, fax, and log usage
  • Comma before and also avoids
  • ambiguity
  • To my parents, John Smith and God
  • To my parents, John Smith, and God
  • See http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_comma

76
Line break errors
77
(No Transcript)
78
Tips on line breaks
  • Avoid dividing words, if possible
  • Avoid creating odd words like wo-men and
    mini-ster
  • (use women and minis-ter)
  • Divide the word according to its origin and
    meaning
  • tele-phone (not telep-hone) atmo-sphere (not
    atmos-phere)
  • re-adjust (not read-just)
  • Divide as pronounced edi-ble (not ed-ible)
    propo-sition
  • ordi-nary classi-fi-ca-tion (three divisions
    possible)
  • Divide before -ing carry-ing mov-ing
  • Double letters -ing divide between the double
    letters
  • refer-ring control-ling
  • Follow the dots in dictionary headwords -
    therapist
  • See Words page 412

79
British English (BE) or American English (AE)?
  • Latest BE dictionaries (Oxford), prefer "-ize" in
    "organize". Brussels London use -ise.
  • '- ize is the world English norm'
  • New Penguin Dictionary (2000).
  • Note verbs advise, comprise, devise and
    supervise have "-ise" in BE and in AE.
  • BE gt less hyphenation Cooperate, coordinate,
    multiphase, multidisciplinary.
  • Statoil, SINTEF, NTNU and public sector in Norway
    have BE as the norm.

80
Thesis or Dissertation?
  • At most universities in the UK
  • thesis is used at PhD level
  • dissertation is used at master's
  • or bachelors levels
  • At most universities in the USA
  • dissertation is used PhD level
  • thesis is at master's
  • or bachelors levels

81
Summary of British American spellings
  • -ce, -se
  • British spellings American spellings
  • advice (noun) advice (noun)
  • advise (verb) advise (verb)
  • device (noun) device (noun)
  • devise (verb) devise (verb)
  • licence (noun) license (noun)
  • license (verb) license (verb)
  • practice (noun) practice (noun)
  • practise (verb) practice (verb)
  • defence defense
  • offence offense

82
Summary of British American spellings
  • -ise, -ize (-isation, -ization)
  • American spelling avoids -ise endings in words
    like organize, realize
  • British spelling mostly uses -ise, but -ize is
    also used (organise, organize / realise,realize)
    Ratio 32 in the British National Corpus
  • Oxford (BE) favours -ize/ -ization, this
    dominates internationally
  • Many verbs only take -s- in BE and AE advise,
    arise, comprise, compromise, despise, devise,
    exercise, revise, supervise, televise (see
    Words page 188)
  • -yse, -yze
  • -yse is British and -yze is American.
  • British English analyse, hydrolyse, paralyse
  • American English analyze, hydrolyze, paralyze

83
Summary of British American spellings
  • -our, -or
  • British spellings American spellings
  • colour color
  • habour harbor
  • labour labor
  • neighbour neighbor
  • Note many -or spellings in both British and
    American English such as honorary, vigorous,
    laborious

84
Summary of British American spellings
  • -re, -er
  • The common difference is words ending -bre or
    -tre
  • British spellings American spellings
  • centre center
  • fibre fiber
  • litre liter
  • manoeuvre maneuver
  • theatre theater
  • metre meter
  • meter
  • Note many -er spellings in British English such
    as filter, number, parameter, September and
    sober.

85
Summary of British American spellings
  • -ll, -l
  • British English doubling for -ed, -ing, -er, -est
    -or
  • British spellings American spellings
  • cancelled canceled
  • counsellor counselor
  • cruellest cruelest
  • labelled labeled
  • modelling modeling
  • signalling signaling
  • travelling traveling
  • Note controlled, controlling in both British and
    American English
  • American English doubling in words such as
  • British spellings American spellings
  • enrol(ment) enroll(ment)
  • fulfil(ment) fulfill(ment)
  • skilful skillful
  • wilful willful

86
Summary of British American spellings
  • British spellings American spellings
  • -mme programme -m program
  • -m program
  • in computer science only
  • non- non-profit nonprofit
  • non-linear nonlinear
  • -oe- diarrhoea -e- diarrhea
  • -ae- leukaemia -e- leukemia
  • -ogue- catalogue -og catalog
  • -oul- mould -ol- mold

87
Ton or tonne?
When referring to weight there are three terms
  • Tonne or metric ton
  • 1000 kg
  • Short ton (USA)
  • 907 kg
  • Long ton (UK)
  • 1016 kg

88
Gallons, pint and litres
  • US gallons and US pints differ from the Imperial
    gallons and pints
  • The UK ones are larger
  • NASA's metric
  • confusion caused
  • Mars orbiter loss (1999)
  • Software produced output
  • n in pound-seconds (lbfs) instead of
    newton-seconds (Ns)

89
BE or AE - pronunciation
  • Wide regional differences in both BE and AE.
  • Note vowels of words like new, Tuesday, clerk,
    data and dance/grass (in southern BE),
  • Also note pronunciations of fertile and missile
    are a good indication of BE/AE differences
    furtile furtl
  • Stressing Different word stress in some words
    in BE and AE.
  • Compare BE ad'vertisement and AE adver'tisement
  • BE alu'minium and AE a'luminum (note spelling
    difference)
  • BE la'boratory and AE 'laboratory
  • Check pronunciation in online dictionaries

90
BE or AE - some grammatical issues
  • In informal AE, the past participle get is
    gotten
  • in BE it is got
  • AE I've gotten a new automobile BE I've got a
    new car
  • Irregular verb differences, dived (past
    participle and past tense of dive in BE) and dove
    (AE) leapt (mostly BE) and leaped (mostly AE)
    sank (BE) and sunk (AE) shrank (BE) and shrunk
    (AE)
  • Note spelt (BE) and spelled (BE and AE)
  • Often occurs in other verbs learnt (BE), learned
    (BE AE)
  • Differences in prepositions. Examples
  • BE AE
  • a quarter past three a quarter after three
  • a quarter to four a quarter of four
  • at school in school
  • fill in a form fill
    out a form
  • Friday to Sunday Friday through
    Sunday

91
Theme 4Web resources
  • English Matters portal
  • www.ntnu.edu/english-matters/
  • Pronunciation help
  • Vocabulary resources
  • Academic Word List
  • Online course in academic writing
  • Self study exercises
  • The Elements of Style

92
Collocation exercise 1 natural word partnerships
  • Some words belong together naturally, others do
    not.
  • Insert the opposites
  • Heavy traffic/ ________traffic on the roads
  • He suffered from a heavy cold/_______ cold
  • A cup of strong coffee/________coffee
  • A strong/_________wind was blowing

93
Collocation exercise 2
  • Match each of these nouns to one of the groups of
    verbs. All the verbs must collocate with the
    noun
  • battle struggle fight war
  • avoid, get into, pick, provoke
  • declare, go to, lead to, prolong, wage
  • be engaged in, continue, give up, take up
  • fight, force, go into, lose
  • (See English Matters, Vocabulary exercises from
    Stewart)

94
Lexical chunks and collocations
  • Lexical chunks by the way on the other
    hand stick your neck out
  • If I were a boy out of sight, out of mind
    (these are set phrases, idioms, not
    collocations) Collocations absolutely
    convinced (20) extremely convinced (0)
  • (adverb verb)
  • slight breeze (20) light wind (25) weak wind
    (0) (adjective noun)
  • Numbers refer to hits on the British National
    Corpus

95
Resources on the Web
  • Oxford Teachers Club
  • www.oup.com/elt/global/teachersclub/
  • British Council Education and Training
  • www.britishcouncil.org/education
  • English Matters
  • www.ntnu.no/intersek/english_matters

96
English mattersNettportal for deg som bruker
engelsk som arbeidsspråk. www.ntnu.no/internationa
l/english_matters/
  • Online dictionaries EN/EN
  • Longman (BE), Miriam Webster (AE),
  • Rogets Thesaurus, Slang dictionary
  • Dictionaries with pronunciation and translation
    help
  • Online dictionaries EN/NO and NO/EN
  • Ordnett, Clue, UMBs Green Dictionary

97
English matters
  • Longman online dictionary - Collocations
  • Chance - collocations
  • there's a chance (that) (it is possible that)
  • there's every chance (that) (it is very likely)
  • some chance little chance no chance a good/fair
    chance (something is likely)
  • a slight/slim/outside chance (something is
    unlikely)
  • a fifty-fifty chance (the possibility of
    something happening or not happening is equal)
  • a million to one chance/a one in a million chance
    (something is extremely unlikely to happen)

98
British National Corpus (BNC)
  • Exercise
  • something that is quite likely to happen
  • Is it a large? great? big? possibility of
  • or a strong/real/distinct possibility?
  • Use Longman and BNC to find out, and which verb
    to use
  • 100 million word collection of BE texts
  • Oxford UP, Longman, Chambers and British Library
  • Free search sampler
  • http//sara.natcorp.ox.
  • ac.uk/lookup.html

99
Use to BNC to check collocations
  • Standard collocations I found it on the Web
  • absolutely convinced (20) extremely convinced
    (0)
  • (adverb verb)
  • slight breeze (20)
  • light wind (25) weak wind (0)
  • (adjective noun)
  • Numbers refer to hits on the British National
    Corpus

100
English matters
  • Terminology EN/NO and NO/EN
  • UHR Termbase (educational terminology), EØS base
  • Norwegian ministries
  • Norwegian legislation (Lovdata)
  • Style
  • Emails and letters
  • English Style Guidelines
  • Academic writing portal, self study exercises
  • CV writing

101
English matters
  • Vocabulary
  • Vocabulary and current affairs BBC World Service,
    select "News English" 3 new stories a week.
    Often lesson plans in pdf
  • BE and AE newspapers
  • Self-study
  • Collocation exercises
  • Agreement exercise
  • Phrasal verbs
  • Prepositions
  • Prefixes (BBC English 1)

102
Using English for Academic PurposesA Guide for
Students in Academic Writing
  • Linked on
  • English Matters

103
Writing paragraphs
  • Click on Paragraph
  • Try Exercise 2 (Pesticide Suicide)
  • Continue to Topic
  • - Identifying topic sentences
  • Do Exercise 7 in groups of 3
  • Click on Flow
  • - Flow of information in paragraphs using key
    words
  • Try Exercise 8

104
Writing paragraphs
  • Click on Paragraph
  • Continue to Signalling link words
  • Note all the examples
  • Do exercises 10 and 11.
  • Any contrasts?

105
Writing paragraphs
  • Continue to Cohesion,
  • see lexical cohesion key terms
  • use reference words like
  • this process, this view, this solution, these
    approaches
  • Words that summarize the text in the first
    sentence and connects the next sentence.

106
Writing paragraphs
  • Group exercise Add suitable reference words to
    complete this paragraph
  • As soon as it gets to a certain size, every
    organization begins to feel a need to systematize
    its management of human resources.
  • Some suggestions account, advice, answer,
    argument, assertion, assumption, claim, comment,
    conclusion, criticism, description, difficultly,
    discussion, distinction, emphasis, estimate,
    example, explanation, fall, finding, idea,
    improvement, increase, observation, proof,
    proposal, reference, rejection, report, rise,
    situation, suggestion, view.

107
Functions
  • Click on functions in academic writing
  • No.16. Introducing
  • - note useful phrases at the bottom
  • No. 9. Including tables
  • note language tips at the bottom
  • Click on Exercises and try Ex. 1 and 2 (Gap
    filling)

108
Functions/Citing sources
  • Functions
  • Click on functions in academic writing
  • No. 17. Conclusions
  • - note useful phrases at the bottom
  • Citing sources
  • Reporting and summarizing
  • - note useful phrases at the bottom

109
Academic vocabulary
  • Academic Word List (AWL) about 600 core terms
  • An AWL term has to occur over 100 times in the
    3.5 million word Academic Corpus.
  • The AWL is like the icing on a cake.
  • BUT dont overdo it. A text that is full of AWL
    terms will be heavy to read.
  • Details of the Academic Corpus
    http//www.victoria.ac.nz/lals/resources/academicw
    ordlist/corpus.aspx

110
Academic Word List
  • Note the derived terms 3000 words
  • Dictionary link on left
  • Pronunciation help
  • Visual thesaurus
  • Two sets of exercises based on AWL

111
The Elements of Style William Strunk, Jr.
  • Classic reference book
  • Gives the principal requirements of plain English
    style in just over 80 pages.
  • Focus on the rules of usage and principles of
    composition
  • Sections II, III and V are the most useful
  • Free online link http//www.bartleby.com/141/
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