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Splash Screen

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Title: World Geography and Cultures Author: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Created Date: 2/1/2007 7:00:27 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Splash Screen


1
Splash Screen
2
Chapter Menu
Introduction Section 1 World Population Section
2Global Cultures Section 3Political and
Economical Systems Section 4 Resources, Trade,
and the Environment Summary
3
Chapter Intro 1
The characteristics and distribution of human
populations affect human and physical systems. A
study of the human worldpopulation, culture,
political and economic systems, and
resourceswill help you understand events in the
world around you.
4
Chapter Intro 2
Section 1 World Population
What factors influence population growth in a
given area or region?
5
Chapter Intro 3
Section 2 Global Cultures
How does the spatial interaction of cultures
affect human systems?
6
Chapter Intro 4
Section 3 Political and Economic Systems
What types of human systems provide the power for
groups of people to control Earths surface?
7
Chapter Intro 5
Section 4 Resources, Trade, and the Environment
How does the availability and use of natural
resources affect economic activities and the
environment?
8
Chapter Preview-End
9
Section 1-GTR
World Population
What factors influence population growth in a
given area or region?
10
Section 1-GTR
World Population
  • death rate
  • doubling time
  • population distribution
  • population density
  • birthrate
  • natural increase
  • migration
  • demographic transition

11
Section 1-GTR
World Population
  • trend
  • community
  • negative

12
Section 1-GTR
World Population
A. Hungary
B. Germany
C. Canada
D. Bangladesh
E. Mexico City
13
Section 1
World Population
Which continent contains most of the worlds
people? A. Europe B. Asia C. Africa
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

14
Section 1
Population Growth
Population growth varies from country to country
and is influenced by cultural ideas, migration,
and level of development.
  • More than 6.8 billion people now live on Earth,
    inhabiting about 30 percent of the planets land.
  • Global population is growing rapidly and is
    expected to reach 9 billion by the year 2050.

15
Section 1
Population Growth (cont.)
  • The Demographic Transition
  • The demographic transition model uses birthrates
    and death rates to show changes in the population
    trends of a country or region.
  • Most of the industrialized and technologically
    developed countries have reached zero population
    growth, in which the birthrate and death rate are
    equal.

The Demographic Transition Model
16
Section 1
Population Growth (cont.)
  • Rapid population growth presents many challenges
    to the global community
  • difficulty producing enough food to feed everyone
  • a shortage of resources
  • an uneven distribution of age

17
Section 1
Population Growth (cont.)
  • Countries, such as Hungary and Germany, have
    experienced negative population growth, in which
    the annual death rate exceeds the annual
    birthrate.

18
Section 1
Which of the following will help with problems
due to rapid population growth? A. Fertilizers B.
Irrigation systems C. New varieties of
crops D. All of the above
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

19
Section 1
Population Distribution
World population distribution is uneven and is
influenced by migration and the Earths physical
geography.
  • Almost everyone on Earth lives on a little less
    than one-third of the planets land.

20
Section 1
Population Distribution (cont.)
  • Population Density
  • To determine population density in a country,
    geographers divide the total population of the
    country by its total land area.
  • This does not account for uneven population
    distribution.

World Population Density
21
Section 1
Population Distribution (cont.)
  • Population Movement
  • Many people are moving to urban areas.
  • The primary cause of urbanization is the desire
    of rural people to find jobs and a better life in
    more prosperous urban areas.
  • Population movement also occurs between countries.

Urban Growth in Selected Cities
22
Section 1
Which country has one of the highest population
densities in the world? A. Bangladesh B. Canada C.
Sweden D. China
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

23
Section 1-End
24
Section 2-GTR
Global Cultures
How does the spatial interaction of cultures
affect human systems?
25
Section 2-GTR
Global Cultures
  • culture
  • cultural diffusion
  • culture hearth
  • language family
  • ethnic group
  • culture region
  • similar
  • major

26
Section 2-GTR
Global Cultures
A. Egypt
B. Iraq
C. Pakistan
D. China
E. Mexico
27
Section 2
Global Cultures
When studying a culture, what areas are looked
at? A. Language and religion B. Daily life,
history, and art C. All of the above
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

28
Section 2
Elements of Culture
Geographers divide the Earth into culture
regions, which are defined by the presence of
common elements such as language and religion.
  • A particular culture can be understood by looking
    at the following elements
  • Language
  • Religion

World Language Families
29
Section 2
Elements of Culture (cont.)
  • Social Groups
  • Government and Economy
  • Culture Regions

World Culture Regions
30
Section 2
Groups of people ranked according to ancestry,
wealth, education, or other criteria fall under
which term? A. Social group B. Social
class C. Ethnic group
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

31
Section 2
Cultural Change
Internal and external forces change cultures over
time.
  • The Agricultural Revolution
  • The shift from hunting and gathering food to
    producing food is known as the Agricultural
    Revolution.
  • Some of the farming villages evolved into
    civilizations.

32
Section 2
Cultural Change (cont.)
  • The worlds first civilizations arose in culture
    hearths.
  • The most influential culture hearths developed in
    areas that make up the modern countries of
  • Egypt
  • Iraq
  • Pakistan
  • China
  • Mexico

World Culture Hearths
33
Section 2
Cultural Change (cont.)
  • They have certain geographic features in common
  • Mild climate
  • Fertile land
  • Located near a major river or source of water

34
Section 2
Cultural Change (cont.)
  • Cultural contact among different civilizations
    promoted cultural change as ideas and practices
    spread through trade and travel.

35
Section 2
Cultural Change (cont.)
  • Industrial and Information Revolutions
  • In the late 1700s and 1800s some countries
    experienced the Industrial Revolution, which led
    to social changes.
  • At the end of the 1900s, the information
    revolution opened doors for experiencing new
    cultures.

36
Section 2
Which of the following set the stage for the
rise of cities and civilizations? A. Nomadic
hunting B. Housing C. Surplus food D. Military
power
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

37
Section 2-End
38
Section 3-GTR
Political and Economical Systems
What types of human systems provide the power for
groups of people to control Earths surface?
39
Section 3-GTR
Political and Economical Systems
  • unitary system
  • democracy
  • traditional economy
  • market economy
  • mixed economy
  • command economy
  • federal system
  • autocracy
  • monarchy
  • oligarchy

40
Section 3-GTR
Political and Economical Systems
  • unique
  • authority
  • assembly

41
Section 3-GTR
Political and Economical Systems
A. United States
B. Saudi Arabia
C. United Kingdom
D. China
E. Vietnam
42
Section 3
Political and Economic Systems
An oligarchy is a government ruled by what? A. A
few individuals B. A single individual C. Many
individuals
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

43
Section 3
Features of Government
Territory, population, and sovereignty influence
levels and types of governments in countries
around the world.
  • Levels of government
  • Most countries have several levels of government,
    ranging from the national level to the village
    level.

44
Section 3
Features of Government (cont.)
  • Two types of government systems are
  • Unitarythe United Kingdom and France use this
    system.
  • Federalthe United States, Canada and Switzerland
    are three of many countries that use this system.

45
Section 3
Features of Government (cont.)
  • All governments belong to one of three major
    groups
  • Autocracyrule by one person
  • A monarchy is another form of autocratic
    government.
  • Oligarchyrule by a few people
  • Democracyrule by many people

46
Section 3
Which form of government do you feel works best
and why? A. Autocracy B. Oligarchy C. Democracy
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

47
Section 3
Economic Systems
The three major economic systems are traditional
economy, market economy, and command economy.
  • All economic systems must make three basic
    economic decisions
  • What and how many goods and services should be
    produced

48
Section 3
Economic Systems (cont.)
  • How should they be produced
  • Who gets the goods and services that are produced
  • These decisions are made differently in the three
    major economic systems
  • Traditionalhabit and custom determine the rules.
  • Marketthis economy is based on free enterprise,
    the idea that private individuals or groups have
    the right to own property or businesses and make
    a profit with only limited government
    interference.

49
Section 3
Economic Systems (cont.)
  • Most market economies are actually mixed
    economies.
  • Commandthe government controls the economy is
    this system.

50
Section 3
Economic Systems (cont.)
  • Two types of command economies
  • Communiststrict government control of the entire
    society
  • Socialistthree main goals of this type of
    economy
  • An equitable distribution of wealth and economic
    opportunity
  • Societys control, through its government, makes
    decisions about public goods.
  • Public ownership of services and factories that
    are essential.

51
Section 3
Capitalism is another term for which type of
economy? A. Traditional B. Market C. Command
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

52
Section 3-End
53
Section 4-GTR
Resources, Trade, and the Environment
How does the availability and use of natural
resources affect economic activities and the
environment?
54
Section 4-GTR
Resources, Trade, and the Environment
  • natural resource
  • developing country
  • free trade
  • pollution
  • industrialization
  • developed country
  • newly industrialized country

55
Section 4-GTR
Resources, Trade, and the Environment
  • ensure
  • benefit
  • conduct

56
Section 4-GTR
Resources, Trade, and the Environment
A. Malaysia
B. European Union
57
Section 4
Resources, Trade, and the Environment
Geographers and economists classify the worlds
economic activities into how many
types? A. Eight B. Two C. Four
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C

58
Section 4
Resource Management
Natural resources must be managed to ensure
future needs.
  • Because fossil fuels, such as coal and oil, and
    other nonrenewable resources cannot be replaced,
    they must be conserved.

59
Section 4
Resource Management (cont.)
  • Alternative energy sources
  • Hydroelectric power
  • Solar energy
  • Nuclear energy

The Global Economy
60
Section 4
Which is a renewable resource? A. Oil B. Minerals
C. Coal D. Sun
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

61
Section 4
Economies and World Trade
Countries with varying levels of economic
development have become increasingly
interdependent through world trade.
  • Geographers and economists classify all of the
    worlds economic activities into four types
  • Primary economic activitiestaking or using
    natural resources directly from the Earth

62
Section 4
Economies and World Trade (cont.)
  • Secondary economic activitiesraw materials are
    used to produce something new and more valuable.
  • Tertiary economic activitiesprovide services to
    people and businesses
  • Quaternary economic activitiesthe processing,
    management, and distribution of information

The Global Economy
63
Section 4
Economies and World Trade (cont.)
  • Factors affecting trade
  • The unequal distribution of natural resources
  • Differences in labor costs
  • Differences in education levels

64
Section 4
Economies and World Trade (cont.)
  • Barriers to trade
  • Tariffs
  • Embargos
  • A quota on the quantity of a product that can be
    imported from a country
  • Many governments around the world have moved
    toward free trade.

World Economic Trends
65
Section 4
Manufacturing automobiles would fall under with
type of economic activity? A. Primary B. Secondary
C. Tertiary D. Quaternary
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

66
Section 4
People and the Environment
Economic activities have led to environmental
pollution.
  • The water, land, and air have all been polluted
    due to human activity.
  • When humans harm natural ecosystems, they are
    also hurting themselves.

67
Section 4
What is a solution to our pollution
problems? A. Plant more trees B. Reduce chemical
spills C. Alternative fueled cars D. All of the
above
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

68
Section 4-End
69
VS 1
  • World Population
  • Population growth increased rapidly, but unevenly
    throughout the twentieth century and into the
    twenty-first century.
  • The worlds population is unevenly distributed.
    Large numbers of people are migrating from rural
    areas to cities for jobs or to escape famine and
    war.
  • As people become more mobile, so do goods.
    Countries trade to gain access to resources they
    lack.

70
VS 2
  • World Culture
  • Language, religion, social groups, government,
    and economic activities define cultures.
  • Geographers divide the Earth into specific
    culture regions.
  • Trade, migration, war, and technology can change
    cultures.
  • The worlds first civilizations arose in culture
    hearths in Central America, Africa, and Asia.

71
VS 3
  • Government and Economic Systems
  • Governments may be organized as a unitary system,
    a federal system, or a confederation.
  • An autocracy, an oligarchy, and a democracy
    differ in the way they exercise authority.
  • The three major economic systems are traditional
    economy, market economy, and command economy.
  • The type of economic system helps determine how a
    country will view international trade. Market
    economies are more open to free trade, while
    command economies are likely to put up trade
    barriers.

72
VS-End
73
Figure 1
74
Figure 2
75
Figure 3
76
Figure 4
77
Figure 5
78
Figure 6
79
Figure 7
80
Figure 8
81
DFS Trans 1
82
DFS Trans 2
83
DFS Trans 3
84
DFS Trans 4
85
Vocab1
death rate the number of deaths per year for
every 1,000 people
86
Vocab2
birthrate the number of births per year for
every 1,000 people
87
Vocab3
natural increase the growth rate of a population
the difference between birthrate and death rate
88
Vocab4
migration the movement of people from place to
place
89
Vocab5
demographic transition the model that uses
birthrates and death rates to show changes in the
population trends of a country or region
90
Vocab6
doubling time the number of years it takes a
population to double in size
91
Vocab7
population distribution the pattern of
population in a country, a continent, or the world
92
Vocab8
population density the average number of people
in a square mile or square kilometer
93
Vocab9
culture way of life of a group of people who
share beliefs and similar customs
94
Vocab10
language family group of related languages that
have all developed from one earlier language
95
Vocab11
ethnic group group of people who share common
ancestry, language, religion, customs, or
combination of such characteristics
96
Vocab12
culture region division of the Earth based on a
variety of factors, including government, social
groups, economic systems, language, or religion
97
Vocab13
cultural diffusion the spread of new knowledge
and skills from one culture to another
98
Vocab14
culture hearth a center where cultures developed
and from which ideas and traditions spread outward
99
Vocab15
unitary system a government in which all key
powers are given to the national or central
government
100
Vocab16
federal system form of government in which
powers are divided between the national
government and the state or provincial government
101
Vocab17
autocracy government in which one person rules
with unlimited power and authority
102
Vocab18
monarchy a form of autocracy with a hereditary
king or queen exercising supreme power
103
Vocab19
oligarchy system of government in which a small
group holds power
104
Vocab20
democracy any system of government in which
leaders rule with consent of the citizens
105
Vocab21
traditional economy a system in which tradition
and custom control all economic activity exists
in only a few parts of the world today
106
Vocab22
market economy an economic system based on free
enterprise, in which businesses are privately
owned, and production and prices are determined
by supply and demand
107
Vocab23
mixed economy a system of resource management in
which the government supports and regulates
enterprise through decisions that affect the
marketplace
108
Vocab24
command economy system of resource management in
which decisions about production and distribution
of goods and services are made by a central
authority
109
Vocab25
natural resource substance from the earth that
is not made by people but can be used by them
110
Vocab26
industrialization transition from an
agricultural society to one based on industry
111
Vocab27
developed country country that has a great deal
of technology and manufacturing
112
Vocab28
newly industrialized country a country that has
begun transitioning from primarily agricultural
to primarily manufacturing and industry activity
113
Vocab29
developing country country in the process of
becoming industrialized
114
Vocab30
free trade the removal of trade barriers so that
goods can flow freely between countries
115
Vocab31
pollution the existence of impure, unclean, or
poisonous substances in the air, water, or land
116
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