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Consumer Learning

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Consumer Behavior, Eighth Edition SCHIFFMAN & KANUK Chapter 7 Consumer Learning The Importance of Consumer Learning to New Product Success Why did these products fail? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Consumer Learning


1
Chapter 7
Consumer Behavior, Eighth Edition SCHIFFMAN
KANUK
  • Consumer Learning

2
The Importance of Consumer Learning to New
Product Success
  • Why did these products fail?
  • Listerine Toothpaste
  • Ben-Gay Aspirin
  • Why did Pocket Packs succeed?

3
Importance of Learning
  • Marketers must teach consumers
  • where to buy
  • how to use
  • how to maintain
  • how to dispose of products

4
Learning Theories
  • Behavioral Theories Theories based on the basis
    that learning takes place as the result of
    observable responses to external stimuli. Also
    known as stimulus response theory.
  • Cognitive Theories A theory of learning based on
    mental information processing, often in response
    to problem solving.

5
Consumer Learning
A process by which individuals acquire the
purchase and consumption knowledge and
experience that they apply to future related
behavior.
6
Learning Processes
  • Intentional learning acquired as a result of a
    careful search for information
  • Incidental learning acquired by accident or
    without much effort

7
Consumer learning contd.
  • Example
  • some ads may induce learning (Brand names) even
    though the consumers attention is elsewhere (on a
    magzine article rather than the ads on facing
    page)
  • Other ads are sought out and carefully read by
    consumers for making a purchase decision.

8
Elements of Learning Theories
  • Motivation
  • Cues
  • Response
  • Reinforcement

9
Motivation
  • The degree of relevance or involvement
    determines consumer level of motivation to search
    for
  • knowledge OR
  • information about a product or a service.

10
Cues
  • Motives serve to stimulate learning,
  • Cues are the stimuli that gives direction to
    these motives e.g. an ad is a cue for consumer
    motivation for a specific product or service.
  • In the market place price, styling, packaging,
    advertising and the store displays all serve as
    cues.

11
Cues
  • Marketers teach motivated consumer segments why
    and how their products will fulfill the consumers
    need.
  • Motives serve to stimulate learning.

12
Response
  • How individuals react to a drive or cue
  • How they behave constitute their response e.g. a
    marketer that provides consistent cues to a
    consumer may not always succeed in stimulating a
    purchase.

13
Response contd
  • However if marketer succeeds in forming a
    favorable image of a particular product in
    consumers mind.
  • It is likely that he or she will consider that
    product.

14
Reinforcement
A positive or negative outcome that influences
the likelihood that a specific behavior will be
repeated in the future in response to a
particular cue or stimulus.
15
Figure 7.1 Product Usage Leads to Reinforcement
16
Behavioral Learning Theories
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Instrumental Conditioning
  • Modeling or Observational Learning

17
Classical Conditioning
A behavioral learning theory according to which a
stimulus is paired with another stimulus that
elicits a known response that serves to produce
the same response when used alone.
18
Example
  • If you usually listen to the 9 o clock news
    while waiting for dinner to be served you would
    tend to associate the 9 o, clock news with
    dinner, So that eventually the sounds of the 9 o
    clock news alone might cause your mouth to water
    even if dinner was not being prepared and even if
    you were not hungry.

19
Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning
A behavioral theory of learning based on a
trial-and-error process, with habits forced as
the result of positive experiences
(reinforcement) resulting from certain responses
or behaviors.
20
Figure 7.2B Analogous Model of Classical
Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus Dinner aroma
Unconditioned Response Salivation
Conditioned Stimulus 9 oclock news
AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS
Conditioned Stimulus 9 oclock news
Conditioned Response Salivation
21
Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning
  • Repetition
  • Stimulus Generalization
  • Stimulus Discrimination

22
Repetition
  • Repetition increases strength of associations and
    slows forgetting but over time may result in
    advertising wearout.

Figure 7.3 Cosmetic Variations in Ads
23
Three-Hit Theory
  • Repetition is the basis for the idea that three
    exposures to an ad are necessary for the ad to be
    effective
  • The number of actual repetitions to equal three
    exposures is in question.

24
Three-Hit Theory
  • 1) to make consumers aware of the product
  • 2) to show cosumers the relevance of the product
  • 3) to remind them of its benefits
  • according to others marketing scholars
  • 11 to 12 repetitions

25
Stimulus Generalization
The inability to perceive differences between
slightly dissimilar stimuli.
26
Continued.
  • It explain why some imitative me-too products
    succeed in the market place.
  • Because
  • Consumers confuse them with original product they
    have seen advertised

27
Example
  • That an individual can learn to take dinner not
    only to the sound of 9 o clock news but also to
    the some what similar sound of Azan.

28
Stimulus Generalization and Marketing
  • Product Line, Form and Category Extensions
  • Family Branding
  • Licensing
  • Generalizing Usage Situations

29
Figure 7.5 Product Line Extension (adding related
products to an already established brand)
30
Product form extensions
  • Such as crest toothpaste to to crest whitestrips,
  • Listerine mouthwash to listerine paks
  • Bath soaps to liquid soaps

31
Figure 7.6 Product Form Extensions
32
Figure 7.7 Product Category Extensions
33
Family branding
  • The practice of marketing a whole line of company
    products under the same brand name

34
Family branding
  • The practice of marketing a whole line of company
    products under the same brand name.
  • A strategy that capitalizes on the consumers
    ability to generalized favorable brand
    associations from one product to others e.g
    Nestle

35
Licensing
  • Allowing a well known brand name to be affixed to
    products of another manufacturer.
  • A strategy that operates on the principle of
    stimulus generalizations.
  • Examples names of designers, manufacturers,
    celebrities, corporations and even cartoon
    characters are attached for a fee i.e rented.

36
Figure 7-8 Shoe Manufacturer Licenses Its Name
37
Stimulus Discrimination
The ability to select a specific stimulus from
among similar stimuli because of perceived
differences.
Positioning
Differentiation
38
Figure 7.10 A Model of Instrumental Conditioning
39
Instrumental Conditioning
  • Consumers learn by means of trial and error
    process in which some purchase behaviors result
    in more favorable outcomes (rewards) than other
    purchase behaviors.
  • A favorable experience is instrumental in
    teaching the individual to repeat a specific
    behavior.

40
Instrumental Conditioning and Marketing
  • Customer Satisfaction (Reinforcement)
  • Reinforcement Schedules
  • Shaping
  • Massed versus Distributed Learning

41
Reinforcement
  • Negative Reinforcement Unpleasant or negative
    outcomes that serve to encourage a specific
    behavior
  • Example Ad showing wrinkled (smooth) skin as
    reinforcement to buy skin cream
  • Positive Reinforcement Positive outcomes that
    strengthen the likelihood of a specific response
  • Example Ad showing beautiful hair as a
    reinforcement to buy shampoo

42
Observational Learning
A process by which individuals observe the
behavior of others, and consequences of such
behavior. Also known as modeling or vicarious
(observational) learning.
43
Model or observational learning
  • Consumers often observe how others behave in
    response to certain situations (stimuli) and the
    ensuing (subsequent) results (reinforcement) that
    occur
  • The imitate (model) the positively reinforced
    behavior when faced with similar situations.

44
Figure 7.11 Consumers Learn by Modeling
45
Cognitive Learning Theory
Holds that the kind of learning most
characteristic of human beings is problem
solving, which enables individuals to gain some
control over their environment.
46
Figure 7.12 Appeal to Cognitive Processing
47
Information Processing
A cognitive theory of human learning patterned
after computer information processing that
focuses on how information is stored in human
memory and how it is retrieved.
48
Figure 7.13 Information Processing and Memory
Stores
Sensory Store
Working Memory (Short-term Store)
Long-term Store
Sensory Input
Rehearsal
Encoding
Retrieval
Forgotten lost
Forgotten lost
Forgotten unavailable
49
Retention
  • Information is stored in long-term memory
  • Episodically by the order in which it is
    acquired
  • Semantically according to significant concepts

50
Table 7.1 Models of Cognitive Learning
Innovation Adoption Model
Decision-Making Model
Tricomponent Model
Innovation Decision Process
Promotional Model
Sequential Stages of Processing
Attention
Cognitive
Knowledge
Awareness
Awareness Knowledge
Affective
Evaluation
Interest Evaluation
Persuasion
Interest Desire
Action
Conative
Purchase Postpurchase Evaluation
Trial Adoption
Decision Confirmation
51
Involvement Theory
A theory of consumer learning which postulates
that consumers engage in a range of information
processing activity from extensive to limited
problem solving, depending on the relevance of
the purchase.
52
Figure 7.14 Split Brain Theory
Figure 7.14
  • Right/ Left Brain Hemispheres specialize in
    certain functions

53
Figure 7.15 Encouraging Right and Left
Brain Processing
54
Issues in Involvement Theory
  • Involvement Theory and Media Strategy
  • Involvement Theory and Consumer Relevance
  • Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion
  • Measures of Involvement

55
Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion
A theory that proposes that highly involved
consumers are best reached through ads that focus
on the specific attributes of the product (the
central route) while uninvolved consumers can be
attracted through peripheral advertising cues
such as the model or the setting (the peripheral
route).
56
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
A theory that suggests that a persons level of
involvement during message processing is a
critical factor in determining which route to
persuasion is likely to be effective.
57
Figure 7.16 Peripheral Route to Persuasion
58
Figure 7.17 Unexpected Headline Metaphor
Increases Impact
59
The Elaboration Likelihood Model
Involvement
HIGH
LOW
Central Route
Peripheral Route
Message Arguments Influence Attitudes
Peripheral Cues Influence Attitudes
60
Measures of Consumer Learning
  • Recognition and Recall Measures
  • Aided and Unaided Recall
  • Cognitive Responses to Advertising
  • Copytesting Measures
  • Attitudinal and Behavioral Measures of Brand
    Loyalty

61
Figure 7.18 Starch Readership Scores Measure
Learning
62
Phases of Brand Loyalty
  • Cognitive
  • Affective
  • Conative
  • Action

63
Figure 7.19 Brand Loyalty As A Function of
Relative Attitude and Patronage Behavior
Repeat Patronage
High
Low
Latent Loyalty
Loyalty
High
Relative Attitude
No Loyalty
Spurious Loyalty
Low
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