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Warm-Up

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Warm-Up What are the 4 classes of macromolecules? Give an example of each type of macromolecule. Cellulose vs. Starch Two Forms of Glucose: glucose & glucose ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Warm-Up


1
Warm-Up
  1. What are the 4 classes of macromolecules?
  2. Give an example of each type of macromolecule.

2
Ch. 3 Warm-Up Activity
  • In your family groups, complete 1-5 on Activity
    4/5.1 How can you identify organic
    macromolecules?

3
Warm-Up
  1. What are the 4 levels of protein structure? What
    bonds are formed in each level?
  2. Which protein was involved in the curds whey
    lab yesterday?
  3. Explain what happened to the milk to form the
    curds and whey.

4
Chapter 3
  • The Structure and Function of Large Biological
    Molecules

5
You Must Know
  • The role of dehydration synthesis in the
    formation of organic compounds and hydrolysis in
    the digestion of organic compounds.
  • How to recognize the 4 biologically important
    organic compounds (carbs, lipids, proteins,
    nucleic acids) by their structural formulas.
  • The cellular functions of all four organic
    compounds.
  • The 4 structural levels of proteins
  • How proteins reach their final shape
    (conformation) and the denaturing impact that
    heat and pH can have on protein structure

6
Monomers Polymers Macromolecules
Small organic Used for building blocks of polymers Connects with condensation reaction (dehydration synthesis) Long molecules of monomers With many identical or similar blocks linked by covalent bonds Giant molecules 2 or more polymers bonded together
ie. amino acid ? peptide ? polypeptide ? protein
larger
smaller
7
Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation Reaction) Hydrolysis
Make polymers Breakdown polymers
Monomers ? Polymers Polymers ? Monomers
A B ? AB AB ? A B

8
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9
I. Proteins
  • Proteios first or primary
  • 50 dry weight of cells
  • Contains C, H, O, N, S

Myoglobin protein
10
Protein Functions ( examples)
  • Enzymes (lactase)
  • Defense (antibodies)
  • Storage (milk protein casein)
  • Transport (hemoglobin)
  • Hormones (insulin)
  • Receptors
  • Movement (motor proteins)
  • Structure (keratin)

11
Overview of protein functions
12
Overview of protein functions
13
Four Levels of Protein Structure
  • Primary
  • Amino acid (AA) sequence
  • 20 different AAs
  • peptide bonds link AAs

14
Amino Acid
  • R group side chains
  • Properties
  • hydrophobic
  • hydrophilic
  • ionic (acids bases)
  • amino -NH2
  • acid -COOH

15
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16
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17
Four Levels of Protein Structure (continued)
  • Secondary
  • Gains 3-D shape (folds, coils) by H-bonding
  • Alpha (a) helix, Beta (ß) pleated sheet

18
Four Levels of Protein Structure (continued)
  • Tertiary
  • Bonding between side chains (R groups) of amino
    acids
  • H bonds, ionic bonds, disulfide bridges, van der
    Waals interactions

19
Four Levels of Protein Structure (continued)
  • Quaternary
  • 2 polypeptides bond together

20
amino acids ? polypeptides ? protein
Bonding (ionic H) can create asymmetrical
attractions
21
Chaperonins assist in proper folding of proteins
22
  • Protein structure and function are sensitive to
    chemical and physical conditions
  • Unfolds or denatures if pH and temperature are
    not optimal

23
change in structure change in function
24
Illustrative Examples
  • Variations within proteins provide a wider range
    of functions
  • Different types of hemoglobin
  • MHC proteins

25
II. Nucleic Acids
  • Function store hereditary info

DNA RNA
Double-stranded helix N-bases A, G, C, Thymine Stores hereditary info Longer/larger Sugar deoxyribose Single-stranded N-bases A, G, C, Uracil Carry info from DNA to ribosomes tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, RNAi Sugar ribose
26
Nucleotides monomer of DNA/RNA
  • Nucleotide Sugar Phosphate Nitrogen Base

27
Nucleotide
phosphate
A T G C
Nitrogen base
Purines Pyrimidines
Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine (DNA) Uracil (RNA)
Double ring Single ring
5-C sugar
28
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29
Information flow in a cellDNA ? RNA ? protein
30
III. Carbohydrates
  • Fuel and building material
  • Include simple sugars (fructose) and polymers
    (starch)
  • Ratio of 1 carbon 2 hydrogen 1 oxygen or CH2O
  • monosaccharide ? disaccharide ? polysaccharide
  • Monosaccharides monomers (eg. glucose, ribose)
  • Polysaccharides
  • Storage (plants-starch, animals-glycogen)
  • Structure (plant-cellulose, arthropod-chitin)

Differ in position orientation of glycosidic
linkage
31
The structure and classification of some
monosaccharides
32
Linear and ring forms of glucose
33
Carbohydrate synthesis
34
Cellulose vs. Starch
  • Two Forms of Glucose ? glucose ? glucose

35
Cellulose vs. Starch
  • Starch ? glucose monomers
  • Cellulose ? glucose monomers

36
Storage polysaccharides of plants (starch) and
animals (glycogen)
37
Structural polysaccharides cellulose chitin
(exoskeleton)
38
II. Lipids
  • Fats (triglyceride) store energy
  • Glycerol 3 Fatty Acids
  • saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated
  • Steroids cholesterol and hormones
  • Phospholipids lipid bilayer of cell membrane
  • hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tails

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40
Saturated Unsaturated Polyunsaturated
saturated with H Have some CC, result in kinks Have some CC, result in kinks
In animals In plants In plants
Solid at room temp. Liquid at room temp. Liquid at room temp.
Eg. butter, lard Eg. corn oil, olive oil Eg. corn oil, olive oil
41
Cholesterol, a steroid
42
The structure of a phospholipid
43
Hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions make a
phospholipid bilayer
44
Illustrative Example
  • Different types of phospholipids

45
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