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1. Climate Change Mitigation (protecting the environment) 2. Climate Change Adaptation (protection from the environment)

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1. Climate Change Mitigation (protecting the environment) 2. Climate Change Adaptation (protection from the environment) Karen Walker, ProAct Network – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 1. Climate Change Mitigation (protecting the environment) 2. Climate Change Adaptation (protection from the environment)


1
1. Climate Change Mitigation (protecting the
environment) 2. Climate Change Adaptation
(protection from the environment)
Karen Walker, ProAct Network Martin Suvatne,
Shelter Adviser, Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)
2
1.Climate Change Mitigation (protecting the
environment)
  • EXAMPLE Burundi NRC shelter solutions

3
NRC Shelter Program Burundi
  • Reintegration of Burundian returnees from
    Tanzania,
  • Protection of Congolese refugees in camps since
    1997
  • gt 13,000 Shelters focus on ownership and
    responsibility
  • gt 200 permanent and 600 semi-permanent classrooms
  • Study on improvements or possible alternatives
    for the use of materials with limited adverse
    environmental impact

4

Typical solutions for returnees
  • NRC Shelter Policy
  • Integrate environmentally friendly materials and
    appropriate technology

5
NRC provides basic materials
6
Temporary Schools
  • Timber frame plastic sheeting walls
    corrugated iron roof
  • Cost USD 1,300
  • Lifespan up to 5 yrs

7
Semi-permanent Schools
  • Adobe structure on hardcore foundation
  • Reinforced concrete columns
  • Timber frame corrugated iron roof
  • Cement block windows
  • Cost USD 3,500
  • Lifespan 15 to 20 years

8
Permanent Schools
  • Reinforced concrete structure completed with
    fired bricks
  • Metallic frame and corrugated iron roof
  • Cost USD 12,000

9
Environmental Impact
  • Key considerations
  • Adobe bricks where from? topsoil reuse? safety
    of pits?
  • Fired bricks where from? type of kiln?
    efficiency and wood use?
  • Hardcore, gravel source? sensitive area?
  • Timber source? type of wood? certified?
  • Iron sheeting source? transport?
  • Local purchase vs. import and transport
  • Environmental checklist

10
Conclusion
  • Knowledge of suppliers and material sources
  • Appropriate designs developed with local
    communities and
  • technicians
  • Awareness of key environmental impacts (simple
    checklist)
  • ? Simple, local measures can ensure that NRC
    reduces its
  • contribution to the global problem (a bit at
    least)

11
Wood Distribution, Use and Management
Wood distribution
12
Wood Distribution, Use and Management
Charcoal production
13
Cooking Practices and Stoves
Traditional 3 stone fire
Improved mud stove
Locally made charcoal stove
14
Briquettes Tabarigiti
  • Made in Bujumbura from
  • 50 coffee husk
  • 20 rice husk
  • 15 cotton husk
  • 10 cow dung
  • 5 wood chips
  • Common complaints slow lighting
  • excessive smoke inefficient

15
Firewood Use Main Issues
  • Evidence of excessive wood distribution -
    charcoal production
  • Supplier certificates may be fake
  • Low awareness and knowledge of fuel-efficient
    cooking techniques
  • Food types such as beans increase cooking time
    and wood consumption
  • Adding insulation to shelters would reduce wood
    consumption for heating
  • Lack of baseline data on surrounding forestry
    resources and management

16
2. Climate Change Adaptation (protection from the
environment)
  • Risk Analysis and Cost-Benefit Analysis

17
RISK ANALYSIS
Source GTZ, Toolkit Disaster Risk Management,
Eschborn 2006
18
RISK ANALYSIS
Institutional characteristics technical and
financial capacities, responsibilities,
roles, Legal frameworks, norms, laws, human
rights, Politics, corruption, power and
property structures, Poverty, Risk and
protection perception, local wisdom, Education,
social organizations (NGOs), access to
information, Gender aspects, minorities, old
and young people,
Usable soil, soil stability Usable water,
Vegetation, biodiversity, forests, resource
degradation, Stability of the ecosystems.
Source GTZ, Toolkit Disaster Risk Management,
Eschborn 2006
19
RISK ANALYSIS
  • Technical construction method/quality of
    settlements and buildings,
  • Basic infrastructure (transport, energy,
    communications, water),
  • Population growth and density, age structure.

Socioeconomic status, income and economic
structure, Land use, technology and
agricultural cultivation structure, Access to
resources and services (water, energy, health,
transport) Reserves and financing
opportunities Incentive or enforcement systems
for prevention and mitigation,
Source GTZ, Toolkit Disaster Risk Management,
Eschborn 2006
20
RISK ANALYSIS
Source GTZ, Toolkit Disaster Risk Management,
Eschborn 2005
21
RISK ANALYSIS
Map of Floods Potential in DIY Source Pusat
Studi Bencana UGM. 2007
22
RISK ANALYSIS ? LAND USE PLANNING
Land use proposed for urban areas. Source POT
Bogota, 2000
23
LAND USE PLANNING ? COMMUNITY PLANNING
24
COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
Major weather-induced natural disasters, 1950
2002 (source Münchener Rück - Munich Re)
25
COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
Encompasses calculation of the probability that a
natural event will occur at a given location with
a certain intensity what can happen and how
often?
The degree of destruction from the
humanitarian, economic and ecological
perspectives as a function of the intensity of
the event how severe will it be?
Source GTZ, Toolkit Disaster Risk Management,
Eschborn 2006
26
COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
The combination of hazard and vulnerability
functions yields the risk the probability that
damage will occur on a certain scale how big
will the damage be?
The costs of risk reduction result from the
construction and maintenance costs for an
infrastructural measures and human resources
development how much would it cost to prevent
destruction?
Source GTZ, Toolkit Disaster Risk Management,
Eschborn 2006
27
COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
the original loss-frequency curve,
generated without risk-reducing measures, is
compared with the loss-frequency curve with risk
reduction. what seems cheaper, prevention or pay
the damage?
The total net benefit of a project is determined
by extrapolating the benefits calculated in step
5 onto the lifespan of the project. The total
costs for preventive measures, and maintenance
costs, are then subtracted from this value. what
is cheaper in the long run?
Source GTZ, Toolkit Disaster Risk Management,
Eschborn 2006
28
COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
Methods to determine the net benefit of
projects A probabilistic approach,
which calculates the risk on the basis of a
detailed analysis of hazard and vulnerability.
A damage-based approach, which takes damage
caused by past events as a basis for calculating
the present and future risk.
Source GTZ, Toolkit Disaster Risk Management,
Eschborn 2006
29
1.Climate Change Reduction (protecting the
environment) 2. Climate Change Adaptation
(protection from the environment)
  • Discussion Points
  • What do we know about the impact of the changed
    climate on shelter?
  • What do we have to do different with our shelter?
  • What does it cost to build different shelter and
    neigbourhoods?
  • What does climate change mitigation mean to us?
  • What does climate change adaptation mean to us?
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