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Status of cryospheric observations in South America

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Status of cryospheric observations in South America Gino Casassa Geoestudios & University of Magallanes Chile GLOBAL CYOSPHERE WATCH GCW White Glaciers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Status of cryospheric observations in South America


1
Status of cryospheric observations in South
America Gino Casassa Geoestudios University of
Magallanes Chile
GLOBAL CYOSPHERE WATCH GCW
2
Latin American Cryosphere
  • White Glaciers National Agencies, GTNH,
    Research Institutions
  • ltGLOFs - jokulhlaups, glacier slides, ice
    avalanchesgt
  • Rock Glaciers Mining companies, Research
    Institutions, National Agencies (starting)
  • Permafrost Mining companies, Research
    Institutions (Darío Trombotto, IANIGLA, Mendoza)
  • Snow Hydrology National Agencies, Research
    Institutions, Water Hydroelectric Companies
  • Snow Avalanches National Agencies, Research
    Institutions, Mining companies
  • Lake River Ice No active research/monitoring

3
RECENT INCREASE OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS
RELATED TO GLACIERS
  • 2006. CHILE FREEZES GLACIER LAW.
  • 2009. CHILE approves Glacier Policy, with a
    glacier definition that has no lower limit on
    size, and which accepts a glacier as an ice mass
    having no flow.
  • Even small snowfields can now be considered as
    glaciers.
  • 2010. CHILE modifies Environmental Impact
    Assessment (EIA) law, now includes glaciers.
  • 2012. ARGENTINA approves Glacier Law, includes as
    well periglacial environment with hydrological
    significance.
  • 2013. CHILE. Changes to EIA. Glacier drilling now
    needed.

4
Schwikowski et al., 2004
5
Francou et al., 2013
6
A) WHITE GLACIERS
Clean Glacier all surface debris free.
Glaciar Olivares Alfa
Glaciar Olivares Gama, sub-subcuenca Olivares.
Glaciar del Paine Grande, Magallanes
Covered Glacier partly covered by debris.
Geoestudios, 2013
Glaciar San Francisco, subcuenca Alto Maipo.
7
ROCK GLACIER
Flujo
Glaciar Pedregoso, cuenca Río Aconcagua
Geoestudios, 2013
Zanja de exploración en glaciar Monolito, que
fluye de derecha a izquierda. Bandas oscuras en
el hielo son planos de cizalle en la Zona de
Ablación (zona de compresión).
  • Cubierta de detritos Espesor 0,3 a 3,3 m de
    gravas angulosas. Conductividad térmica 0,20 a
    0,26 (media 0,217) W/mK
  • Núcleo de hielo Espesor gt40 m. 78 a 82
    promedio de hielo, resto detritos rocosos,
    principalmente en bandas.
  • Morrena basal 50 hielo, 50 detritos rocosos.
    Espesor, algunos metros.

8
GLACIERS IN SOUTH AMERICA 28,000 km2 (10 of
all mountain glaciers) excluding glaciers in
Antarctic Peninsula Greenland PATAGONIAN
ICEFIELDS NPI 4,000 km2 SPI 12,500 km2.
TOTAL 16,500 km2, 60 in area of all South
American glaciers area
Global Glacier Changes facts and figures,
UNEP-WGMS, 2009
9
GLACIERS in SOUTH AMERICA
Casassa, VICC 2010
10
Bahr et al. (1997) V
0,025A? where A Area
V volume ? 1.37 for
valley glaciers ? 1.25 for
ice caps
Casassa, VICC 2010
11
http//www.geofisica.unam.mx/popoc/colaboracion/GT
NH/
12
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13
  • México only 2 mountains are glacier-covered,
    with a reduction of more than 20 in the last 50
    years
  • Venezuela 87 glacier loss during the last 50
    years
  • Colombia 2-5 annual retreat during the last 10
    years
  • Ecuador glacier reduction of 27 in 1997-2006
  • Peru, Cordillera Blanca in 1970-2008 glacier
    reduction gt26
  • Chile Argentina, northern sector starting in
    1980 glaciers (monitored since 1970) have
    incremented their retreat glaciers in central
    and southern Chile and Argentina are losing ice,
    many times in an accelerated rate, with only a
    few cases of stable advancing glaciers

14
2012 NOVEMBER MEETING OF GTNH in CUZCO,
Peru 2013 QUITO, Ecuador
15
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17
Francou et al., 2013
18
CHILE
19
CHILE
20
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21
SNOW ROUTES North of Chile Pascua Lama
22
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23
Carrasco et al., 2005
24
Gerd Dercon Laboratory Head, Soil and Water
Management Crop Nutrition Laboratory, Joint
FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food
and Agriculture (Technical Officer)
25
BENCHMARK SITES
26
STATION/HUT SUB-GREY, TORRES DEL PAINE NATIONAL
PARK
27
Takk fyrir!
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