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Splash Screen


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Title: Splash Screen

Splash Screen
Chapter Menu
Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Movement
Begins Section 2 Challenging Segregation Section
3 New Civil Rights Issues Visual Summary
Chapter Intro 1
The Movement Begins In the 1950s, African
Americans began a movement to win greater legal
and social equality.
Section 1
The Origins of the Movement (cont.)
  • The struggle would not be easy because of the
    separate but equal doctrine established in the
    Plessy v. Ferguson case in 1896.
  • Laws which specifically enforce segregation are
    de jure segregation. Jim Crow laws.
  • Areas without laws requiring segregation often
    had de facto segregation.

  • Three significant stories of the early Civil
    Rights Movement
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1957)
  • The Little Rock Nine (1957)

Section 1
The Origins of the Movement (cont.)
  • Over the years, the NAACP had achieved some
    victories in the fight to overturn segregation.
  • African Americans also enjoyed increased
    political power after migrating to Northern
    cities where they could vote.
  • From 1939 to 1961, the NAACPs chief counsel and
    director of its Legal Defense and Education Fund
    was the brilliant African American attorney
    Thurgood Marshall

Section 1
The Origins of the Movement (cont.)
  • On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court ruled
    unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education of
    Topeka, Kansas, that segregation in public
    schools was unconstitutional and violated the
    Fourteenth Amendment.
  • The Supreme Courts decision angered many white
    Southerners, who became even more determined to
    defend segregation.

Section 1
The Origins of the Movement (cont.)
  • Not until 1969 did the Supreme Court order all
    school systems to desegregate at once and
    operate integrated school now and hereafter.

Section 1
Eisenhower Responds
President Eisenhower sent the U.S. Army to
enforce integration in Arkansas.
Section 1
Eisenhower Responds (cont.)
  • Sept. 1957 Little Rock School Board wins case
    ordering integration of Central High.
  • The governor of Arkansas, Orval Faubus, ordered
    troops from the Arkansas National Guard to
    prevent nine African American students from
    entering a public high school.

Section 1
Eisenhower Responds (cont.)
  • In response to the violence resulting from an
    angry white mob, President Eisenhower sendd Army
    troops to Little Rock to protect the Little Rock
  • He also federalized the Arkansas National Guard.
  • The troops had to stay in Little Rock for the
    rest of the school year.

Section 1
The Civil Rights Movement Begins
The Brown v. Board of Education ruling ignited
protest and encouraged African Americans to
challenge other forms of segregation.
Section 1
The Civil Rights Movement Begins (cont.)
  • On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for
    refusing to give her seat on a bus to a white
  • A 26-year old pastor named Martin Luther King,
    Jr., led the Montgomery bus boycott that began on
    the day Rosa Parks appeared in court.
  • He believed that the only moral way to end
    segregation and racism was through nonviolent
    passive resistance.

Section 1
The Civil Rights Movement Begins (cont.)
  • In November 1956, the Supreme Court affirmed the
    decision of a special three-judge panel declaring
    Alabamas laws requiring segregation on buses
  • After the bus boycott demonstrated that
    nonviolent protest could be successful, African
    American ministers led by King established the
    Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
    in 1957.

Section 1
The bus boycott could not have succeeded without
the support of what else? A. Taxis B. African
American churches C. The U.S.
government D. Sit-ins
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

Chapter Intro 2
Challenging Segregation African Americans and
white supportes use peaceful nonviolent protests
to demand full civil rights.
Section 2
The Sit-in Movement
African American students staged sit-ins and
formed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating
Committee (SNCC) to organize efforts for
desegregation and voter registration throughout
the South.
Section 2
The Sit-in Movement (cont.)
  • In the fall of 1959, four college students,
    Joseph McNeil, Ezell Blair, Jr., David Richmond,
    and Franklin McCain, staged a sit-in at a
    whites-only lunch counter of a Woolworths
    department store.
  • By the end of the week, over 300 students were
    taking part, and by 1961 sit-ins had been held in
    more than 100 cities.

The Civil Rights Movement, 19541965
Section 2
The Sit-in Movement (cont.)
  • Ella Baker, the executive director of the SCLC,
    helped college students establish the Student
    Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).

Section 2
The Freedom Riders
Teams of African Americans and whites rode buses
into the South to protest the continued illegal
segregation on interstate bus lines.
Section 2
The Freedom Riders (cont.)
  • The Freedom Riders traveled into the South to
    draw attention to its refusal to integrate bus
  • They were met with violence at the terminals, and
    President Kennedy felt compelled to get the
    violence under control.

Section 2
The Freedom Riders (cont.)
  • Although Kennedy was unwilling to challenge
    Southern Democrats in Congress, he allowed the
    Justice Department, run by his brother Robert, to
    actively support the civil rights movement.
  • At the time the Freedom Riders took action,
    Kennedy was preparing for a meeting with Soviet
    Union leader Nikita Khrushchev and did not want
    violence in the South to disrupt the meeting by
    giving the impression that his country was weak
    and divided.

Section 2
The Freedom Riders (cont.)
  • After his meeting, he ordered the Interstate
    Commerce Commission (ICC) to tighten its
    regulations against segregated bus terminals.
  • Robert Kennedy ordered the Justice Department to
    take legal action against Southern cities that
    maintained segregated bus terminals.
  • By late 1962, segregation of interstate bus
    travel had come to an end.

Section 2
James Meredith Admission to Olde Miss
  • On the day JFK was inaugurated, an African
    American air force veteran named James Meredith
    applied for a transfer to the University of
  • After Ross Barnett, the governor of Mississippi,
    blocked his path to registration, Kennedy ordered
    500 federal marshals to escort him to the campus.

Section 2
James Meredith Admission to Olde Miss
  • After a night of attacks on the marshals, Kennedy
    ordered the army to send several thousand troops
    to protect Meredith.
  • He graduated in August.

Section 2
Protest in Birmingham Project C
  • King decided that the only way to get President
    Kennedy to pass a new civil rights bill was to
    launch demonstrations in Birmingham, Alabama,
    knowing they would provoke a violent response.
  • Project C for CONFRONTATION
  • Birmingham .. Most segregated city in South

Section 2
Protest in Birmingham Project C
  • Police Chief Eugene Bull Connor uses police
    attack dogs and firehouses to break up protests.
  • Nightly T.V. coverage of abuses by police
    galvanizes public opinion in the north in favor
    of the protests.
  • MLK plan therefore works prompting JFK and
    Robert Kennedy to act
  • JFK ordered his aides to prepare a new civil
    rights bill.

Section 2
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
President Johnson used his political expertise to
get the Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed.
Section 2
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (cont.)
  • Dr. King realized that Kennedy would have a very
    difficult time pushing his civil rights bill
    through Congress.
  • He arranged a peaceful and dignified march on
    Washington that would build more public support.

Section 2
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (cont.)
  • The bill faced a difficult time in the Senate,
    especially after JFK was assassinated.
  • President Johnson, however, committed himself
    wholeheartedly to getting the bill through
  • It easily passed the House of Representatives.
  • In June, after 87 days of filibuster, the Senate
    finally voted to end debatefour votes over the
    two-thirds needed for cloture.

Section 2
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (cont.)
  • On July 2, 1964, Johnson signed the Civil Rights
    Act of 1964 into law.
  • This was the most comprehensive civil rights law
    Congress had ever enacted.

Section 2
The Struggle for Voting Rights
President Johnson called for a new voting rights
law after hostile crowds severely beat civil
rights demonstrators.
Section 2
The Struggle for Voting Rights (cont.)
  • Due to increasing violence, Dr. King was
    convinced that a new law was needed to protect
    African American voting rights.
  • In January 1965, the SCLC and Dr. King selected
    Selma, Alabama, as the focal point for their
    campaign for voting rights.
  • African Americans made up a majority of the
    population but comprised only 3 of registered

Section 2
The Struggle for Voting Rights (cont.)
  • Many demonstrators were attacked and beaten, and
    Selma quickly became a major story in the
    national news.
  • Dr. King joined with the SNCC activists and
    organized a march for freedom from Selma to
  • As the protestors were leaving Selma, they were
    beaten in full view of television cameras.

Section 2
The Struggle for Voting Rights (cont.)
  • Eight days later, Johnson proposed a new voting
    rights law.
  • The passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965
    marked a turning point in the civil rights
  • After 1965, the movement began to shift its focus
    to the problem of achieving full social and
    economic equality for African Americans.

Chapter Intro 3
  • New Civil Rights Issues
  • In the late 1960s, the civil rights movement
    tried to address the persistent economic
    inequality of African Americans.
  • The inability to address these economic
    inequalities leads to more radical violent civil
    rights groups.

Section 3
Urban Problems (cont.)
  • Despite the passage of civil rights laws in the
    1950s and 1960s, racism was still common in
    American society.
  • The average income of an African American family
    was only 55 percent of that of the average white
  • Almost half of African Americans lived in
  • Their unemployment rate was typically twice that
    of whites.

Section 3
Urban Problems (cont.)
  • Anger and frustration over poverty led to riots
    in dozens of American cities between 1965 and
  • President Johnson ordered what became known as
    the Kerner Commission to conduct a detailed study
    of this problem.
  • They blamed racism for most of the problems in
    the inner cities.

Section 3
Urban Problems (cont.)
  • Dr. King felt that he had failed to improve the
    economic position of African Americans.
  • He worked with the SCLC to improve the economic
    status of African Americans in poor
  • The Chicago Movement, however, made little
  • Mayor Richard J. Daley proposed a new program to
    clean up the slums, but in the end, little

Section 3
Black Power
Impatient with the slower gains of Martin Luther
King, Jr.s movement, many young African
Americans called for black power.
Section 3
Black Power (cont.)
  • Many young African Americans called for black
    power, an idea that disagreed with Kings
    nonviolent approach.
  • Stokely Carmichael believed that African
    Americans should control the social, political,
    and economic direction of their struggle.
  • Black power also stressed pride in the African
    American cultural group and emphasized racial
    distinctiveness rather than assimilation.

Section 3
Black Power (cont.)
  • By the early 1960s, a young man named Malcolm X
    had become a symbol of the black power movement.
  • He joined the Nation of Islam, or Black Muslims,
    which believed that African Americans should
    separate themselves from whites and form their
    own self-governing communities.

Section 3
Black Power (cont.)
  • Discouraged by scandals involving the Nation of
    Islams leader, he broke with the group.
  • After criticizing the organization, members shot
    him in February 1965.

Section 3
Black Power (cont.)
  • Influenced by Malcolm X, three men organized the
    Black Panthers in 1966.
  • They believed a revolution was necessary in the
    United States, and they urged African Americans
    to arm themselves and prepare to force whites to
    grant them equal rights.

Section 3
King is Assassinated
After Dr. King was assassinated in Memphis,
Tennessee, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act
of 1968.
Section 3
King is Assassinated (cont.)
  • Dr. King went to Memphis to support a strike of
    African American sanitation workers in March 1968.
  • He was also planning another march on Washington
    to lobby the federal government to commit
    billions of dollars to end poverty and
    unemployment in the U.S.
  • On April 4, 1968, a sniper assassinated King.

Section 3
King is Assassinated (cont.)
  • In the wake of his death, Congress did pass the
    Civil Rights Act of 1968.
  • Although the civil rights movement continued, it
    lacked the unity of purpose and vision that Dr.
    King had given it.

The Civil Rights Movements Legacy
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