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A Synopsis of the Russian Revolution


A Synopsis of the Russian Revolution and the years that follow under Joseph Stalin s reign – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Synopsis of the Russian Revolution

A Synopsis of the Russian Revolution
  • and the years that follow under Joseph Stalins

Joseph Dzhugashvili his youth-
  • Had a bad childhood
  • He was a rebellious child
  • His mother wanted him to be a priest in the
    Russian Orthodox Church even though he did not
    want to
  • Followed the teachings of Karl Marx in secret
  • Marx wanted a revolution- saw workers rising up
    in rebellion against the factory owners

Karl Marx / Vladimir Lenin / Communism
  • Karl Marx is the original revolutionist whose
    ideas were to see everyone be equal classless
  • Got exiled from Russia for ideas
  • Vladimir Lenin shared his belief
  • These are the basic principles of Communism /
    Marxism / Socialism an equal, classless society
    with workers in charge this is not what it
    became though

In his 20s
  • Previously left seminary
  • Met Lenin while exiled for revolutionary
  • Lenin liked Stalin because he could put plans in
    to action
  • Stalin was not a great writer but could
    communicate with uneducated well because he
    wrote and talked simply urged people to strike
  • Married, had a child, and then his wife died he
    lost all warm feelings for human beings

Pre-Russian Revolution- Chapter 1
  • Early 1900s- Czar Nicholas II in charge in early
    1900s- ruled with force incompetent
  • The proletariat (working class) and the peasants
    (the poor) are being treated horribly
  • There are bad working conditions, low food
    rations for the people, and no land owned by them
  • People want change so several political groups
    emerge- Bolsheviks (radicals) and Mensheviks
  • Stalin and Lenin are leaders of the Bolsheviks-
    radical revolutionists

The Whites Anti-communists- Chapter 1
  • Some do not want change
  • The White Russians or bourgeoisie (the upper
    class) are land owners / capitalists who either
    own means of production or who have some power
    during this time.
  • The Russian Orthodox Church influenced the czar,
    too they did not want change
  • They dont want to overthrow the government
    because they will lose some of their freedoms.

Revolution of 1905- Pre-Russian Revolution-
Chapter 1
  • Bloody Sunday Workers protest on January 22,
    1905 Czar Nicholas II fires on them
  • Czar Nicholas II promises to be better
  • Some groups are satisfied with the Duma, and
    other groups, like the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks
    want more change they organize a Soviet- or
    workers council to strike for more reforms
  • Some Bolsheviks are arrested and are kicked out
    of the country because of the chaos they create
  • In 1916, Lenin and Stalin are let back in to the

After the Revolution of 1905- Problems continue-
Chapter 2
  • Even though there are some civil liberties
    granted and committees are made, the provisional
    government still is not popular
  • Duma is limited
  • World War I started in 1914 most supported the
    war effort except for the Bolsheviks the groups
    who want change start to split
  • Rasputin (member of Russian Orthodox Church) and
    Czarina (wife of Nicholas) make bad decisions for
    the czar while he is away supporting war effort

February Revolution of 1917- Chapter 2
  • February 26, 1917- a revolution begins.
  • Workers riot for more food rations Czar fires
    on the people again, and he tries to dissolve
    the Duma
  • Duma refuses to be put down workers take over
    the capital Czar Nicholas II is forced to give
    up the throne.
  • A new provisional government is made up of mostly
  • People still arent happy- wanted an end to war
    and land

October Revolution of 1917- Chapter 2
  • Vladimir Lenin comes back to Russia
  • He uses propaganda (types of persuasion) to
    convince the people, especially the Bolsheviks,
    that they want an end to the war and should have
    more land
  • On October 24, 1917- the Bolsheviks overthrow
    the provisional government by storming the Winter
    Palace and taking control of the capital and
    government buildings
  • Form the Council of Peoples Commissars

Stalin changes his name Man of Steel-
Chapter 3
  • Stalin sat quietly while the revolution was
  • Impressed Lenin because he could get things done
  • No one realized how dangerous Stalin really was

Leon Trotsky- Chapter 3
  • Trotsky was Stalins competition- another leader
    of the Bolsheviks
  • Excellent speaker and very smart
  • Stalin and Trotsky were opposites in every way
  • Trotsky was popular with the people
  • Never really paid attention to what Stalin was

Propaganda is used- Chapters 3
  • Propaganda, a way of wording or structuring
    something so it appeals mostly to emotions, and
    it distorts facts.
  • It is used to promote a one sided argument aimed
    at winning people over to a certain cause or
  • The people are not smart enough to realize that
    they are being manipulated like this.

Civil War of 1918- Chapter 4
  • New government negotiates peace with Germany and
    withdraws from WWI
  • Government becomes known as the All-Russian
    Communist Party
  • Czar Nicholas II and his family are executed
  • Civil War breaks out Reds (communists) vs.
    Whites (anti- communists)
  • Leon Trotsky is the hero of this battle

Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin become the leaders
in Russia- Chapter 4
  • Before Lenin dies in 1924, he is concerned that
    Stalin has strayed from primary purpose, to help
    the workers.
  • Lenin said in a letter that Stalin should be
    removed from power this was never communicated
    to the people before he died
  • Stalin promised to fulfill Lenins commandments
  • Stalin sabotaged Trotsky, and got others to go
    along with him

1922- Chapter 5
  • Union of Soviet Socialists Republics (USSR) is
  • Stalin becomes General Secretary to the Party

Joseph Stalin vs. Leon Trotsky- Chapter 5
  • Trotsky wanted worldwide revolution for workers
    Stalin wanted to focus on socialism in Russia
  • People favored Stalin and wanted peace after so
    much war and hardship
  • Stalin gained leadership of country
  • Stalin exiled Trotsky from the country and then
    sent assassins to Mexico to murder him
  • Continued to smear Trotskys name once he was

Things go from bad to worse- Chapter 6-7
  • Trotsky wanted worldwide revolution for workers
    Stalin wanted to focus on socialism in Russia
  • People favored Stalin and wanted peace after so
    much war and hardship
  • Stalin gained leadership of country
  • Stalin exiled Trotsky from the country and then
    sent assassins to Mexico to murder him
  • Continued to smear Trotskys name once he was

Famine and starvation- Chapter 7
  • Famine ensues people were starving as Stalin
    stopped food rations
  • People are punished with 10 years of labor or
    death for stealing a handful of grain
  • Stalin refused to admit there are problems he
    killed more peasants than had died in WWI
  • Didnt want other countries to know about this
    dire situation in Russia

Five- Year Plans- Chapter 7
  • Entering the age of the machines industry was
    very important to Stalin
  • Industrial workers could not change jobs, take
    days off, or be late or they would go to prison

The Blood Purge Trials of 1936-38- Chapter 7
  • In 1936-1938- The Purge Trials occur- many
    prominent Old Bolsheviks are found guilty of
    treason and are executed or imprisoned. Trotsky
    was supposedly the ringleader.
  • Why? Stalin wanted to prove to the country what
    would happen if you went against him
  • It is subsequently established that the accused
    are innocent, that the cases are fabricated by
    the secret police (NKVD), and that the
    confessions are made under pressure of intense
    torture and intimidation.
  • Stalin had decided everyones sentences before
    the trials had even begun

Terror spreads- Chapter 7
  • People told on others out of fear, just to prove
    they were loyal
  • By 1939, more than half of the party was arrested
  • At least 35,000 officers of the Red Army (half of
    the entire corp) had been executed or imprisoned
  • He even has history rewritten, changing facts
    about the revolution, making himself the hero
    instead of Trotsky

Nazi- Soviet Pact of 1939 Chapter 8
  • Even though Russia and Nazi Germany are enemies,
    they agree to sign a 10 year non-aggression pact
    to remain neutral.
  • Why? Stalin knows that Hitlers ultimate aim is
    to attack Russia. 
  • So he believes the best way of dealing with
    Germany is to form an alliance with him to delay
    this attack.
  • Stalin also needs time to rebuild his army and to
    prepare for this impending attack.

German Invasion of Russia in 1941- aka Operation
Barbarossa- Chapter 8
  • Germany eventually does disregard its
    non-aggression pact with Russia. Three army
    groups attack Russia on June 22, 1941.
  • Russia is defended by four army units. Though
    Russia has a large army, the purges had wiped out
    a considerable part of the armys senior
  • By Day 17 of the attack, 300,000 Russians are
    captured, 2,500 tanks, 1,400 artillery guns, and
    250 aircrafts are captured or destroyed. The
    Russian Army is on the verge of a total collapse.
    Moscow is destined to fall.

German Invasion of Russia cont. Chapter 8
  • Very few in the German Army are equipped to cope
    with the cold. They find themselves very much
    affected by the freezing temperatures.
  • Germany retreats Russia wins but with a
    tremendous loss of life and military arms
  • 20 million people die, cities and towns are
    demolished, and 25 million people are homeless
  • Stalin tried to convince the people that this was
    a victory by parading through the streets

After the war with Germany- Chapter 9
  • People were taken to labor camps because they
    were contaminated by the enemy
  • New five year plans were established to make up
    for what they lost
  • Stalin cut off relations with all other countries
    starting the Cold War
  • He later isolated himself from all and remained
    suspicious of everyone

Tehran Conference of 1943- Chapter 10
  • Meeting between Allied leaders to discuss
    strategy in 1943. Stalin did not want to attend
    but wanted to get back at Germany
  • The President of the United States, Franklin D.
    Roosevelt, the Prime Minister of Great Britain,
    Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin meet to
    discuss the end of the war (WWII) with Germany.
  • They decide an invasion against Germany should
    take place in France in May of 1944. This is
    what Stalin wanted since 1941, so Stalin agrees
    to enter the war against Japan once Germany is

Stalin dies
  • Stalin dies of a stroke in 1953.

Works Cited
  • The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Russia and the
    Russian Revolution. Edited by Archie Brown et al.
    Cambridge Cambridge UP, 1982. 117-312. Print.
  • "Russian Revolution." The Columbia Encyclopedia,
    6th ed.. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 10 Feb. 2012
  • Scandiffio, Laura. Evil Masters The Frightening
    World of Tyrants. Toronto Annick, 2005. Print.
  • Stalinism. The New Encyclopedia Britannica.
    15th ed. Vol. 11. Chicago Encyclopedia Britannica
    , Inc., 2005. Print.
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